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Byron Medina Delgado
Chairman 8th IWSTI

Torcoroma Velásquez Pérez
Co-Chairman 8th IWSTI

Ely Dannier V. Niño
Editor and Layout Coordinator

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Web Design, Cover Design

Fredy Humberto Vera-Rivera
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ISSN (En Línea): 2422-3115

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Abstracts
USE OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZES (GLOMUS SP) IN SWEET PEPPER PLANTS (CAPSICUM ANNUM) CULTIVATED IN AN URBAN AGRICULTURE SYSTEM.
VISCONTI MORENO EFRAIN FRANCISCO 1, TORRES MONCADA JOHANA PATRICIA 2, VALENZUELA-BALCAZAR IBONNE GEANETH 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander , 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 efrainfranciscovm@ufps.edu.co, 2 yojana0322@gmail.com, 3 ibonnegeanethvb@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Mycorrhizae improve plant growth and production, by increasing their hydric and nutritional uptake through the enlargement of the rhizosphere. The concern arises to know the performance of sweet pepper plants inoculated with mycorrhizae, when they are cultivated in containers through an urban agriculture system. Three doses of a suspension with arbuscular mycorrhizae (Glomus sp) at a concentration of 3 spores cm-3 were evaluated; in an experiment with a completely randomized experimental design of four treatments and three repetitions: T1 (Control without mycorrhizae); T2 (5 cm-3 mycorrhiza); T3 (8 cm-3 of mycorrhizae) and T4 (10 cm-3 of mycorrhizae), with a total of 120 experimental units with 30 sweet pepper plants per treatment. Inoculation was carried out 45 days after transplantation (DAT) in 5-liter containers filled with a mix of soil and compost in a 1: 1 ratio. Measured variables were plant height, stem diameter, number of fruits, weight of fruits, fresh and dry root biomass and percentage of infection. The data of the morphological variables were collected every 24 DAT during 137 days of the phenological cycle. T2 reported the best response for yield with an average of 172.75 g per plant compared to T1, which presented 89.87 g per plant. The variables of height, stem diameter and root dry matter did not show significant differences between treatments. Regarding the percentage of infection present in each of the treatments at 45 DAT, it was found that the highest amount of mycelium (12.45 m kg-1) was presented in T4, while T1 (Control) was the lower (1.83 m kg-1) amount of external mycelium, which showed that at higher dosage there is greater reproduction of hyphae in the substrate. It was concluded that the application of T4 (high dose) to sweet pepper plants in urban agriculture containers does not mean a better response in the development of height, stem diameter, dry matter and production. Even though the amount of external mycelium present in the rhizosphere constitutes the vital link between the plant and the soil, since it is responsible of the mobilization of nutrients to the plant. This experiment showed that for plants grown in containers, the confinement of the root and mycelium limits the response of the plant in the presence of a high percentage of colonization.

Topic: Agronomy
ACTIVE SURFACE FORMS OF MODERN SACRED ARCHITECTURE IN THE CHURCH OF NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL CARMEN IN SAN JOSÉ DE CÚCUTA.
DÍAZ UMAÑA YANNETTE 1, VERGEL ORTEGA MAWENCY 2, DELGADO ROJAS JULIO ALFREDO 3,
1 universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 yannettedu@ufps.co, 2 mawency@ufps.edu.co, 3 julioalfredo@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: This article is part of the research products in sacred architecture, under the direction of the mathematics and architecture programs of the UFPS, whose objective was to analyze the geometric and constructive characteristics of the roof of the church of Nuestra Señora del Carmen in San Jose de Cúcuta. In this project with the descriptive study, the variables of architectural design for modern sacred architecture are analyzed, with special emphasis on the particular conditions that make the concrete roof a structure, light, original in shape and with exceptional qualities to work. cantilevered. The concrete structure forms a semiradial prismatic fold, which has the quality of distributing the force along its edges, giving resistance to the entire system, an example of the geometric rigor of the concrete structure's work.

Topic: Architecture
BIOCLIMATIC ALTERNATIVE OF A COMPOUND BIOMATERIAL FOR USE IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND HOUSING OF SOCIAL INTEREST (VIS) IN CÚCUTA, NORTH OF SANTANDER.
PORTILLO RODRIGUEZ ASTRID 1, LIZCANO DURÁN SAUDIT DANELLY 2,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 astridmatildepr@ufps.edu.co, 2 sauditdanellyld@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The architecture and construction sector largely determines the growth and development of cities, defining considerably the economic growth of nations, but in contrast to this it generates a negative impact on the environment, in each of the stages of the life cycle of buildings, in the extraction and improper use of natural resources, and considerably in the accumulation of waste from construction and production processes, which cause pollution and transformation of the environment. As mentioned by Susunaga (2014) the concern of the governments of many countries in the world, have led to define measures to help counteract and minimize the effects of human actions, with the implementation of Sustainable Urban Development (Sustainable environmental process) in order to create a more environmentally friendly urban environment. Within the framework of the National Strategic Plan for Green Markets (2002-2012), whose objective was to consolidate the production of environmentally sustainable goods and increase the supply of competitive ecological services in the national and international markets, the Colombian Environmental Seal (SAC) was created; it is a distinctive or seal that is obtained voluntarily and may be carried by a product (good or service) that complies with certain environmental requirements defined according to its category. Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development (2021). For the construction of sustainable housing, the environmental criteria of the Directorate of Environmental, Sectoral and Urban Affairs are taken into account, which focus on rationalizing the use of natural resources, substituting with alternative systems or resources and managing the environmental impact either in the use of soil, water, energy or building materials. In Colombia, the construction sector is mainly composed of housing, and a large part of it is developed by government programs, which are defined in 3 types according to the Ministry of Housing, City and Territory, which are: Social Interest Housing (VIS), Priority Social Interest Housing (VIP) and non-vis housing. The solutions proposed in the VIS designs do not contemplate large families or a progressive development; in addition, it is also notorious the low or null level of finishes, the inadequate definition of construction specifications and consideration to climatic, lighting and ventilation aspects, poor air circulation and low height of mezzanines, which are the cause of inadequate thermal sensations, affecting the habitability conditions of Cucuteño families, as referenced by OSPINA (2015). The above means that the State has not intervened so that quality parameters are truly adopted, so deficiencies persist. To address the above mentioned aspects, researchers from all over the world are moving forward with initiatives to solve the habitability needs of communities, mainly in dry tropical climate zones where excessive temperatures do not provide adequate comfort conditions inside the houses, so they have come to investigate the use of organic and industrial waste and its incorporation in new processes for construction focusing on circular economy, ceasing to be waste to be considered alternative raw material. These new processes of incorporation of alternative raw materials in turn provide beneficial features such as low manufacturing costs, reduced carbon footprint and low heat transmittance, improving the living conditions of the population with low resources in housing. In the literature review, it is found as a bioclimatic solution in construction the use of biomaterials with curing, resistance, waterproofing and heat transmission properties, whose raw material is the use of organic and industrial waste such as cassava starch, lime, chamotte and pulverized corn leaf, which lead to propose the possibility of incorporating them as viable stabilizing additives in an adobe matrix, providing important benefits for VIS housing according to the aspects set forth in the Colombian Environmental Seal.

Topic: Architecture
BRINGING EXTINCT HERITAGE BACK TO LIFE. IMMERSIONS, TRANSFERS AND EXTENSIONS BETWEEN TANGIBLE AND VIRTUAL REALITIES.
VILLA CARRERO JUAN MANUEL 1,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 juanmanuelvc@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Bringing extinct heritage back to life. Immersions, transfers and extensions between tangible and virtual realities. Dr. Teoría e Historia. Arquitecto Juan Manuel Villa Carrero Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander/Departamento de Arquitectura Juanmanuelvc@ufps.edu.co Abstract This research was interested in exploring the contiguity between the tangible and the virtual, in the light of digital technologies and the mnemic space as a means of restitution of cultural assets, in particular extincts property, BIC_IE. Therefore, this research, like the paradox of Theseus in the field of the metaphysics of identity, asks the question: If an object is replaced with all its parts, is it still the same? This theoretical assumption referring to material assets of cultural value, in this research, arose from Aristotelian theories and evolved within a critical experimental space, far from orthodox models in architecture. It was in line with the abstract materialism suggested by S. Zizek. In particular, this article approached the archaeology and the restitution of the material remains of these extinct buildings, first from latent mnemic deposits in the individual, as well as in socio-cultural collectives as W. Benjamin and M. Halbwachs begin to propose in the first half of the twentieth century. Then, secondly, to continue with processes of formation or information of the digital matter as a discrete set of objective factors on a real fact, as Davenport and Prusak explained it at the end of the last century. And finally transmuting the BIC_IE or the object in potency, in act, through information, communication and informatics. Therefore these theoretical positions, methodologies and actions of digital restitution were verified in immersions in virtual reality (VR), in transfers to it, as codes or clouds of points of significant data. That together with extensions in the tangible world, achieved through augmented reality (AR) or reconversions to solid matter, challenged the notion of objective truth. Likewise, these technological actions were validated by confirming their functionality in relation to the proposed objective, which gave answers to the questions: when does a material asset stop being a material asset and when does a set of matter start to be a material asset? The results of this research confirmed as expected that as long as a thing or object extinct in the tangible world, as for example a BIC_IE, remains as a power in the virtual world, it can become in act, and continue to be the same thing. This was explained as long as this asset does not cease to be, nor to be. In other words, a BIC tangible asset ceases to be a BIC tangible asset when it lacks narrative continuity and is dislocated from the spatial coordinates that contained it and link it to its immovable condition. To sum up, we can conclude that these initiatives diluted the certainty of the missing original material, and distorted the reproduction of a kind of exacerbated reality. In other words, these actions went beyond a cloned object rewritten in a digital interstice and transcended the tangible object. Finally, it can be said that the results of this project validate new forms of heritage conservation as a possible future. Keywords: Reality, Memory, Informed Matter, Extinct Heritage, Virtuality, Tangibility.

Topic: Architecture
CHALLENGES IN THE URBAN AND TERRITORIAL MANAGEMENT OF THE SAN JOSÉ DE CÚCUTA’S METROPOLITAN AREA
AYALA GARCIA ERIKA TATIANA 1, CORONEL RUIZ LUZ KARIME 2,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 UIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER,
Email: 1 erikatatianaayala@ufps.edu.co, 2 luzkarimecr@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The projects, plans and programs applied to the San José de Cúcuta’s Metropolitan Area were studied, identifying the particularities, phenomena and alterations that may occur in response to non-compliance with the urban functions of each of the municipalities that comprise it. The territorial risks associated with urban management in the San José de Cúcuta’s Metropolitan Area were analyzed, with the purpose of guiding aspects of urban-territorial development in the short, medium and long term, which allow responding to the territorial risks present in the six municipalities that comprise it. A qualitative, descriptive and documentary research methodology was used, structured from analytical and synthetic methods, by means of a content analysis information gathering technique and the use of the scientific method. As a relevant finding, the importance of viewing the San José de Cúcuta’s Metropolitan Area as a “Territory of Opportunities” is highlighted, which, through its profile of border-binational space and the vocation of its municipalities, promotes competitiveness and the development of the territory; in compliance with the principles of Territorial Planning and the Sustainable Development Goals of cities.

Topic: Architecture
HISTORICAL AND URBAN ANALYSIS OF THE SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING IN THE CAOBOS SECTOR OF SAN JOSÉ DE CÚCUTA
GONZALEZ SUAREZ MARIA VALERIA 1, ACOSTA ROJAS REINALDO ANDRES 2, CORONEL RUIZ LUZ KARIME 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 UIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER,
Email: 1 mariavaleriags@ufps.edu.co, 2 reinaldoandresar@ufps.edu.co, 3 luzkarimecr@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The objective of this research is to analyze the facts that influenced the urban configuration and the evolution of the single-family home in the Caobos neighborhood of San José de Cúcuta, with the purpose of identifying the characteristics and related aspects of the single-family home design of the aforementioned sector. A qualitative, descriptive and documentary research methodology was used, structured from analytical and synthetic methods. As a technique and information gathering tool, participant observation, photographic record and field log were used. As relevant findings, it was found that the urban transformation of the Caobos neighborhood was largely motivated by the adjustment made to the regulations on land occupation indices for commune number 2 approved in 2006 and, to the occupation trend of the uses of the land that registered a migration from residential to commercial use, which resulted in the modification of the urban profile and the generation of problems in terms of security, public space, mobility, as well as the loss of residents of the area. Finally, the influence of the Modern Architecture of the houses in the sector is highlighted, associated with the amplitude of its internal spaces, the lighting and the use of large windows; the management of straight lines and the simplicity of the architecture, which has facilitated its conditioning for the current uses associated with health programs, commerce and services.

Topic: Architecture
IMPORTANCE OF THE HISTORIC ZONE OF VILLA DEL ROSARIO IN THE BICENTENNIAL CELEBRATION IN NORTE DE SANTANDER AND COLOMBIA
MEJÍA ANAYA YASMIN ANDREA 1, ROJAS FLOREZ KAROL FERNANDA 2, SIERRA ROMERO LAURA MARCELA 3, DELGADO MARTÍNEZ LIGIA MARIA 4,
1 FESC, 2 FESC, 3 FESC, 4 FESC,
Email: 1 est_ya_mejia@fesc.edu.co, 2 est_kf_rojas@fesc.edu.co, 3 est_lm_sierra@fesc.edu.co, 4 ligia_delgado@fesc.edu.co,
Abstract: The importance of the historic area of Villa del Rosario in the celebration of the bicentennial in Norte de Santander and Colombia involves the Nortesantandereana region in particular. It was in the sacristy of the historical temple in Villa del Rosario de Cúcuta, 200 years ago, where the constitution was proclaimed in 1821 as the structuring axis of the republic creating the first form of republican state totally independent from Spain. Through a documentary review that allows a clear disclosure of the history of the Republic of Colombia with emphasis on the historical area, cultural heritage of Colombia, where two nations meet, Colombia and Venezuela, united by the Simon Bolivar International Bridge, border area and international port, today territory where historical events occur that have in the sights of the world this place. Villa del Rosario, gateway to the border and its historical places become cultural heritage of the nation, being our goal to show the cultural richness of the region, for all this it is important to recognize the importance of this area and identify characters such as Francisco de Paula Santander and Simon Bolivar, to create regional pride through the history of the country and promote knowledge of cultural heritage. Through a documentary review, in order to achieve exploratory studies with heritage approaches in the region History of Norte de Santander, with a descriptive approach is intended to reach more young people and children and encourage the historical and heritage value of the department, identifying museums such as: La Bagatela and La Casa Natal del General Santander, among others. We want and we can disseminate the cultural heritage, through campaigns that pay attention to the dissemination of national history involving the FESC academy.

Topic: Architecture
CYTOGENOTOXICITY IN LENS CULINARIS AND ALLIUM CEPA CASUSADA BY PROPANIL
QUINTERO CALEÑO JESÚS DAVID 1, ROJAS SUAREZ JHAN PIERO 2, SALAZAR MERCADO SEIR ANTONIO 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 UFPS,
Email: 1 jesusdavidqc@ufps.edu.co, 2 jhanpierorojas@ufps.edu.co, 3 seirantoniosm@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Although not classified as carcinogenic, propanil can cause hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, hemolytic anemia, methemoglobinemia and metabolic disorders in humans. It has cytotoxic effect, and is massively applied in agriculture worldwide. Therefore, this study evaluated the genotoxic damage of propanil in apical cells of Lens culinaris and Allium cepa. Thus, A. cepa bulbs and L. culinaris seeds were subjected to 6 concentrations of propanil (2, 4, 6, 8, 8, 10 and 12 mg L-1) and a control (deionized water). Then, root development was recorded every day for 72 hours. The mitotic index and cellular anomalies were also determined. Thus, a decrease in root development was observed in all treatments, with the greatest root development occurring with the use of the control treatment (deionized water) with the exception of the treatment with 4 mg L-1 in L. culinaris at 24h of exposure (without significant differences with the control). Similarly, the use of 2, 4 and 8 mg L-1 on L. culinaris seeds at 48 h of exposure did not show significant differences with the control treatment. Regarding the development at 72h, the tendency was also present (negative growth), when using propanil at 10 and 12 mg L-1 without significant differences between them (in the two species). Thus, the increase in concentration is directly proportional to the inhibition of root development. Likewise, L. culinaris presented greater inhibition of mitosis than A. cepa, where from the use of the concentration of 2 mg L-1 in L. culinaris, the mitotic index presented a notable decrease, which reached a maximum of 4.8±0.9 in the treatment of 12 mg L-1 and a lower value in the control treatment (16.2±1.3). Likewise, although to a lesser extent A. cepa is affected by propanil exposure, presenting a value at 7.2±0.7 with the use of 12 mg L-1 (above L. culinaris) and a value of 18.6±1.1 in the control treatment. In addition, 8 types of anomalies were found in the species L. culinaris. Thus, with the use of control, 2 and 4 mg L-1 no micronuclei were found, with the use of 6 mg L-1, a 22±4.8 was found having a maximum value of 68.2±6.8 when using 12 mg L-1. Similarly, the least frequent anomaly was bridging in anaphase, which did not occur with the use of 0, 2, 4 and 6 mg L-1, while the treatment with 8 mg L-1 presented 1.6±0.5 and a maximum of 6.4±1.5 at 12 mg L-1. An important anomaly is chromosome breakage, with a minimum value of 2.8±0.8 at 2 mg L-1 and a maximum of 31.6±5.1 at 12 mg L-1. The absence of nucleus is the second most frequent anomaly in L. culinaris, as all treatments presented it except for the control, with a maximum of 50±3.1 at 12 mg L-1. This study showed that A. cepa was less sensitive than L. culinaris since it presented less frequency in the anomalies in common. A. cepa did not present nuclear lesions, but Binucleated cells. In general terms, a trend was observed in which the treatment of 12 mg L-1 caused the highest frequency of anomalies. In this sense, the use of 0, 2, 4 and 6 mg L-1 did not cause micronuclei, although the use of 12 mg L-1 caused a significant 20.8±0.9. Likewise, the treatments of 0, 2, 4 and 6 mg L-1, did not cause anaphase bridges, lagging chromosomes, or chromosome breakage. On the other hand, all concentrations of propanil produced Absence of nucleus, Sticky chromosomes in metaphase and Irregular anaphase, with values similar to each other. Finally, the use of 6 mg L-1 caused a minimum of 1.6±0.5 and a maximum of 11.6±0.5 in the frequency of Binucleated Cells. Thus, the presence of micronuclei and the results of L. culinaris indicate the high cytogenotoxicity of propanil and the feasibility of this species as a bioindicator.

Topic: Bioengineering
DEVELOPMENT OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE OBTAINING OF A BIOSURFACTANT FROM BACILLUS SUBTILIS RSL-2
ALVARADO VEGA KELLY VALENTINA 1, GELVES ZAMBRANO GERMAN RICARDO 2, NIÑO LÓPEZ LILIBETH 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco Paula Santander, 3 Universidad de Antioquia,
Email: 1 kellyvalentinaav@ufps.edu.co, 2 germanricardogz@ufps.edu.co, 3 lilicarininolop@gmail.com,
Abstract: Crude oil and its derivatives have a high application in different industries internationally, however, an unforeseen spill or overexploitation generates a great threat to ecosystems causing negative impacts on soil, water and air; the exposure of hydrocarbons in the environment, causes carcinogenic and mutagenic effects, endangering humans and animals. In Colombia, during the years 2000-2017, more than 18,000 barrels of crude oil were spilled due to illegal oil extraction, causing serious environmental damage. In Norte de Santander, these problems have caused an 80% shortage in water sources, exceeding the capacity of ecosystems to recover. However, there are microorganisms capable of metabolizing hydrocarbons through the process of bioremediation, using them as their only source of carbon through the elaboration of organic amphiphilic molecules called biosurfactants, produced as a survival response during their growth in hydrocarbon-contaminated ecosystems. The objective of this research consisted in proposing a mathematical model implementing six different kinetic models to optimize the parameters and constants involved in the production of a lipopeptide-type biosurfactant. The experimental data were obtained from the work done by Sharma & Pandey (2020), where they determined that Bacillus subtilis RSL-2 is a bacterium capable of generating a lipopeptide-type biosurfactant as a primary metabolite during the exponential phase of growth, implementing yeast extract (1.5%) as a nitrogen source, a pH of 4.0, a temperature of 25°C and 1 g/L of crude oil as a carbon source. The MATLAB R2020b software allowed obtaining the simulated data through the graphic visualization of the behavior of the variables, applying the Runge-Kutta Method to reduce the uncertainty value; likewise, the fmincon command was implemented to obtain the value of the objective function Fval, minimizing the error in the constants associated with the mathematical model. The best simulation data were obtained by implementing a mathematical model for a Batch type reactor using the Contois kinetic model with values of 19.99 days-1 for µmax, 0.3712 days-1 in kd, 9.999 days-1 for Ks and a substrate concentration of 1.46 g/L, which suggests that the lipopeptide type biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis RSL-2 is generated in anaerobic processes where hydrolysis controls the growth rate of the bacteria. Currently, in Colombia, research in the field of parameter optimization and implementation of mathematical models in the production of biosurfactants is minimal; therefore, the results obtained in this study are a promising hope in the field of biotechnology at the national and regional level.

Topic: Bioengineering
MODELADO DE LA BIODEGRADACION DEL PARACETAMOL A PARTIR DE PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA
BAENA DORIS 1, NIÑO LÓPEZ LILIBETH 2, GELVES ZAMBRANO GERMAN RICARDO 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad de Antioquia, 3 Universidad Francisco Paula Santander,
Email: 1 dorisyezeniabc@ufps.edu.co, 2 lilicarininolop@gmail.com, 3 germanricardogz@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The kinetic batch study indicates the potential of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain for the degradation of acetaminophen. A simulation study was carried out in Matlab software of the degradation of Paracetamol. The latter, has become a major environmental pollutant due to its extensive use. Currently, it has been identified that microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa can degrade this pollutant. That is why, currently, computer-assisted kinetic studies can be of great help to identify key parameters in the degradation of the mentioned pollutant. It was observed that the biomass yield increases considerably with the increase of the initial paracetamol concentrations up to a point in which the tolerance is the maximum allowed by the microorganism. Once this threshold is exceeded, inhibition is evident in the bioprocess in such a way that the inhibition constant suggests values ​​of 480 mg / L of paracetamol. The results of this study will contribute to a greater efficiency of the degradation mechanism of paracetamol in the environment. The foregoing, with a view to designing innovative remediation and cost-effective technologies to control paracetamol contamination in the environment.

Topic: Bioengineering
BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTION OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES-PHA'S FROM SLUDGE FROM DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS
DIAZ GONZALEZ ANDREA 1, GUZMAN CAROLINA 2, CAMACHO KURMEN JUDITH ELENA 3, CABEZA ROJAS IVÁN 4,
1 Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca, 2 Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca, 3 Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca, 4 Facultad de Ingeniería Ambiental -Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino; Facultad de Ingeniería, diseño e innovación-Politécnico Grancolombiano,
Email: 1 adiazg@unicolmayor.edu.co, 2 cguzmanl@unicolmayor.edu.co, 3 jelenacamacho@unicolmayor.edu.co, 4 ivancabeza@usantotomas.edu.co,
Abstract: The excessive generation and inadequate disposal of plastics globally has generated a problem of environmental pollution that impacts not only on the health of the communities surrounding the dumping sites, but also on the general population due to the contamination of bodies of water, soil and air. An alternative that can mitigate this negative effect is the production of biopolymers (bioplastics) that degrade in the environment through the action of hydrolytic enzymes and, after a few weeks, are converted into carbon dioxide. PHAs are a broad group of bio-based polymers. They are produced by bacteria, microalgae and archaea that accumulate it intracellularly to be used as a source of carbon and energy (2018, Programme EU & 2019, PEMRG). It has been described in the literature that the adaptation and / or selection of a microbial consortium using VFAs (volatile fatty acids) allows increasing the accumulation and production of this polymer. Native and genetically modified microorganisms capable of accumulating these compounds in a way are known from scientific literature. intracellular, including Cupriavidus necator, Pseudomonas putida, Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp, Ralstonia eutropha, Aeromonas sp. and Rhodospirillum rubrum from different agroindustrial residues such as starch, sugarcane bagasse, whey, leachate, soils and industrial and domestic wastewater. This research project proposes the use, by microorganisms, of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from water and sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment plant to produce a bioplastic for industrial purposes. Therefore, the objective of this work is to identify a microbial consortium of bacterial origin from domestic sewage sludge with the capacity to accumulate PHA using AGV's as a carbon source. The methodologies that have been developed contemplate the purification of AGV's in the laboratory through solubilization and hydrolysis processes of organic matter, acidification and methanogenesis. In parallel, the processing of mud samples and sowing in non-selective and selective culture media using the surface sowing technique, as well as the development of an adaptation protocol of the native bacterial consortium in the presence of AGVs. So far, Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria have been identified, the latter being the ones with the highest percentage in digested sludge. Taking previous studies as a reference, it has been found that Gram negative bacteria have a greater capacity to accumulate PHA. In the literature review carried out to date, marked differences are observed in the percentages of accumulation of PHAs related to the heterogeneity of the adaptation protocols of the microbial consortia, as well as the stages of feast and famine designed to increase the intracellular production of this biopolymer.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
BIOTECHNOLOGY OF EXTREME MICROORGANISMS IN PLANETARY ENVIRONMENTS
ALVARADO VEGA KELLY VALENTINA 1, MORENO ROZO LAURA YOLIMA 2,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula ,
Email: 1 kellyvalentinaav@ufps.edu.co, 2 Laurayolimamr@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: On Earth, microorganisms are essential for maintaining biogeochemical cycles because of their ability to sense, respond and adapt to changes in their environment. Single-celled microorganisms have had a major historical impact and without them, life as we know it today would not be possible; the vast conditions of extreme temperature and intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation presented an environmental challenge to any form of life on early Earth. Thus, single-celled organisms played an important role in antiquity, allowing the emergence of a terrestrial atmosphere capable of protecting life from the hostile environment of space and the transition from the RNA world to the DNA complex, enabling the development of complex biochemical interactions that allow life to be described as a complex, self-replicating and molecularly self-organized phenomenon. Extremophiles are organisms capable of surviving and thriving in extreme conditions such as high ultraviolet radiation, arid, cold or hot zones, alkaline or acidic environments and even without oxygen or with pressure variations; since 1969 with the discovery of the first extremophile, the limits for life have been extended, granting the possibility of devising life on other planetary bodies. Climate change has generated in the last decades extreme conditions, such as frosts, temperature increases, floods and droughts in different parts of the planet; that is why, from biotechnology, extremophiles are being evaluated with the purpose of solving environmental impacts in a sustainable, economical and safe way, due to their ability to survive in inhospitable environments due to their physiology and cellular machinery. In industrial processes, extremenzymes are widely desired for their activity and stability in alkaline, saline, acidic, cold, hot and pressure-variable environments. Therefore, the objective of this work consisted of a bibliographic search focused on extremophilic organisms, outlining their capacity to survive in extreme environments and their biotechnological applications to solve environmental impacts in a sustainable, economical and safe way.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
BUBBLE COALESCENCE MODEL EFFECT ON OXYGEN MASS TRANSFER USING NON-NEWTONIAN FLUIDS
NIÑO LÓPEZ LILIBETH 1, GELVES GERMAN 2,
1 Universidad de Antioquia, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 lilicarininolop@gmail.com, 2 rgzrgz@gmail.com,
Abstract: In this research, a bubble coalescence model that includes rheological conditions and shear forces in non-Newtonian fluids is evaluated using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). The Euler model was used with the population balance equations. Different models of bubble coalescence and bursting were studied to investigate the mass transfer and diameter of the bubbles. A Rushton turbine was used and the results were validated by determining the experimental mass transfer coefficient. A 10 liter bioreactor operated under different operating conditions exclusively used for non-Newtonian rheology was used. 0.25% xhantan gum was used to simulate the rheological conditions developed during mushroom cultivation. CFD results were compared with experimental data from 𝑘𝐿𝑎 measurements at different stirring speeds using the agreement index. A reasonable prediction was obtained by comparing the modified Luo-New with the most widely used conventional Luo-Luo and Laakkonen-Luo models. Therefore, the Luo-New model shows the highest d-values ​​at 400-700 rpm with values ​​of 0.83, 0.95, 0.98, and 0.69. In contrast, the Luo-Luo model showed less inaccurate values ​​with levels below 0.62 in almost all comparisons. The latter concludes numerically that the inclusion of shear effects in a coalescence model improves the degree of prediction related to oxygen transfer.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
CADMIUM TOLERANCE EVALUATION OF BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH COCOA CROPS IN NORTE DE SANTANDER
LEAL MEDINA GLORIA INES 1, RAMÍREZ CAICEDO LILIAN TRINIDAD 2,
1 UFPS, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 ineslemedina@gmail.com, 2 liliantrinidadrc@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Norte de Santander is one of the departments with the largest potential area projected for Cocoa Cultivation in Colombia according to the National Cocoa Plan 2012-2021, however, the presence of heavy metals such as Cadmium, in soils and cocoa plants, could limit the commercialization of the raw material and its derived products. In this context, different institutions have interest in the study of Cadmium in cocoa soils and to find strategies for its mitigation. Within these strategies, a focus of research has been Cadmium Tolerant Bacteria (CdtB), which could be important in the immobilization of this heavy metal in soils. The aim of this study is to evaluate the capacity of cadmium tolerance of bacteria from cocoa crops in Norte de Santander, for this purpose, the isolation of bacteria was carried out in selective culture media supplemented with 6 ppm of CdCl2 from soil samples established in the municipalities of San Cayetano and Sardinata. Subsequently, the levels of Cadmium tolerance of the bacterial isolates were determined at increasing concentrations of the heavy metal, Cadmium removal tests were carried out in liquid culture media and the molecular identification of the most outstanding isolates was carried out by sequencing the phylogenetic marker rRNA 16S. The most important results included that 20 bacterial isolates were obtained, finding a higher bacterial count in soils from crops established in San Cayetano. 100% of the bacterial isolates obtained were gram negative and 45% have the capacity to tolerate more than 24 ppm of CdCl2 under the evaluated conditions. Cadmium immobilization tests allowed finding that strain BSF6M4 can remove up to 99.4% of Cadmium in liquid medium, which makes it potentially useful for subsequent tests of immobilization and removal of Cadmium in soils. The seven bacterial isolates that stood out when tolerating high concentrations of Cadmium were identified at the genus level using the molecular marker rRNA16S and belong to the genera Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Kluyvera.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
DESIGN OF AN INTEGRATION MODEL FOR PRODUCTIVITY, PRODUCTIVE LINKAGES AND VALUE CHAIN. CASE: PANELA PRODUCERS, MUNICIPALITY OF ARBOLEDAS, NORTE DE SANTANDER DEPARTMENT, COLOMBIA.
JAIMES CASALLAS MARÍA DEL PILAR 1,
1 FESC,
Email: 1 pm_jaimes@fesc.edu.co,
Abstract: Rural problems depend on the social, economic, geographic, environmental and technological context of the area being analyzed. However, a common factor that has been identified among countries and regions is the focus on production, leaving an imbalance in the other links of the production chain, generating price instability in supply and demand, large economic losses and low competitiveness. This research project made it possible to analyze the basic links in the panela value chain. The actors behind each link, problems, perceived interests, resources and mandates were identified. Finally, a productive integration model is proposed that articulates the links of the value chain in dynamic processes, where each actor participates transversally. This generates a flow of valuable information and the opportunity to apply innovation and permanent improvement strategies.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
DYNAMIC MODELING OF TANNASE PRODUCTION FROM BACILLUS CEREUS: A FRAMEWORK SIMULATION BASED ON FED BATCH STRATEGY
MENDOZA DAYANA 1, NIÑO LÓPEZ LILIBETH 2, GELVES GERMAN 3,
1 Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad de Antioquia, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 dayanaandreamm@ufps.edu.co, 2 lilicarininolop@gmail.com, 3 rgzrgz@gmail.com,
Abstract: The tannase enzyme is a metabolite of great interest in industry. Typical examples of its use can be found in the production of wines and beer, the clarification of beverages and fruit juices, and the production of leather. However, obtaining tannase on an industrial scale is limited to batch mode. Therefore, its production is low and therefore economic studies are not feasible. With a view to solving this problem, in this work an operating strategy based on Fed-batch mode is designed. The kinetic parameters were taken from the literature to simulate the trends obtained through a Feed-batch mode of operation. One of the most important data of this research is based on improving the production of tannase with found values ​​of 0.380 U / g. The latter indicates that the tannase production could be almost twice the concentration obtained with the traditional batch mode (0.1900 U / g). The results obtained in this research may be promising for the enzyme production industry. Using computational techniques, it is possible to identify an improvement without investing in excessive experimentation and resources.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BANANA REJECTED USING YEAST
CONTRERAS JISELLE 1, HARO YEISON 2, NIÑO LÓPEZ LILIBETH 3, GELVES ZAMBRANO GERMAN RICARDO 4,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad de Antioquia, 4 Universidad Francisco Paula Santander,
Email: 1 jisellemayerlycb@ufps.edu.co, 2 Yeisonduvanhs@ufps.edu.co, 3 lilicarininolop@gmail.com, 4 germanricardogz@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: In this work, a mathematical model is proposed to simulate the obtaining of bioethanol from rejected bananas. The model uses the effect of substrate inhibition. The constants were determined from previous experimental data. Andrews expression was used to simulate concentration profiles, to describe the presence of substrate and product inhibition. Different initial concentrations of substrate were tested (90-400 g / L), and the results obtained indicate a maximum value of 300 g / L of rejected banana as a starting point to achieve high bioethanol production with a value of 150 g / L However, at higher concentrations of banana, there is an inhibition of the concentration, so that the production of bioethanol decreases until it reaches levels below 100 g / L. Based on the results, kinetic models provide vital details on microbial metabolic processes.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
EVALUATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS (CITRUS SINENSIS) AND ITS ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY
VEGA NELSON 1, VILLADA CASTILLO DORA CLEMENCIA 2,
1 ufps, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 nealvec6@gmail.com, 2 doraclemenciavc@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The main objective of this research is to evaluate the phenolic compounds extracted from the peel of the Valencia orange (Citrus. sinensis), this with the purpose of being applied in the meat industry as antioxidants, and its possible sensory acceptance, for which two different extraction methods were applied, being these the ultrasound and Soxhlet, using ethanol as solvent, where the latter method was more efficient for the extraction of phenolic compounds, with a significant percentage of effectiveness, the identification was performed by chromatography by HPLC/DAD, in which compounds were detected as gallic acid, parahydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, feluric acid, feluric acid, parahydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, feluric acid, para-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid, Vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, feluric acid, among others, the determination of the antioxidant activity was carried out by the decolorization of beta carotene, which decolorizes rapidly without the presence of an antioxidant, the application of phenolic compounds was carried out in fresh raw sausages and sausage products, where they were subjected to a sensory evaluation to see their possible acceptance, which allowed concluding that Citrus Sinensis peels have a high capacity to inhibit the oxidation of meat products.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
EVALUATION OF THE SHELF LIFE OF RED TILAPIA FILLETS (OREOCHROMIS SP) FROM THE ASOPISZULIA ASSOCIATION OF NORTHERN SANTANDER USING AN EDIBLE COATING BASED ON QUITOSAN, YUCA SULFUR AND SABILA GEL
ROJAS ORTIZ SOR MARÍA 1,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 sormariaro@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Fish meat is a highly perishable food due to its short shelf life, for this reason the use of coatings has been practiced for many years, since it allows to extend its shelf life. The main objective of this research is to elaborate an edible coating (RC) from chitosan, yucca starch and aloe vera in different concentrations in order to analyze the effect on the preservation of red tilapia fillets produced in the municipality of El Zulia. Three coatings (Rec1, Rec2, Rec3) and a control without coating (SinR) were formulated using the immersion method. Physical (pH and moisture content), chemical (fat content and BVT) and microbiological (presence of mesophilic aerobes and total coliforms) parameters were evaluated in tilapia fillet preserved at 20°C under controlled conditions. The best results were obtained with the Rec1 treatment composed of 20% Aloe vera, 1.5% chitosan and 4% cassava starch, preserving the red tilapia fillets in acceptable conditions until the third day. Descriptive statistical analysis was used for pH and moisture values, applying analysis of variance and tukey's test at 95% reliability, and InfoStat software and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPSS version 22 were used for chemical and microbiological data.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
EVALUATION OF THE VIABILITY IN CRYOCONSERVED BACTERIA AND FUNGI IN THE STRAIN BANK OF THE FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER UNIVERSITY
CAMACHO URIBE INGRID JULIETH 1,
1 universidad francisco de paula santander,
Email: 1 ingridjuliethcu@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: In the laboratory of the Strain Bank of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and the Environment of the Francisco de Paula Santander University, located in the Campos Eliseo’s Experimental Center; Microbial cultures of biotechnological interest constantly enter, which are used in teaching and research activities. Therefore, there is an interest in keeping microbial cultures viable over time by means of different conservation methods, for this reason this research was carried out in which 10 hydrocarbonoclast fungi and 14 bacterial strains were selected, preserved in freezing at -80. ° C in glycerol (10%, 20% and 30%), The evaluation of the three percentages of glycerol was also carried out taking into account the data of the dilutions in the fungi of 10 -2 and 10 -3 ; in bacteria the dilutions of 10 -5 and 10- 6 , which were found in the established counting range. The percentage of viability, morphological stability and purity were determined in a period of 0, 3, 6 and 9 months from the cryopreservation date. The results obtained for the viability of the fungal strains showed data above 50% and the bacteria recovery ranges of 90%; the purity of the strains was maintained at 100% for bacteria and 60% for fungi. With the results obtained, it was possible to conclude that the best percentage of glycerol for medium-term conservation was 10%, although no significant differences were found, it was maintained in all months with higher values ​​in the recovery of each evaluated strain; Knowing the best percentage allows to avoid continuous losses of the cultures and possible alterations of the cell.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
EVALUATION OF THE VIABILITY IN CRYOCONSERVED BACTERIA AND FUNGI IN THE STRAIN BANK OF THE FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER UNIVERSITY
ACOSTA BECERRA MAYRA GUADALUPE 1, SUAREZ CONTRERAS LILIANA YANET 2, CAMACHO URIBE INGRID JULIETH 3,
1 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER , 2 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, CÚCUTA, 3 universidad francisco de paula santander,
Email: 1 mayraguadalupeab@ufps.edu.co, 2 lilianayanethsc@ufps.edu.co, 3 ingridjuliethcu@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: In the laboratory of the Strain Bank of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and the Environment of the Francisco de Paula Santander University, located in the Campos Eliseo’s Experimental Center; Microbial cultures of biotechnological interest constantly enter, which are used in teaching and research activities. Therefore, there is an interest in keeping microbial cultures viable over time by means of different conservation methods, for this reason this research was carried out in which 10 hydrocarbonoclast fungi and 14 bacterial strains were selected, preserved in freezing at -80. ° C in glycerol (10%, 20% and 30%), The evaluation of the three percentages of glycerol was also carried out taking into account the data of the dilutions in the fungi of 10 -2 and 10 -3 ; in bacteria the dilutions of 10 -5 and 10- 6 , which were found in the established counting range. The percentage of viability, morphological stability and purity were determined in a period of 0, 3, 6 and 9 months from the cryopreservation date. The results obtained for the viability of the fungal strains showed data above 50% and the bacteria recovery ranges of 90%; the purity of the strains was maintained at 100% for bacteria and 60% for fungi. With the results obtained, it was possible to conclude that the best percentage of glycerol for medium-term conservation was 10%, although no significant differences were found, it was maintained in all months with higher values ​​in the recovery of each evaluated strain; Knowing the best percentage allows to avoid continuous losses of the cultures and possible alterations of the cell.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
EVALUATION OF TWO COMPOSTING SYSTEMS FOR THE TREATMENT OF AGROINDUSTRIAL WASTE
GÓMEZ PEÑARANDA MARIBEL 1, DUARTE DELGADO GLORIA ISABEL 2, GUTIERREZ DURAN JOSE ALFREDO 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander , 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander , 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 maribelgp@ufps.edu.co, 2 gloriaisabeldd@ufps.edu.co, 3 josealfredogd@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The production of compost through composting is one of the most effective ways to use wasted food and agro-industrial waste, promoting the recycling of these in an efficient way. The present research evaluated two composting systems based on agro-industrial waste of plant origin and quail manure, using a closed system called a mini greenhouse, covered with black plastic and a PVC structure, and a traditional open-pile system using the same mixture. To determine the efficiency of the two methods, the effects between the relevant composting factors were evaluated, analyzing the variables of temperature, pH, C / N ratio and water consumption during the process. In addition, sensory tests and a microbiological analysis of the compost obtained were carried out. As a result, after 37 days of evaluation performing periodic turning, significant differences in temperatures were evidenced, where the highest values ​​reached were recorded in the mini greenhouse system, accelerating decomposition and consequently reducing times in the process, ensuring inactivation. of seeds and the death of pathogenic microorganisms, which was verified with microbiological tests. The pH values ​​obtained at the beginning and at the end of the process were similar in both systems, being close to the established ranges, water consumption was the most relevant result with a reduction of close to 90%, proven to be an efficient method for areas with scarce availability of water and consistent with the challenges posed by today's world.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
INDUSTRIAL SIMULATION OF CYANOVIRIN PRODUCTION FROM CONVENTIONAL AND BIOTECHNOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES
TORRES MARTIN 1, CARVAJAL JOSE 2, NIÑO LÓPEZ LILIBETH 3, GELVES GERMAN 4,
1 Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad de Antioquia, 4 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 martintr@ufps.edu.co, 2 josedavidcr@ufps.edu.co, 3 lilicarininolop@gmail.com, 4 rgzrgz@gmail.com,
Abstract: In this work, the prefeasibility of the production of the antiviral molecule cyanovirin was studied with the traditional technique using soybeans and a biotechnological process with cellulkas in suspension of Nostoc ellipsosporum. Cyanovirine-N is a protein that inhibits type 1 and type 2 HIV viral infection. That is why it is vitally important to optimize production and improve cost-effectiveness on a large scale for its medicinal use against AIDS disease. However, several studies mention obtaining low levels of cyanovirine from Nostoc ellipsosporum. However, this method is essential to find a technified solution at an industrial level since the operating conditions can be controlled and not depend on environmental factors. The results with the SuperPro Designer® simulator indicate that soy produces a higher amount of crystallized cyanovirin-N (744.48kg / h), but it is not profitable due to the annual operating cost (USD) $ 458,892,000. The latter, as the data obtained with Nostoc ellipsosporum reveal lower cyanovirine-N crystals (0.36 kg / h). However, the annual operating cost drops significantly to (USD) $ 24,236,000, almost 85% less than the cost compared to the traditional method. It is concluded that the culture medium used for Nostoc ellipsosporum has advantages for protein synthesis. In such a way that future studies with the information obtained here are vital for its large-scale production.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
MODELING FRAMEWORK FOR TANNASSE PRODUCTION FROM BACILLUS GOTTHEILLI BASED ON CONTINUOUS OPERATING MODE
TORRRES JESUS 1, QUINTERO YORMAN 2, BUITRAGO JERSON 3, NIÑO LÓPEZ LILIBETH 4, GELVES GERMAN 5,
1 Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Francisco de Paula Santander, 4 Universidad de Antioquia, 5 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 jesusdavidmto@ufps.edu.co, 2 jormangeovannyqh@ufps.edu.co, 3 jersonenriquebl@ufps.edu.co, 4 lilicarininolop@gmail.com, 5 rgzrgz@gmail.com,
Abstract: The Tanase enzyme is a widely used metabolite due to its various applications in different industries such as chemicals, textiles and food. Therefore, the purpose of this work is the development of a simulation fed with kinetic constants obtained at an experimental level in order to predict possible productive strategies. This is evaluated with a configuration of two bioreactors coupled to a centrifuge that recirculates 46% of the cells. Matlab software is used to obtain the numerical solution of the proposed equations, finding a significant difference in biomass and enzyme productivity compared to batch mode. Simulations of tannase fermentation with Bacillus gottheilii growing in a culture medium are based on tannic acid as substrate, and the simulations indicate an average tannase production of 59 U / L. Which means an average increase of 24% with compared to batch mode (47 U / L). These results could be promising for future experimental investigations focused on the optimization of tannase on a large scale with alternative modes of operation to the traditional batch type.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
MODELING OF CLAVULANIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM STREPTOMYCES CLAVULIGERUS USING A CONTINUOUS OPERATION MODE
ARIZA LUISA 1, RUBIO YESSICA 2, MORENO VIVIANA 3, NIÑO LÓPEZ LILIBETH 4, GELVES ZAMBRANO GERMAN RICARDO 5,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Francisco de Paula Santander, 4 Universidad de Antioquia, 5 Universidad Francisco Paula Santander,
Email: 1 luisafernandaav@ufps.edu.co, 2 yessicatatianars@ufps.edu.co, 3 vivianazulaymh@ufps.edu.co, 4 lilicarininolop@gmail.com, 5 germanricardogz@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Clavulanic acid (CA) is a β-lactam inhibitor obtained from Streptomyces clavuligerus cells and is used to prevent antibiotic resistance. However, obtaining CA has disadvantages in a bioreactor due to its low production. Consequently, the viability of the process is not very feasible for its industrialization. In this investigation, a model is obtained to simulate the production of clavulanic acid using a continuous mode of operation. The above, to identify strategies to improve CA productivity. Results are compared to traditional batch mode of operation. Based on the results, the final CA concentration can be improved by up to 60% over batch data. The results demonstrated the importance of computational techniques in bioprocess engineering, since computational simulation focuses on identifying critical operational parameters as a starting point in the optimization of antibiotic production.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF THE MICROALGAE HAEMATOCOCCUS PLUVIALIS UTEX2505 SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT STRESS FACTORS
CAMACHO KURMEN JUDITH ELENA 1,
1 Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca,
Email: 1 jelenacamacho@unicolmayor.edu.co,
Abstract: Astaxanthin is a natural pigment widely distributed in nature and of great commercial interest as a colorant and for its various pigment and bioactive properties. Haematococcus pluvialis is a green algae that accumulates carotenoids, mainly astaxanthin when exposed to stressful conditions. However, in the literature there are no systematic studies that allow determining the stress conditions that best favor the morphological change for the accumulation of astaxanthin. It was realized a review of the morphology change of the microalgae subjected to stress conditions such as nutrient deficiency, saline stress with sodium acetate and sodium chloride, high irradiance, light color (white, red and blue) was carried out. The microalgae biomass and astaxanthin production were determined, correlating with the morphological change. A shorter encysting time (12 days) was established, using as stress conditions: RM medium with 4.0% nitrogen, pH 6.7, light / dark cycle 20h: 4h, continuous stirring, 5% CO2, lighting with lamps. white fluorescents and an irradiance of 140 µE / m2s; achieving in turn, a maximum accumulation of astaxanthin of 7.4 ug / ml and a mobile flagellated vegetative morphology of green color, palmella cell and totally red aplanospore cell. The work used as a stress factor the use of white, blue and red light, LED type with high irradiance up to 150 μE/ m2 s in combination with nitrogen deficiency ,sodium acetate and sodium chloride since it is a factor of stress that can increase the production of astaxanthin. It was found that the studies that obtained the highest concentration of astaxanthin, used white light with high irradiance, establishing the importance of combining high irradiance and stress factors such as nutrient deficiency or addition of salts, to increase the production of aplanospore cells, thus increasing astaxanthin concentrations.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
OPERATING MODE EFFECT ON LIPIDS PRODUCTION FROM RHODOTORULA MUCILAGINOSA: MODELLING AND SIMULATION TRENDS
CARDOZO LEIDY 1, DURAN KAREN 2, NIÑO LÓPEZ LILIBETH 3, GELVES GERMAN 4,
1 Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad de Antioquia, 4 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 leidyjohannacg@ufps.edu.co, 2 karenlorenadc@ufps.edu.co, 3 lilicarininolop@gmail.com, 4 rgzrgz@gmail.com,
Abstract: A sustainable option for the use of fossil fuels is the production of biodiesel from lipids. These oils are used in the form of triglycerides and are known to be potentially renewable, non-toxic, and biodegradable, making it a sustainable product. To obtain these biofuels, the oil obtained from microorganisms is one of the most feasible strategies, obtaining theoretically optimal results. In this research, the kinetic constants of the oil yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa are used to simulate lipid accumulation based on different production strategies. Likewise, Matlab software is used for simulated modes of discontinuous and continuous operation to establish comparisons between the obtained productions and their interpretations. The data for the batch mode were: 14 g / L for the cells and a production of 0.22 g / g for the lipids. Likewise, for the continuous mode, its results were: 19 g / L for biomass growth and a value of 0.30 g / g in lipid production. The simulated results in continuous mode would demonstrate the effectiveness of its implementation and that a more significant accumulation of lipids is achieved.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
OVERVIEW AND NATIONAL CHALLENGES OF THE BIOTECHNOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF HYDROCARBONOCLASTIC BACTERIA
PARADA RINCÓN DIANA CAROLINA 1, ALVARADO VEGA KELLY VALENTINA 2, SEPÚLVEDA CONTRERAS NATALIA 3, MORENO ROZO LAURA YOLIMA 4,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander , 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander , 4 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander ,
Email: 1 dianacarolinapr@ufps.edu.co, 2 kellyvalentinaav@ufps.edu.co, 3 nataliasc@ufps.edu.co, 4 laurayolimamr@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Oil is the world's main energy source, but when spills, leaks or inadequate extraction and purification by the oil industry occur, it becomes one of the planet's major pollutants, causing negative effects on the environment; in soils, hydrocarbons prevent the entry of nutrients to plant species by modifying the values of pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, humidity and the concentration of Ca+, Mg+, K+, Na+, P, Al+++, NO3- and N ions, affecting gas exchange with the atmosphere. However, there are microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and algae) capable of partially or totally transforming hydrocarbons to use them as a source of carbon and energy, they are called hydrocarbonoclast microorganisms (BHC) and are considered indispensable in ecosystems contaminated with oil; many have the ability to produce surfactant molecules, due to their cellular machinery; these molecules are called biosurfactants and have a wide range of applications, especially in the mineralization and solubilization of hydrocarbons. The implementation of bioremediation allows the elimination, neutralization or reduction of a toxic or pollutant present in the environment. The objective of this research consisted in the analysis and systemic documentation of research focused on hydrocarbonoclast bacteria and their biotechnological potential in the production of biosurfactant molecules in the present anthropogenic era, taking into account the national panorama and challenges; in order to set a precedent at the national and regional level where this type of studies is very limited.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM RHIZOPHERIC SOILS OF RICE CULTURE
RAMÍREZ CAICEDO LILIAN TRINIDAD 1, MIRANDA BUITRAGO MARIAALEJANDRA 2,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 liliantrinidadrc@ufps.edu.co, 2 alejandra.mirandabu@gmail.com,
Abstract: The microbial load of the soil is usually very diverse and with large varieties of populations that are mainly found in the rhizosphere of the soil, said microbiota plays a very important role due to its biofertilizing potential, leaving nutrients available for plants. The present work aimed to physiologically characterize rhizobacteria isolated from rice cultivation. For this, 19 isolates conserved in the Bioprocesses laboratory of the Francisco de Paula Santander University were reactivated and they were characterized macroscopically and microscopically following the formats established in the strain. Subsequently, 16 isolates were determined to have their atmospheric nitrogen fixing capacity using the quantitative Micro-Kjeldhal method and 4 isolates were determined for their phosphate solubilization capacity, according to the Bray II method, adapted for bacterial cultures. The range of phosphorus solubilization in SRSM culture broth was between 24.81 to 28.80 mg PO4 = / L, the BSP-8A strain obtained a higher phosphate solubilization value of 28.80 mgPO4 = / L; the strains corresponding to BPL-2A and BPL-3A presented the highest value of biological nitrogen fixation in vitro of 8.41 μg N-NH3.mL-1 and 8.79 μg N-NH3.mL-1 respectively. The results obtained allowed to conclude that all the evaluated strains have biofertilizing potential since it was possible to quantify the fixed atmospheric nitrogen and the solubilized phosphorus, which promises an alternative the use of biological agents to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers within a friendly agricultural production with the environment.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
PRODUCTION OF BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS FROM COFFEE MUCILAGE BY MEANS OF THE AZOTOBACTER VINELANDII
RAMIREZ ALVAREZ ANGIE DANIELA 1, MORENO JIMENEZ SARA VALENTINA 2, MOSCOSO GAMA JOHANNA MARCELA 3,
1 Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca, 2 Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca, 3 UNIVERSIDAD COLEGIO MAYOR DE CUNDINAMARCA,
Email: 1 adanielaramirez@unicolmayor.edu.co, 2 svmoreno@unicolmayor.edu.co, 3 jperpe@unicolmayor.edu.co,
Abstract: In the coffee production process only 9% of the net weight of the coffee bean is used for the production of the beverage, 90.5% is not used and the mismanagement of the waste produces pollution of water sources affecting their composition and potability It is very important to note that coffee is considered a national symbol. Throughout the world thanks to its pleasant taste and sweet and good price. The year 2020 closed with a production of almost 14 million bags of 60 kilos of coffee, which indicates that there was produced quite a lot of waste from this industry. In addition, it is known that the plastic industry has a high demand that increases day by day in recent years to increased by 58% in 2018 compared to the increase of 2008; Unfortunately, the largest amount of plastics that are normally used are those obtained from fuels, affecting the ozone layer. But the problem is even greater since plastic due to its chemical composition takes thousands of years to decompose and if decomposed can generate toxic products for living things. It is therefore extremely important to provide a solution for the use of the residual biomass that occurs in the coffee-growing area and thus to provide environmentally friendly solutions through the production of biodegradable plastic. This project aims to use coffee mucilage as a source of fermentable carbohydrate for the bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules suitable for the production of biodegradable plastic inputs. This in order to ensure an intelligent residual management of the mucilage so that it does not end the water sources and also provide the plastics industry with a more environmentally friendly alternative since the plastic that will be produced will not emit gas greenhouse effect (GEI) and is biodegradable by producing nutrients suitable for use as fertilizer in plants or soil. Para poder llevar a cabo esta transformación es importante hacer usos de la bacteria Azotobacter vinelandii, ya que esta bacteria es fijadora de nitrógeno y esto se da en virtud que usan altos niveles de glucosa o carbohidratos para realizar su proceso de fijación, con ello produce alginatos, este es un emulsionante importante para la síntesis del plástico. Con esto se busca poder establecer cómo se integra el mucílago como fuente de carbono a la bacteria Azotobacter vinelandii,; in addition, determine the proportional ratio between used mucilage and plastic produced with the help of Azotobacter vinelandii. The results and different graphs have been taken from previous research using different sources of fermentable carbon such as grape marc or beet molasses.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
SIMULATING OF DHA FROM S. LIMACINUM OUC88: FED-BATCH PERSPECTIVES
CONTRERAS BRENDA 1, BASTO DEISY 2, NIÑO LÓPEZ LILIBETH 3, GELVES GERMAN 4,
1 Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad de Antioquia, 4 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 brendacarolinacr@ufps.edu.co, 2 deisymallerlinbc@ufps.edu.co, 3 lilicarininolop@gmail.com, 4 rgzrgz@gmail.com,
Abstract: 1000 / 5000 Resultados de traducción Biotechnology and its need to improve industrial processes have highlighted the need for techniques to optimize processes. Computer-aided simulation offers the advantage of determining production trends without excessive use of resources or significant experimentation time. That is why in this research a kinetic model of DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) uptake was evaluated using Schizochytrium limacinum OUC88. Based on the above, this work proposes a mathematical approach to simulate DHA production in a fed batch model, using Matlab software. The experimental data to determine the kinetic parameters were taken from previous references and a DHA concentration was reached in the fed batch mode of 150 g / L. However, the results in batch mode suggested a value of 30 g / L, demonstrating the effectiveness of fed-batch implementation with prospects for process improvement.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
SIMULATING OF PHYCOCYANIN PRODUCTION FROM SPIRULINA PLATENSIS APPLYING DIFFERENT LEDS
RIVERA CHRISTIAN 1, NIÑO LÓPEZ LILIBETH 2, GELVES ZAMBRANO GERMAN RICARDO 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad de Antioquia, 3 Universidad Francisco Paula Santander,
Email: 1 christianrc@ufps.edu.co, 2 lilicarininolop@gmail.com, 3 germanricardogz@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Phycocyanin is a high value chromoprotein for various industries. Currently, the need to meet food demand, search for more sustainable processes and product development have led to a growing interest in this type of pigments generated by photosynthetic microorganisms such as microalgae. The objective of this work is to simulate a series of processes in a dynamic state using a Monod model, adding to this pre-established model a factor little explored in simulations which consisted of the effect of the different light spectra in promoting the increase in the productivity of phycocyanin. The maximums of phycocyanin were obtained for red light Also, cell growth and phycocyanin kinetic velocities are candidates to zero values for all spectra, considering more than 50% of the inner bioreactor zone.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
SIMULATION OF DIFFERENT BIOREACTOR OPERATING MODES FOR CELLULASE PRODUCTION
MORA DANIELA 1, CARRILLO FERNANDA 2, NIÑO LÓPEZ LILIBETH 3, GELVES ZAMBRANO GERMAN RICARDO 4,
1 Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad de Antioquia, 4 Universidad Francisco Paula Santander,
Email: 1 danielaalejandrame@ufps.edu.co, 2 fernandacm@ufps.edu.co, 3 lilicarininolop@gmail.com, 4 germanricardogz@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The production of cellulases has been used in important applications in the textile industry as well as in the formulation of some medicines. Therefore, new adjustments to the mathematical model are proposed for optimization in its elaboration. In this process, two feeding strategies were carried out to maximize cellulase production using 10g / L of cellulose and 0.4g / L of cells, the first simulation used a discrete feeding of cellulose to provide the maximum activity of the enzyme to a determined time, the second was carried out with a continuous feeding of the same substrate, concentrations and amount of cell. A comparative review was made of which of the modes of operation used was the most efficient in obtaining cellulase; From this it was obtained that the continuous model allows to maintain a high concentration of cellulase using small amounts of the inducing substrate and a shorter time in order to avoid the inhibition of enzyme production.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
STANDARDIZED METHODOLOGY FOR DNA EXTRACTION IN MICROALGAE
LOPEZ LUCIANO 1, CONTRERAS JIMÉNEZ MARISOL 2,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Departamento del medio ambiente, Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 lucianolb@ufps.edu.co, 2 marisolcjcoj@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Microalgae are unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms with the ability to photosynthesize. They generate organic biomass from CO2 and light, using water as an electron donor, oxidizing it to O2. They grow using light as energy and CO2 as a carbon source. They have a cell wall composed of hemicellulose and saccharides that prevent the release of intracellular biological molecules that make them resistant to degradation, making it a challenge to extract DNA from them at high concentrations. This work initially consisted of a detailed bibliographic review that covered the methodologies mostly used in DNA extraction processes and put these methodologies into practice in the molecular diagnostics laboratory of the Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander. In this essay, a methodology was proposed that consisted of relating different extraction protocols in this case the CTAB method implemented by Laura Patricia Alejos Velazquez in 2012 and the extraction method with glass beads by Zinkoné in 2018, making certain modifications in the process. Initially, a trial test was performed to verify that the methodology used was viable, to which favorable results were obtained, so we proceed to perform a final test with the same methodology, but making certain changes in the compositions of the extraction buffers, modifying the percentage of CTAB and the concentration of NaCl, for this study 5 different treatments were proposed that were applied to 51 samples. The results of this study were analyzed by means of electrophoresis in agarose gel at 1.2% agarose, and Nanodrop, in the same way the statistical analysis software design expert 11 was implemented, to determine the factors that influence significantly in this study and to establish the optimal calculations to obtain desirable results, being the most significant factors in the results of this test the concentration of NaCl, and the relation time/ rpm in vortex. Similarly, the surface graph provided by design expert 11, established response values and desirable operating conditions in terms of CTAB and latex time, showing that increasing the time in latex and decreasing the percentage of CTAB, it was possible to obtain better DNA concentrations. Concluding that by means of the execution of this work it was possible to fully comply with the objectives initially proposed, managing to standardize a DNA extraction methodology relating the CTAB method and the extraction method with glass beads, identifying the factors that had a significant influence and the ideal conditions of the extraction components.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION OF INDUSTRIALLY RELEVANT MICROALGAE-BASED METABOLITES
BARAJAS SOLANO ANDRES FERNANDO 1, GARCÍA MARTINEZ JANET BIBIANA 2, CONTRERAS ROPERO JEFFERSON EDUARDO 3,
1 Universidad Francisco De Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco De Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco De Paula Santander,
Email: 1 andresfernandobs@ufps.edu.co, 2 janetbibianagm@ufps.edu.co, 3 jeffersoneduardocr@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The constant demographic growth has led to significant technical and economic developments in utilizing the land's usable resources. However, the insufficiency of agricultural productivity in the race to meet the food demand leads to an increase in energy requirements from oil, coal, and natural gases, allowing an excessive depletion of non-renewable natural resources. Microalgal biotechnology has made it possible to improve food production without compromising land or natural resources to degradation due to the abuse of chemical compounds since these agricultural productions become unsustainable over time and cause more significant environmental deterioration. Microalgae are considered as a potential source of nutrients of high biological value (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, among others) and also provide eco-friendly alternatives since they absorb up to 100 times more carbon dioxide than plants. However, the technological development of downstream processing or harvesting and extraction of microalgal biomass presents significant problems due to the high costs generated around this phase, attributing up to 40% of the overall economy of the process and affecting the achievement and viability of microalgal biotechnology as a sustainable green economy. One of the most critical challenges in implementing microalgal crops as environmentally friendly technologies is to obtain high efficiency in biomass harvesting methods, focusing efforts on downstream processing as a link to solid, cost-effective techniques. Within the harvesting processes, there are several techniques such as centrifugation, chemical flocculation, electro flocculation, electroflotation, filtration, decantation, among others, each of them with advantages and disadvantages compared to others either by their scalability, energy demand, or final disposal of the product in question; the objective of this work is to design a processing method for the extraction and to obtain metabolites of high biological value such as proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids of microalgal origin. This research was carried out at the Francisco de Paula Santander University, Elysian Fields (Los Patios, Norte de Santander), using the strain isolated from a thermal well in the city of Cúcuta, Norte de Santander and identified and morphologically characterized as Chlorella sp. It was cultivated in an air-lift photobioreactor with a working volume of 10 liters for 30 days. Tests to determine the interaction of harvesting method (flocculation and electroflotation), drying technique (oven and dehydrator), time, and temperature were performed and analyzed using a non-factorial design of experiments (4 factors, three levels) with response surface using Design-Expert® software. The preliminary results were used to design a laboratory scale method with the capacity to obtain 808.6, 155.3 mg/L using the electroflotation technique and implementing the dehydrator at a temperature of 30 ºC for 30 hours for proteins, carbohydrates respectively and 99.3726 mg/L for lipids under electroflotation and dehydrator conditions for 26 hours at 60ºC. Each process was optimized under specific desirability criteria for each metabolite, maintaining optimal concentrations of the other analytes.

Topic: Biotechnology and Agroindustrial Engineering
CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF TRAINING THE TEACHING OF ZOOTECHNY IN TIMES OF PANDEMIC.
GARCIA QUINTERO CARMEN LICETH 1,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña ,
Email: 1 clgarciaq@ufpso.edu.co,
Abstract: Zootechnics has as objectives, the production, transformation and efficient trade of animals of human interest, with ethical, sustainability and equity criteria; Therefore, the study plans in the livestock area have developed their curricula adapting them to the needs of the context, where the practice spaces that the institution offers for the construction and development of knowledge, the acquisition of competences and the definition of the graduation profile, are given by the development of skills and abilities that are only achieved in practice spaces with animals. The objective of this work is to determine the characteristics of the training process from the practice of the zootechnician, the training potential of the practical component and the training alternatives in practice proposed by the institution during the development of the pandemic; Through a case study methodology of the Zootechnics program of the Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña University, an inquiry is made about general aspects of their practical training before and during the pandemic, through a systematic monitoring of the process developed by two groups of students during their eighth semester of training; the first group developed the production semester, in pre-pandemic and the second group during the pandemic. The results collected indicate that teaching has had to be transformed towards a remote or distance model, requiring the use of educational techniques and resources with which many teachers and students do not have the skills to use it; improvisation has been recurrent because the key elements for decision-making were not available.

Topic: Animal Science
EFFECT OF THE CONCENTRATION OF SODIUM CHLORIDE IN WATER ON THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF JUVENILE PIRAPITINGA PIARACTUS BRACHYPOMUS
ORTEGA ROJAS YEIMY LEONARDO 1, MÁRQUEZ ECHEVERRÍ NERSY PAOLA 2, CARREÑO CORREA RUBÉN DARÍO 3, GUERRERO ALVARADO CAMILO ERNESTO 4,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 4 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 yeimyleonardoor@ufps.edu.co, 2 nercypaolame@ufps.edu.co, 3 rubendariocc@ufps.edu.co, 4 camiloernestoga@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Sodium chloride (NaCl) it is one of the oldest substances used in pisciculture, due to its proven effectiveness as a prophylactic to avoid and control some external affections and as a preventive substance for possible diseases generated during transport and handling of fish in culture, however, its effects are not known on growth and survival when used by fish farmers in different concentrations. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of sodium chloride (common salt) 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 y 10% on the growth and survival of juveniles white pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus). 240 juveniles were used with an initial weight of de 7,88 ± 0,07 g and initial size of 3,0 ± 0,0 cm, which were distributed in 12 aquariums, corresponding to six treatments and two repetitions (20 fishes/aquarium). The juveniles of P. brachypomus were exposed for 96 hours to the different saline concentrations and subsequently placed back in sweet water for an additional period of 14 days, where were they monitored to evaluate weight gain (GP), size gain (GT), specific growth rate (TEC), and survival percentage (%S). The results showed that size gain and survival were not affected by any treatment. Saline concentrations of 8 and 10% presented representative differences (P<0,05) in weight gain and specific growth rate when comparing them with the other treatments, evidencing a decrease in growth. In conclusion, we can say that the use of sodium chloride in concentrations 2, 4 y 6%, help to that the juveniles of P. brachypomus have positive specific growth rates favoring weight and size gain, which approves the prophylactic use of common salt in these concentrations, without compromising the growth of the juveniles of this species.

Topic: Animal Science
FATTY ACID PROFILE OF THE FISH STEAK OF THE SPECIES DORAOPS ZULOAGAI AND POTAMORHINA LATICEPS FISHES BELONGING TO THE CATATUMBO BASIN
GUERRERO ALVARADO CAMILO ERNESTO 1, RUBIO PARADA JORGE ALEXANDER 2,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 camiloernestoga@ufps.edu.co, 2 jorgealexanderrp@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: ABSTRACT The objective of this scientific research was to characterize the fatty acid profile in the fish fillets of the Mariana (Doraops zuloagai, Schultz, 1944) and Manamana (Potamorhina laticeps, Valenciennes, 1850) species belonging to the Catatumbo basin. The fatty acid methyl esters analyze were carried out at SGS Colombia SAS (Bogotá, Cundinamarca), using the analytical method GC-FID, reference method CTS-LAB-P-17, and using a gas chromatograph, equipped with flame ionization detector, “Split/splitless” injector, capillary column of fused silica containing polyethylene glycol as stationary phase. Two fillet samples were analyzed for each species. Regarding the fatty acid profile, 22 fatty acids were identified in D. zuloagai and 19 fatty acids in P. laticeps. For both species the main fatty acids found were palmitic (C16: 0), stearic (C18: 0) and oleic (C18: 1 n-9). The species that showed the highest value of omega-3 fatty acids in the fillet was P. laticeps, which presented a concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 3.14 times higher than in the species D. zuloagai. In general, the fish fillet of P. laticeps presents higher values of polyunsaturated fatty acids and lower values of saturated fatty acids than the species D. zuloagai. The study of the fatty acid profile of the fillet of these two species will contribute to the orientation of health professionals (doctors, nutritionists, etc.) so that they offer adequate dietary guidance to their patients. Keywords: Catatumbo fish, fatty acids, gas chromatograph, Manamana, Mariana

Topic: Animal Science
PRODUCTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF GREEN HYDROPONIC RICE FORAGE
ESLAVA PEDRAZA ALIX AMANDA 1, CARREÑO CORREA RUBÉN DARÍO 2,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 alixamandaep@ufps.edu.co, 2 rubendariocc@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Animal nutrition is one of the most relevant aspects that determine the profitability of the animal production systems, faced with this situation the production of different forages has been evaluated in traditional and hydroponic conditions. The present investigation evaluated in conditions of cold to temperate climate the production of hydroponic green forage (FVH) of uncertified rice seed (O. sativa); at day 38 post sowing biomass and height were recorded at 1147.12 g / m² and 57 mm, nutritional composition analysis indicated favorable results for protein content (22,74%); dry matter, gross energy, the FDN and FDA was within acceptable ranges for animal feeding. It is concluded that the yield in biomass and height was low and the nutritional composition adequate, indicating that the FVH O. sativa can be considered as an alternative in animal feed.

Topic: Animal Science
SIMULATION OF SCENARIOS OF GOOD LIVESTOCK PRACTICES FOR SMALL PRODUCERS IN COLOMBIA
SARMIENTO SAAVEDRA OSCAR EDUARDO 1, BOHÓRQUEZ RODRÍGUEZ JUAN CAMILO 2, BERMUDEZ HERNANDEZ ERICK YESID 3, REDONDO ORTEGON JOHAN MANUEL 4,
1 Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje - SENA, 2 Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje, 3 SERVICIO NACIONAL DE APRENDIZAJE - SENA., 4 Universidad Central de Colombia,
Email: 1 oesarmiento682@misena.edu.co, 2 juancamilo.b@misena.edu.co, 3 eybermudez59@misena.edu.co, 4 phdredondo@gmail.com,
Abstract: In Colombia, small producers do not have the technical and operational capacity to carry out good bovine production processes, which has generated the spread of diseases that have led the country to close its export processes, which is why the project was proposed with the objective of determining a system dynamics model that would allow these producers to determine the variables to implement safety criteria in their production, thereby improving the processes and seeking business opportunities for export processes from there. For this, information was collected from state and private sources, which allowed determining the variables that were most affecting livestock production, with the support of Fondo Ganadero del Tolima S.A. and an interdisciplinary group of professionals who defined that good livestock practices (GMP) are essential to increase production and improve health and safety processes in bovine production. That these practices would help to improve current production rates and that they will also allow us to reach new markets. Therefore, a system dynamics model was proposed in the Vensim PL program, with which the simulation of bovine production for a small producer was carried out, taking into account all the variables of good livestock practices and it was observed that if the indicators of these variables are met, the production processes would be improved, otherwise, if they were not carried out, the production levels would be lowered. Which generates a direct impact on the economy of small producers, who do not carry out implementation processes of these processes and, therefore, have losses due to poor management of livestock production. In the end, it is concluded, with the contributions given by the Fondo Ganadero del Tolima SA, that small producers in Colombia do not have technological tools that help them improve production indicators, therefore, increasing production levels is complex and will take time. to change this culture.

Topic: Animal Science
SIMULATION OF SCENARIOS OF GOOD LIVESTOCK PRACTICES FOR SMALL PRODUCERS IN COLOMBIA
REDONDO ORTEGON JOHAN MANUEL 1, SARMIENTO SAAVEDRA OSCAR EDUARDO 2, BOHÓRQUEZ RODRÍGUEZ JUAN CAMILO 3, BERMUDEZ HERNANDEZ ERICK YESID 4,
1 Universidad Central de Colombia, 2 Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje - SENA, 3 Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje, 4 SERVICIO NACIONAL DE APRENDIZAJE - SENA.,
Email: 1 phdredondo@gmail.com, 2 oesarmiento682@misena.edu.co, 3 juancamilo.b@misena.edu.co, 4 eybermudez59@misena.edu.co,
Abstract: In Colombia, small producers do not have the technical and operational capacity to carry out good bovine production processes, which has generated the spread of diseases that have led the country to close its export processes, which is why the project was proposed with the objective of determining a system dynamics model that would allow these producers to determine the variables to implement safety criteria in their production, thereby improving the processes and seeking business opportunities for export processes from there. For this, information was collected from state and private sources, which allowed determining the variables that were most affecting livestock production, with the support of Fondo Ganadero del Tolima S.A. and an interdisciplinary group of professionals who defined that good livestock practices (GMP) are essential to increase production and improve health and safety processes in bovine production. That these practices would help to improve current production rates and that they will also allow us to reach new markets. Therefore, a system dynamics model was proposed in the Vensim PL program, with which the simulation of bovine production for a small producer was carried out, taking into account all the variables of good livestock practices and it was observed that if the indicators of these variables are met, the production processes would be improved, otherwise, if they were not carried out, the production levels would be lowered. Which generates a direct impact on the economy of small producers, who do not carry out implementation processes of these processes and, therefore, have losses due to poor management of livestock production. In the end, it is concluded, with the contributions given by the Fondo Ganadero del Tolima SA, that small producers in Colombia do not have technological tools that help them improve production indicators, therefore, increasing production levels is complex and will take time. to change this culture.

Topic: Animal Science
SIMULATION OF SCENARIOS OF GOOD LIVESTOCK PRACTICES FOR SMALL PRODUCERS IN COLOMBIA
PEÑA TORRES MIGUEL ANGEL 1, SARMIENTO SAAVEDRA OSCAR EDUARDO 2, BOHÓRQUEZ RODRÍGUEZ JUAN CAMILO 3, BERMUDEZ HERNANDEZ ERICK YESID 4,
1 SENA, 2 Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje - SENA, 3 Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje, 4 SERVICIO NACIONAL DE APRENDIZAJE - SENA.,
Email: 1 eustacio3210@gmail.com, 2 oesarmiento682@misena.edu.co, 3 juancamilo.b@misena.edu.co, 4 eybermudez59@misena.edu.co,
Abstract: In Colombia, small producers do not have the technical and operational capacity to carry out good bovine production processes, which has generated the spread of diseases that have led the country to close its export processes, which is why the project was proposed with the objective of determining a system dynamics model that would allow these producers to determine the variables to implement safety criteria in their production, thereby improving the processes and seeking business opportunities for export processes from there. For this, information was collected from state and private sources, which allowed determining the variables that were most affecting livestock production, with the support of Fondo Ganadero del Tolima S.A. and an interdisciplinary group of professionals who defined that good livestock practices (GMP) are essential to increase production and improve health and safety processes in bovine production. That these practices would help to improve current production rates and that they will also allow us to reach new markets. Therefore, a system dynamics model was proposed in the Vensim PL program, with which the simulation of bovine production for a small producer was carried out, taking into account all the variables of good livestock practices and it was observed that if the indicators of these variables are met, the production processes would be improved, otherwise, if they were not carried out, the production levels would be lowered. Which generates a direct impact on the economy of small producers, who do not carry out implementation processes of these processes and, therefore, have losses due to poor management of livestock production. In the end, it is concluded, with the contributions given by the Fondo Ganadero del Tolima SA, that small producers in Colombia do not have technological tools that help them improve production indicators, therefore, increasing production levels is complex and will take time. to change this culture.

Topic: Animal Science
TRAINING IN ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCERS
HOYOS PATIÑO JOHANN FERNANDO 1, VELÁSQUEZ CARRASCAL BLANCA LILIANA 2, HERNÁNDEZ VILLAMIZAR DANIEL ANTONIO 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paual Santander Ocaña, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paual Santander Ocaña,
Email: 1 jfhoyosp@ufpso.edu.co, 2 blvelasquezc@ufpso.edu.co, 3 dahernandezv@ufpso.edu.co,
Abstract: It is important to recognize that the basis of the economy of the region of Ocaña and the Catatumbo area is based on agricultural production, for this reason this study aims to recognize from the administrative and financial aspects the needs of the producers in the area, with the purpose of strengthening the productive units as a strategy born from the Research Seminar on Tourism, Education and Sustainability SITES of the Animal Science program of the University Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña UFPSO, seeking to contribute to the economic development of the region. The origin of the conflict in the region of Catatumbo and the province of Ocaña, is associated with the non-existence of a relevant and sustainable process of rural development, the population of the municipalities that make up this region are mostly located in rural areas with large gaps in social inequalities. Everything is focused on sustainable development that allows taking advantage of, conserving and maximizing the use of resources, but this must be accompanied by administrative and financial management. It is for this reason that the design of a basic administrative and financial management plan is proposed to strengthen the SPAs in the province of Ocaña and the Catatumbo area as a strategy to promote economic development in the region. The objective of this research was to determine the most important aspects for the design of a training plan in administrative, financial and accounting aspects for the producers of Ocaña and the Catatumbo area. For this purpose, an analysis of bibliography was made and a survey was applied to 48 producers of the region, allowing to identify those topics of interest and that the producers recognize from the exercise of their activities that require support to strengthen their productive units. The research was based on a descriptive type of investigation, characterizing the productions of the region recognized in the province of Ocaña and the Catatumbo area. The study also led to recognize that 75% of the main production of the surveyed producers is livestock, showing greater participation in the production of milk cattle, beef cattle, poultry and swine production, from the agricultural part, production of sugar cane, coffee, banana, lemon, peppers, onion, avocado and mango among others are recognized. The producers surveyed expressed great interest in participating in training processes such as marketing. Logistics, value proposition, product export and financial management. This leads the SITES seedbed to continue working on a second stage of the research regarding the design of the training plan.

Topic: Animal Science
VALIDATION OF IN-VITRO PRODUCED EMBRYO TRANSFER TECHNIQUE IN BOVINE FEMALES
BÁEZ SANDOVAL GIOVANNI MAURICIO 1, LUNA CRUZ ARLEY DAVID 2, JAIMES CASTRO ALVARO DAVID 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 giovannimauriciobs@ufps.edu.co, 2 arleydavidlc@ufps.edu.co, 3 alvarodavidjc@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Genetic progress in bovine breeds is important for the productivity of the cattle industry and depends on the genotypic quality of the parents. Embryo transfer (ET) has made it possible to obtain improved individuals from in-vitro crosses of superior individuals. To validate the ET technique on field, 20 cryopreserved embryos were obtained from oocytes of cows of recognized genetics in the country, fertilized in the laboratory with semen from sires of high genetic quality and proven fertility, and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen at -196ºC for direct transfer. Commercial recipient females with a predominantly zebu breed component were selected. The ovulation synchronization protocol consisted of a preliminary evaluation of the ovarian structures by transrectal ultrasonography, verifying the onset of estrous cyclicity due to the existence of a corpus luteum (CL). A group of fourteen cows and six cyclic heifers had an intravaginal slow-release progesterone device (Crestar®, MSD) inserted on a random day of the estrous cycle (day 0). That same day they received an injection of 2 ml of estradiol benzoate (Sincrodiol®, Ourofino). On day 8, the progesterone device was removed and 500 µg of cloprostenol (Estrumate®, MSD) were injected, plus an adhesive patch for the detection of estrus (EstrotectTM). Seven days after the confirmation of the presentation of evident heat, ovulation was verified by ultrasonography recording the presence of a CL and its location (right / left ovary). Eligible females received a dose of 1.2 mg / 100 kg of body weight of intramuscular xylazine (Rompun, Bayer) and 0.2 mg / kg of epidural lidocaine. The embryos were thawed according to the thawing protocol indicated for direct transfer, which consists of removing the straw from liquid nitrogen, keeping it at room temperature for 10 seconds, and then thawing it in water at 35ºC for 30 seconds. Using a TE gun, the thawed embryo was transferred to the medial uterine horn ipsilateral to ovulation. Ultrasound pregnancy diagnosis was made on day 33 after heat, and weekly scanning (days 40, 47, 54, 61 and 68) was performed to determine development or embryo loss. 40% pregnancy was found at day 33 (8/20) and embryonic losses between days 33 and 47 was 62.5% (5/8). ET programs are technically feasible in the Norte de Santander region and represent a good opportunity to obtain accelerated genetic progress that compensates for reproductive inefficiencies that may occur in the process and that can be explained by factors associated with the transfer process, the maternal recognition of the pregnancy or to subsequent placentation processes.

Topic: Animal Science
ANALYSIS OF BIOPOLYMERS WITH STARCH FROM POTATO AND CASSAVA ORGANIC WASTES POLYMERIZED IN WATER
QUINTANA MARIÑO DANIEL NICOLAS 1, SANABRIA CHAPARRO DIANA PAOLA 2,
1 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 2 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia,
Email: 1 nicolas.quintana.marinno@gmail.com, 2 diana.sanabria01@uptc.edu.co,
Abstract: Disposable products, also known as "single-use" plastics, have been massively manufactured due to their rampant consumption, generating large accumulations of waste. During the last decades, the use of plastic has become indispensable for the daily life of people, increasing annually the global production of these materials that reach approximately 8.3 billion tons since 1950, this means that more than 300 million tons are produced annually. In order to find a solution to this environmental problem, research has been carried out with starch-based biopolymers; these materials are a viable alternative because starch is a renewable raw material, besides having the property of degrading in short times while providing nutrients to the soil. In this research we initially wanted to find the optimal ratio between starch and water as a basis for the manufacture of the biopolymer, generating an experimental design where the proportion of these two varies, in which starch extracted from potato and cassava residues was used. In the manufacture of the biopolymer, the variables of pH and temperature must be controlled, and it is divided into 4 processes: extraction, polymerization, molding and physical tests. As a result it was found that the proportions lower than 1:5 starch-water present difficulty to process and deficiency in the homogeneity of the mixture, while the proportions higher than 1:5 presented a linear shrinkage higher than 82.69% and a loss in weight higher than 74.45%; on the other hand, in the hardness analysis an average of 79 points in shore A scale was observed and the density with an average of 1.055 g/cm3, the results determined that the most adequate proportion is 1:6.5 of starch-water. With these results it is possible to advance to a second phase where different plasticizers such as glycerin and urea can be added, which can improve the physical-mechanical properties of the material.

Topic: Materials Science and Engineering
CO2 CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY STUDY USING AMINES AND ITS EFFECT ON THE CORROSION OF CARBON STEELS: A CRITICAL REVIEW
TIRADO DIEGO 1, OROZCO AGAMEZ JUAN CARLOS 2, PEÑA BALLESTEROS DARIO YESID 3, UMAÑA LUIS 4,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: 1 diegotirado2711@gmail.com, 2 juan.orozco1@correo.uis.edu.co, 3 dypena@correo.uis.edu.co, 4 saintmiguel38@gmail.com,
Abstract: To comply with environmental regulations and slow down global warming, countries carry out numerous investigations with the aim of implementing CO2 capture and sequestration technologies. CO2 by itself is not very corrosive to materials, however, when it dissolves in the produced water or when it dissolves in CO2 and is condensed, it increases its corrosive character, causing very high corrosion rates. At present, industrial processes are exposed to corrosion problems, which are mainly economic and operational in nature. This phenomenon was directly affected by the environmental conditions and those to which the service pipes and equipment are exposed. That is why the need arises to find protection strategies for materials that are affected by CO2 environments. In this sense, the capture of CO2 through the use of amines is seen as an attractive alternative due to the advantages of chemical absorption and the nature of a cyclical process. This research work analyzed and evaluated different studies associated with the capture of CO2 through the absorption of amines, taking into account as the axis of study the impact generated on the corrosion of carbon steels; taking into account the variables of temperature, pH, pressure, structure, and composition of the amine, CO2 capture efficiency and corrosion products formed; and its influence on the process. In this research was evidenced that for the CO2 capture process through the absorption of amines, that the cyclic structure reduces the corrosion rate; the most effective composition using the corrosion criteria is the mixed and tertiary type amine; regarding the pressure and temperature, it is determined that by increasing each of these, the reactions accelerate proportionally, but this occurs until reaching a maximum peak, the temperature dependence on the corrosion rate follows the Arrhenius behavior. Regarding the pH, an indirect influence is established on the products formed. For acid pH values, products that favor corrosion are generated, except for primary amines. Aiming at the formation of carbonate which generates a passive layer that reduces corrosion and is directly affected by the morphology of the amine. The conditions in which the CO2 capture process takes place differs according to the scenario in which it is carried out, establishing in this work certain conditions, which will serve as a reference for future research as applications of the process; thus taking great importance in the field of climate change and industry, among others.

Topic: Materials Science and Engineering
CONFIGURATION OF A STRUCTURAL SYSTEM OF DIVIDING WALLS FROM STRAW MODULES AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION
MANCILLA GRIMALDO JOSE JULIAN 1, PÉREZ ROJAS MARÍA CAMILA 2, DÍAZ FUENTES CARMEN XIOMARA 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santanter ,
Email: 1 josejulianmancillag@gmail.com, 2 mariacamilapr@ufps.edu.co, 3 carmenxiomaradf@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: At present, there is a growing interest in implementation of sustainable innovative structural solutions that contribute to mitigate environmental pollution generated mainly by large industries in the construction sector and extraction of hard-to-obtain raw materials. To consider the use of alternative materials with low carbon footprint is a challenge for the scientific community and construction industry globally, understanding, additionally, that the need for architectural solutions is increasingly diverse and focused on improving the benefits related to users standard of living. That's why, straw was chosen in this research as the main material since it has qualities such as low weight, and easy obtaintion because it is an agricultural by- product, which when organized with a structural system of wood obtained from reforested forests becomes an economic alternative of construction. The state of the art made it possible to identify relevant characteristics to be able to establish a selection of models gotten by researchers and / or interested companies in this field, which enables the development of design criteria that will guide the process using 2D AND 3D drawing tools in softwares such as AutoCad and Rhinoceros. This way, results present geometric experimentation on the design of an alternative structural system that has been called "Modulo ECOPaja" (ECOPaja Module). This design shows versatility in terms of its installation, since the piece is modulated by generating a more simple serial stacking and with various possibilities of architectural design, providing advantages related to comfort and space management thanks to the expansion or vacuum that separates the material from the covering to let its implementation for developing future experimental architectural projects in the Colombian rural territory.

Topic: Materials Science and Engineering
DESIGN, MANUFACTURE AND CONSTRUCTION OF A VISIBLE CONCRETE WALL WITH THERMAL INSULATION PROPERTIES.
GALVIS CENTURIÓN RAMÓN 1, DÍAZ FUENTES CARMEN XIOMARA 2, PÉREZ ROJAS MARÍA CAMILA 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santanter , 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 ramoneduardogc@ufps.edu.co, 2 carmenxiomaradf@ufps.edu.co, 3 mariacamilapr@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The use of exposed concrete offers great plastic and formal possibilities. In this research article we focus on the relevant aspects to take into account when designing it to optimize resources in its manufacturing and construction process; as well as the application in the design process of a construction technique that allows incorporating the traditional clay block as a heat-proofing between the two external surfaces of the wall, expecting to obtain benefits through thermal transmittance. A private contract, made the research project development possible, in a continuous wall that is part of the main facade of a single-family house. It seeks to minimize the house maintenance costs, therefore, the design concentrated on solutions with architectural elements lacking of surface finishes, coatings or any other type of aesthetic treatment that would alter or interfere with the original materiality of the raw surface. The design and manufacture of the forms were also significant since they determine the final finish of the wall at the moment of disassembling. As a result, the fundamental idea of ​​the design project was realized based on the materials implementation in their visible natural state and on the orientation of the architectural program avoiding solar radiation, optimizing thermal comfort in the different spaces that make up the house, implementing in its main facade an unconventional exposed concrete wall, designed by two layers of 10 cm thick reinforced concrete on each side of a masonry wall in clay block No. 5 that produces a delay in the heat transmission from outside to inside. Keywords: Design and Manufacturing, Exposed concrete, Thermal insulation, Reinforced concrete.

Topic: Materials Science and Engineering
DETERMINATION OF THE PHYSICAL-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF A PERMEABLE BLOCK
JARAMILLO H. J. 1, GOMEZ-CAMPEROS J A 2, QUINTERO-QUINTERO N. 3,
1 UFPSO, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña, 3 ufpso,
Email: 1 gomezufpso@gmail.com, 2 jagomezc@ufpso.edu.co, 3 nquinteroq@ufpso.edu.co,
Abstract: Objective: Analyze the influence of the incorporation of crushed PET as a substitute for fine aggregate in percentages of 10, 15, and 20% to elaborate concrete blocks. Methodology: The research carried out had an experimental quantitative approach, where the influence of the addition of crushed PET as a substitute for fine aggregate for the elaboration of concrete blocks was analyzed to identify the variation in the physical and mechanical properties of test samples elaborated under different dosages, compared with the standard procedures NTC-4076, NTC-3495 and NSR-10. Results: The blocks with the different percentages of PET presented a good resistance compared to the block without PET, which presented a resistance of 8 MPa; in the same way, the blocks with PET at 10, 15, and 20% presented average resistance of 6.36, 3.58, and 4.63 MPa, respectively. Conclusions: The blocks with 10% aggregate are waterproof with normal density, while the blocks with 15 and 20% PET presented high permeability, with the capacity to drain 1 liter of water in 105 and 38 s, respectively.

Topic: Materials Science and Engineering
EFFECT OF LAYER THICKNESS AND SPIN COATING SPEED ON THE ANTICORROSIVE PERFORMANCE OF 316L STEEL COATED WITH BI/TI FILMS BY SOL-GEL METHOD.
GARZÓN AGUDELO PEDRO ANTONIO 1, BAUTISTA RUIZ JORGE HERNANDO 2,
1 UFPS, 2 UFPS,
Email: 1 pedroantonioga@ufps.edu.co, 2 jorgebautista@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Bismuth and titanium are interesting elements with good properties and applications in technological developments and in the field of biomedicine. The sol gel method was used to form a Bi-Ti system, making it possible to establish whether it was possible to obtain films with anti-corrosive properties on AISI 316L steel. The anti-corrosive response was evaluated by means of Tafel curves, defining the production parameters to obtain the best functional films with good tribological properties. Coatings were obtained using the "spin coating" technique, varying the centrifugation speeds from 3000 to 5000 rpm with monolayer and bilayer systems. More positive values of corrosion potential were obtained when the steel is coated by the films, which implies lower propensity to corrosion in saline medium, lower corrosion rates and higher potentials are reported for films with higher Ti content, likewise better efficiencies of the film with respect to the substrate are presented, the higher the Ti content and no strong influence is observed between the calculated efficiencies and the spin coating speeds.

Topic: Materials Science and Engineering
ELABORATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PHOSPHORESCENT CEMENTITIOUS PASTES BASED ON GEOPOLYMERS
LAMUS SANGUINO JESSICA KATHERINE 1, CONTRERAS DANNA LIZBETH 2, PEÑA RODRÍGUEZ GABRIEL 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 jessicakatherinels@ufps.edu.co, 2 dannalizbethcm@ufps.edu.co, 3 gabrielpr@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The synthesis of cementitious pastes with technological properties is a research topic in the construction industry and in architectural designs. Therefore, the production of phosphorescent cementitious pastes based on geopolymers obtained from metakaolines, and the mechanical and morphological characterization of their aggregates are presented. For the preparation of the samples, commercial strontium aluminate powders doped with europium and dysprosium were used. Obtaining the geopolymer was carried out using commercial kaolin powders, which were sieved in 325 um mesh, subsequently the transformation to metakaolin was carried out by heat treatment at 750 ° C for 6 hours with a heating rate of 10 ° C / min. The metakaolin geopolymerization process was carried out using sodium hydroxide at 10M, in a 1: 1 ratio, for 24 hours. The geometry of the samples was cylindrical with a 1: 2 ratio between diameter and length. For the mechanical characterization of compression, the ASMT C39-18 standard was used, while the morphology of the phosphorescent powders was studied using scanning electron microscopy (FEI model Quanta 650 FEG), and the elemental composition by analyzing the spectra of X-ray energy dispersion (EDS). Image analysis was performed using Image J software. Our results show that mechanical resistance increases with curing time, and the morphology of strontium aluminate powders have an average particle size of 21.75 um.

Topic: Materials Science and Engineering
ELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF NATURAL RUBBER MIXED WITH SUGARCANE BAGASSE ASH
BARRERA GIOVANNI 1, GUTIERREZ A. CARLOS MARIO 2, DOS SANTOS RENIVALDO JOSE 3, TEIXEIRA SILVIO R. 4, JOB ALDO 5,
1 Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano, 2 Instituto Tecnologico Metropolitano, 3 Unidad de Ingeniería- Campus Experimental Rosana, Universidad Estadual Paulista UNESP, 4 Unidad de ciencias, Campus Presidente Prudente-Universidad Estadual Paulista UNESP, 5 Unidad de ciencias, Campus Presidente Prudente-Universidad Estadual Paulista UNESP,
Email: 1 giovannibarrera@itm.edu.co, 2 carlosgutierrez@itm.edu.co, 3 renivaldo.santos@unesp.br, 4 silvio.rainho@unesp.br, 5 aldo.job@unesp.br,
Abstract: In order to identify the influence on the properties of natural rubber after being mixed with cane bagasse ash particles, the elastic properties and resistance to breakage the samples were evaluated applying the ASTM D 412 standard (ASTM International, 2008). In addition to this test, the influence of filler particles was corroborated through mechanical dynamic analysis. Subsequently, the samples with the best response to breakage were identified, confirming the reduction in elasticity correlated to the number of particles as a response to their function as inhibitors of their dynamic character within the polymeric rubber chains. Likewise, the Tangent delta and the behavior of the damping modulus were observed in behavior similar to that of the tension-elongation; the samples with a higher percentage originated early breakage compared to the natural rubber samples with a lower percentage of particles, which showed greater elasticity, possibly due to the low physical interaction of the matrix-reinforcement phases. The objective of this presentation is to present the elastic behavior of a natural rubber after being subjected to mixtures with different percentages of cane bagasse ash particles. (Giovanni Barrera T., 2020), which has the potential to be a compound with wide applications in the market (R. J. d. Santos, 2014). Keywords: Natural rubber, sugarcane bagasse ash, elasticity, dynamic-mechanical properties, rubber compounds. Thanks. To the scholarship program of the AUIP-PAEDEX of UNESP and to the ITM by the Doctoral study commission. References ASTM International. (2008). ASTM D 412. D11 Committee, "Test Method for Rubber and Thermoplastic Elastomers-Tension," ASTM International. ASTM. Giovanni Barrera Torres, C. M. (2020). Potential Eco-friendly Application of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash in the Rubber Industry. Waste and biomass valorization, 1-16. R. J. d. Santos, D. L. (2014 ). Sugarcane Bagasse Ash: New Filler to Natural Rubber Composite. Polímeros, pp. 664-653.

Topic: Materials Science and Engineering
ELECTROCHEMICAL REPLACEMENT APPROACHES TO EXPLAIN THE ORIGIN OF PRE-COLUMBIAN PERUVIAN GILDED COPPER-BASED OBJECTS
ALVIZ-MEZA ANIBAL 1, CHIPOCO HARO DANAE 2, VELARDE DELLEPIANE MARIA INES 3,
1 Universidad de Ingeniería y Tecnología - UTEC, 2 Universidad de Ingeniería y Tecnología - UTEC, 3 Universidad de Ingeniería y Tecnología - UTEC,
Email: 1 centropatrimonio1@utec.edu.pe, 2 danae.chipoco@utec.edu.pe, 3 centropatrimonio9@utec.edu.pe,
Abstract: Pre-Columbian Peruvian goldsmiths developed gilded copper objects that are still undergoing corrosion processes despite their care in museums. Therefore, an understanding of gilding techniques is essential to preserve these heritage pieces. In this sense, Lechtman was the first to identify and recreate the electrochemical replacement as a gilding technique. Despite her remarkable achievement, her discussion four decades ago lacks precise quantitative data to reproduce the proposed electroless process. Herein, we focused on obtaining the complete experimental data to recreate her protocol. We used 0.0033 g/mL of HAuCl4 as a gold precursor while 0.0047g/mL for KNO3, ALK(SO4)2.12H2O, and NaCl as complement reagents. Then, 0.0113 g/mL of sodium bicarbonate was added to obtain a pH of around 9 in the solution. Finally, polished copper pieces were gilded by immersing them in the electrolytic bath for 3 and 6 min at 80ºC. Our results demonstrated that although the gilding of copper coupons is feasible through the electrochemical replacement strategy, it could give rise to anodic regions in the assessed objects. Hence, we conclude that Pre-Columbian Peruvian goldsmiths could have used a different gilding technique to avoid the presence of said anodic zones.

Topic: Materials Science and Engineering
EVALUATION OF THE STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL-CERAMIC PROPERTIES WHEN MIXING MOLDED CELLULOSE CONTAINERS IN PASTES FOR CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
ANTELIZ CONTRERAS KEILA 1, CELY ILLERA LEONARDO 2, CELY NIÑO JAIRO 3,
1 Universidad de Pamplona, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 keila.anteliz@unipamplona.edu.co, 2 leonardocely@ufps.edu.co, 3 jairowilgbertocn@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: This work is the first part of research, which analyses the influence exerted by cardboard with which egg packaging is manufactured, on the behavior of a clay, when mixed for ceramic pastes in the manufacture of construction products. In this initial research, the physical-ceramic properties of three cardboard and clay matrix formulations were evaluated at the laboratory level, U (95:5), N (90:10) and A (85:15), and compared with a clay matrix, L (100:0), with the aim of determining not only the ideal percentage of cardboard and the possible ceramic product to be manufactured, but also propose an effective solution for the recycling of agro-industrial waste that today is thrown into the environment without any control about these. Using the extrusion technique and firing in a mufla furnace (900 °C, 1000 °C and 1100 °C) to mold and fire the specimens, they were developed on these analyses to evaluate technological aspects (contractions, density and mass losses) and structural, mechanical and tribological properties. The results showed that the addition of this material produces promising results, with the U formulation being the best-performing, without ruling out the use of N and A as suitable formulations in various technological applications

Topic: Materials Science and Engineering
EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE BEHAVIOR OF API N-80 CARBON STEEL UNDER THE APPLICATION OF THE STEAM-COMBUSTION GAS INJECTION TECHNIQUE.
OROZCO AGAMEZ JUAN CARLOS 1, PEÑA BALLESTEROS DARIO YESID 2, ACEROS JHON 3, CARDENAS ADRIAN 4,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: 1 juan.orozco1@correo.uis.edu.co, 2 dypena@correo.uis.edu.co, 3 jhon2170583@correo.uis.edu.co, 4 adrian2170590@correo.uis.edu.co,
Abstract: In Colombia, the heavy and extra-heavy oil fields located in the Middle Magdalena Valley basin have been exploited using the cyclical steam injection technique for more than 25 years. From this recovery technique, large amounts of combustion gases (CO2, among others) are emitted that pollute the atmosphere and raise the costs of environmental restoration. Therefore, the use of the thermal energy of these gases and the possibility of capturing CO2 through the hybrid injection of flue gas with steam has been considered as an alternative improved oil recovery technique. However, a significant deterioration has been evidenced in the materials that make up the production pipes (Tubings) and the casing pipes (Casings) due to the application of this method. In the present study, the behavior of API N-80 carbon steel exposed to an atmosphere of steam-flue gas in a reactor that works under real operating conditions (pressure (800-1500 psi) and temperature (510-600 ° F)) of a steam injection process in Colombian oil fields. Through this work it has been possible to evaluate the thermodynamic behavior of the flue gas-water vapor mixture, observing a model of real gases that can be modeled by means of Kay's rule. Similarly, a loss of mass of the studied materials has been observed, presenting parabolic corrosion kinetics. It is considered that the deterioration originated in the API N-80 carbon steel, is mainly due to the aggressive operational working conditions, as well as the presence of CO2 in the atmosphere, which reacts with water vapor and of this form generates corrosive products on the surface of the material. Likewise, the products were verified through thermodynamic simulation.

Topic: Materials Science and Engineering
FORMABILITY OF STEEL SHEETS USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF PRESSURE CYLINDERS
CASADIEGO PERALTA CLAUDIA LILIANA 1, BARBOSA JAIMES JHON ERICKSON 2, GARCÍA PÁEZ ISMAEL HUMBERTO 3,
1 Universidad Libre, 2 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL ABIERTA Y A DISTANCIA UNAD, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 claudial.casadiegop@unilibre.edu.co, 2 jhon.barbosa@unad.edu.co, 3 ismaelhumbertogp@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: In this work, a study of the chemical composition, metallography and mechanical properties of 2.2 mm SG 295 and SG325 2.3 mm thick steel sheets was carried out in order to compare their formability and therefore behavior against deep drawing and stretching operations. The chemical analysis was carried out by optical emission spectrometry and the metallographic structure was analyzed using ASTM E3 standard. The intrinsic properties related to the formability of materials such as, elongation to fracture in 50mm, A50; conventional yield limit at 0.2% elongation, σy(0.2%); ultimate strength, σu; strain hardening exponent, n, and anisotropy coefficient at 15% elongation, r15, were determined by tensile tests according to ASTM E8M, ASTM E646 and ASTM 517 standards. Forming limit curves were determined under ASTM E2218, for which a device was designed, built and attached to a universal test machine. The results obtained for SG 295 and SG325 steel sheets were: tensile strength of 450 and 520 MPa, elongation to fracture of 24.9 and 17.2%, deformation hardening exponent of 0.233 and 0.195 and the anisotropy coefficient of 1,645 and 1,368, respectively. In conclusion, although the SG295 steel sheet has a lower forming limit curve due to its thickness, the other results suggest that it will perform better than SG325 steel in deep drawing and stretching operations.

Topic: Materials Science and Engineering
MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE REINFORCED WITH STEEL FIBERS AND POLYPROPYLENE FIBERS
OSPINA MIGUEL 1, CHAVES PABÓN SAIETH 2, GAVIRIA CARLOS 3,
1 Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, 2 Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, 3 Universidad Militar Nueva Granada,
Email: 1 miguel.ospina@unimilitar.edu.co, 2 saieth.chaves@unimilitar.edu.co, 3 carlos.gaviria@unimilitar.edu.co,
Abstract: Conducting studies on the state in which a structure is found is necessary to characterize its condition, both physical, chemical and mechanical; Likewise, research on the mechanical behavior of materials has been increased in order to know in which mechanical properties the material is strong and in which it is not, this has not been far from concrete. In recent years, concrete has been developed to improve its behavior; especially its ability to support bending forces, of which concrete is very weak; This has been done through the implementation of chemical or physical additions that will increase the adhesion capacity of the concrete and its flexibility. In the case of physical additions, one of the methods that has become more important is the addition of fibers, be they metallic or synthetic; which due to their characteristics have allowed to improve the bearing capacity of concrete. o check which physical addition is better; In the laboratories of the Nueva Granada Military University, six concrete mixtures were designed, which are distributed as follows: a mixture without any addition (simple concrete); another mixture with an addition of steel fibers (metallic) at 25 kg/m3, another mixture with steel fibers at 75 kg/m3, another mixture with polypropylene fibers (synthetic) at 1.0%; another one with 1.5% polypropylene fibers; and a last mixture at 2.5%, it should be clarified that all the mixtures were designed for a single compressive strength of 21 MPa or a modulus of rupture of 3.7 MPa. Once the designs have been made under the ACI 211 methodology and following the recommendations of the ACI 544 guide, manufacturing a total of 30 specimens (5 specimens for each mixture) and 30 cylindrical specimens. Once a 56-day curing time had been completed (because the research is being undertaken to analyze the final behavior of the concrete, not its evolution), mechanical tests of compressive strength and flexural strength were performed; For which the ASTM C39 standards were used for compression tests and ASTM C1609 for which in the flexural strength tests the beams were instrumented with deflection readers in order to control the speed of the displacement test and obtain results stress to bending and deflection of the element. After carrying out the laboratory tests, it was obtained that the concrete resisted on average 27 MPa compression and flexion or modulus of rupture of 3.51 MPa for the mixtures without additions, 27 MPa and 3.51 MPa for the mixture 25 kg/m3 of steel fibers but with a residual resistance (resistance of the element after the first crack in the concrete) of 0.5 MPa (for simple concrete it was 0 MPa), 27 MPa and 3.1 MPa with a resistance residual 4.3 MPa for the 75 kg/m3 steel fiber blend (the best of all), 26 MPa and 3.9 MPa with 0 MPa residual strength for the 1% polypropylene fiber blend, and finally 26 MPa and 3.2 MPa with 2.5 MPa of residual resistance for the mixture of 1.5% of polypropylene fibers and finally, 26.5 MPa and 2 MPa with 0.5 MPa of residual resistance for the 2.5% polypropylene fiber blend. From these tests it is concluded that the concrete in terms of its initial performance, the additions of steel or synthetic fibers do not have significant improvements. However, it should be noted that the main function of these fibers is to improve residual strength, a property in which simple concrete has no strength. In practical terms when a material has residual strength, it means that once the element cracks; This presents resistance that prevents an immediate collapse; For this reason, this property is very important to take into account in any material; In this case, the best mixture that obtained the highest residual resistance result was that of 75 kg/m3 of steel fibers. they were complicated to do. On the other hand, the polypropylene fiber blends with the best performance was 1.5%; which in turn adds that they are very light mixtures, easy to mix and the finishes of the elements are better, however when comparing the mechanical behavior of these mixtures with those of steel, their results are lower, because the fibers of steel are more resistant; For all the above, the additions of fibers in any proportion, improve the residual resistance of concrete, making it safer and an excellent complement as secondary reinforcement of concrete and the more fibers used, the better; although it must be taken into account that a high quantity (above 80 kg/m3 of steel fibers or more than 2.5% of polypropylene fibers) will affect the resistance to compression and bending of the element, as well as its finishes

Topic: Materials Science and Engineering
N-DOPED ACTIVATED CARBONS OBTAINED FROM BIOMASS WASTES THROUGH HYDROTHERMAL PROCESS IN PRESENCE OF PANI
QUESADA PLATA FABIAN 1,
1 Unidades Tecnológicas de Santander,
Email: 1 fquesada@correo.uts.edu.co,
Abstract: Supercapacitors are of great interest as electrochemical energy storage devices since they combine high power density with a long cycle life and wide operational temperature range. Porous carbon materials, and among them especially activated carbons (ACs), are the best suited for filling the cost, performance and environmental impact requirements, thanks to their high porosity, a wide variety of pore size distributions (PSDs), excellent chemical stability, high electrical conductivity and, above all, a competitive cost. One factor that has gained great importance in the study of ACs for these electrochemical applications is the contribution of surface chemistry. The addition of functional groups with heteroatoms, such as nitrogen, may have different beneficial effects such as: improving the wettability of the material, contributing to the ability through pseudocapacitance phenomena, improving the conductivity or electrochemical stability of the carbon material, among others. This work has studied the production of ACs doped with nitrogen groups, using lignocellulosic residues (almond and hemp residues) by hydrothermal treatment in the presence of H3PO4 [3], which acts as an activating agent, and polyaniline (PANI) which serves as a source of nitrogen. The effect of the carbonization temperature on the surface chemistry of the sample and consequently in the electrochemical behavior in aqueous electrolyte have been also analyzed in detail in this study. Following this procedure, ACs with high porosity development and nitrogen content of more than 3% have been obtained, although the porosity development is lower than activated carbons prepared without the addition of PANI. However, the electrochemical behavior of the activated carbons obtained in the presence of PANI is enhanced by the presence of the nitrogen groups generated in the material. Finally, these results show that the use of hydrothermal treatments allows the insertion of heteroatoms on the surface of carbonaceous materials obtained from biomass residues, which could be used in the synthesis of high-value carbon materials for applications in energy harvesting and storage devices.

Topic: Materials Science and Engineering
USE OF STEEL-FIBERS L/D 65 3D IN CONCRETE AS METHOD FOR IMPROVE FLEXURAL STRENGTH AND TOUGHNESS
OSPINA MIGUEL 1, GAVIRIA CARLOS 2, ORTIZ ANA 3,
1 Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, 2 Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, 3 Universidad Militar Nueva Granada,
Email: 1 miguel.ospina@unimilitar.edu.co, 2 carlos.gaviria@unimilitar.edu.co, 3 d7303224@unimilitar.edu.co,
Abstract: The addition of fibers to concrete has generated great interest in the field of materials science. The material, geometry and amount of fiber used in concrete influence its performance in the hardened state. Considering the above, it is necessary to experimentally evaluate the effect of fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete. Therefore, this study investigates the flexural behavior and the capacity to absorb energy with deformation of three different concrete mixtures corresponding to those without fiber addition (i.e. plain concrete) and those with fiber addition of 25 Kg/m3 and 70 Kg/m3 of fibers. These concretes were evaluated in bending on 15 beam specimens of 150x150x600 mm (base x height x length) by recording the load value and the deflection at the center of the span during the experimental tests. The analysis is carried out based on the international standards for the determination of flexural toughness in concrete with fiber addition. The results show that the dosage of 70 kg/m3 of fibers reduces the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity by 23% and 54%, respectively. However, the flexural strength for the 25 kg/m3 and 70 kg/m3 dosages increased by 37.40% and 83.21% (compared with plain concrete), respectively. Additionally, the capacity to retain the flexural strength for a dosage of 25 kg/m3 does not increase appreciably compared to plain concrete, while a dosage of 70 kg/m3 increases the energy absorption capacity by 18.6 times, which is reflected in a high value of flexural toughness (48 J) and a behavior very close to a perfect elastoplastic material in the plastic zone (i.e. residual strength of 80.98 out of 100).

Topic: Materials Science and Engineering
ASSESSING SOLAR RESOURCES IN COLOMBIA – STAGE 2
GALLARDO PÉREZ HENRY DE JESUS 1, SERPA JIMÉNEZ ALEJANDRA MARÍA 2, MOGOLLÓN BECERRA GABRIEL ALBERTO 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 henrygallardo@ufps.edu.co, 2 alejandramariaserpa@ufps.edu.co, 3 gabrielalbertomogollon@hotmail.com,
Abstract: Following the previous stage of this research, in which a rough technical concept was developed to proposed prominent sites for a renewable energy project in Norte de Santander department, Colombia. This second stage includes a technical feasibility study for the most prominent site to develop a photovoltaic solar energy project. This research uses a 1 MW photovoltaic solar plant the developed by the authors. In order to accomplish this goal, a high-level energy resource assessment in this department has been carried out considering the Global Horizontal Irradiance levels. For this, measured data from a meteorological station in the proximity of the selected site was used and compared to the synthetic dataset procured from Meteonorm. Then, a topography and practical study was performed to select the exact proposed location of this project. At this stage, the Google Earth application was used. The simulation results from PVSyst were used to assess the financial feasibility of the project by estimating the levelized cost of energy of the project using real and assumed costs. Finally, a comparison against current electricity costs in the region was conducted to validate the viability and positive outcomes of the proposed development.

Topic: Applied Sciences
DEVELOPMENT OF LATERAL THINKING IN BUSINESS STUDENTS
GALLARDO PÉREZ HENRY DE JESUS 1, VERGEL ORTEGA MAWENCY 2, CORDERO DÍAZ MARLING CAROLINA 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 UFPS,
Email: 1 henrygallardo@ufps.edu.co, 2 mawencyvergel@ufps.edu.co, 3 marlingcarolinacd@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Lateral thinking, unlike vertical thinking, is not only focused on problem solving; it also takes into account new ways of looking at things and new ideas of all kinds, therefore, it is closely related to creative thinking and is open to anyone interested in new ideas. The research, which is framed in a multimethod approach, with ethnographic research method from the qualitative approach and factorial analysis with quasi-experimental field design from the quantitative approach, aims to identify the development of lateral thinking in first semester students in university academic programs of business sciences. It is found that from problem-based learning through the analysis and resolution of problems of the socioeconomic environment in which the student is immersed, involving collaborative and task-based learning in the assignment and fulfillment of the functions assigned both individually and in groups, the student develops the ability to propose new original ideas while strengthening his creativity for the development of proposals for solutions to the situations identified

Topic: Applied Sciences
EFFECT OF SACHA INCHI (PLUKENETIA VOLUBILIS) RESIDUAL TORTA FLOUR ON THE VIABILITY OF SACCHAROMYCES BOULARDII AND LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS.
ARAMBULA CLAUDIA IVONNE 1, DIAZ CLAUDIA EIZABETH 2,
1 UNIVERSIDAD DE SANTANDER, 2 UNIVERSIDAD DE SANTANDER,
Email: 1 cl.arambula@mail.udes.edu.co, 2 cl.diaz@mail.udes.edu.co,
Abstract: An experimental study was carried out to determine the effect on the viability of two probiotics when incorporated into sacha inchi residual torta flour as a food matrix. For this purpose, the oil was extracted from the sacha seeds by cold pressing and the residual torta was obtained. Then the residual torta flour was prepared and the moisture, protein, ash, fat, fiber, carbohydrates and caloric value of both the residual sacha inchi torta and the flour obtained from it were determined. Four experimental formulas were established in the following percentages: F1(100% flour), F2(93%HAR and 7%S. boulardii), F3(93%HAR and 7% L.rhamnosus) and F4(92.2% HAR + 3.6%S.boulardii + 3.6%L.rhamnosus). Finally, the viability of the probiotic microorganisms, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Saccharomyces boulardii incorporated into the flour was determined and the formula that showed the best results was characterized physicochemically and microbiologically. The results show that there are minimal differences between the means of the concentration in CFU/g obtained in the treatment with S. boulardii (F2) (Sig.=0.37), the mean of the Control treatment (F1), as well as minimal significant differences between the mean of the treatment with L. rhamnosus and S. boulardii (F4) and the Control treatment (F1) (Sig.=0.001), however, the F2 and F4 treatments do not differ significantly from the mean concentration in CFU/g obtained in each of them (Sig.=0.165). Finally, it is concluded that the cell concentration of the test microorganism is affected by the food matrix in which it is found, considering the treatments with S. boulardii (F2) and L. rhamnosus + S.boulardii (F4) as the treatments where the cell concentration of S.boulardii remained stable during the 19 days of the test compared to the treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (F3).

Topic: Applied Sciences
ENHANCEMENT OF PROTEIN ACCUMULATION IN A NATIVE HIGH MOUNTAIN MICROALGAE OF THE GENUS SCENEDESMUS SP, USING A RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY (RSM)
SUAREZ QUINTANA WILLIAM HERNANDO 1, GARCIA RICO RAMON OVIDIO 2, BARAJAS SOLANO ANDRES FERNANDO 3,
1 UNIVERSIDAD DE PAMPLONA, 2 UNIVERSIDAD DE PAMPLONA, 3 Universidad Francisco De Paula Santander,
Email: 1 aquifex3@Hotmail.com, 2 rovigar@hotmail.com, 3 andresfernandobs@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: It is currently estimated that approximately 1 in 9 people in the world is undernourished. In the 21st century, we face a great challenge, such as the need to feed a constantly growing human population and with increasingly limited natural resources. The use of water and areas of arable land, raise the need to seek alternative sources of protein. Currently, some genera of microalgae are considered nutritionally complete foods, their yields exceed most plant crops, positioning microalgae as a new food and feed platform, allowing to increase the supply of these essential products to address global demands. in a more efficient and environmentally sustainable way. The objective of this work was to improve protein production in a high mountain microalgae of the genus Scenedesmus spp, isolated in the Páramo de Santurbán (Colombia), Berlin-Picacho 3354 masl (7o8¨´21”N 72o54´50”W), through optimization strategies of one and several parameters. The interactive effects of medium composition on protein production were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of different carbon sources (Na2CO3, NaHCO₃ and C2H3NaO2) and its relationship with some components of the medium was evaluated: NaNO3, KH2PO4 and K2HPO4. The other components of the medium (MgSO4, CaCl2, NaCl and metal solution) were used at normal concentration. The strain was grown in Bold medium at 25 ° C with a 12:12 light: dark cycle, 100 μmol m - 2 s -1 for 20 days, the effect of the nutrients was evaluated using a Plackett-Burman Design followed by optimization. The results of the Plackett-Burman design improve a significant increase in the production of proteins in the interaction with carbon sources (NaHCO₃ - C2H3NaO2) and (NaHCO₃, KH2PO4 - K2HPO4), the optimization results show that the interaction between: (C2H3NaO2 -NaNO3) and KH2PO4 - K2HPO4 considerably increased the concentration protein. These results show that identifying and adjusting the concentration of critical nutrients can increase the protein concentration in native microalgae of the genus Scenedesmus.

Topic: Applied Sciences
EVALUATION OF THE CYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF QUATERNARY AMMONIUM IN CELLS OF APICAL MERISTEMS OF ROOTS OF LENS CULINARIS MED.
ABRIL MENDOZA NICK GUILLERMO 1, SALAZAR MERCADO SEIR ANTONIO 2,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 UFPS,
Email: 1 abril-1207@hotmail.com, 2 seirantoniosm@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Quaternary ammonium is a broad spectrum disinfectant due to its bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal capacity, frequently used during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lentil (Lens culinaris Med.) Is considered a bioindicator species for cytotoxic and genotoxic studies due to its high sensitivity to certain chemical compounds. The objective of the research was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of quaternary ammonium in cells of apical meristems of L. culinaris roots. The methodology consisted of exposing L. culinaris seeds in different concentrations of fifth generation quaternary ammonium (0.1, 0.5, 1, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm) and in a control solution of distilled water during 72 hours, for 5 replies. Upon completion of the exposure time, the root lengths were measured, the apical meristems were cut and exposed in 2N HCl for 15 minutes and then stained with acetic orcein for 10 minutes, where they were later viewed under a microscope (OPTIKA C-B 10). For the statistical study, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the multiple range test were used using Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) test (P≤0.05) with the statistical software Statgraphics Centurion ® version XVII. The results showed that the maximum level of root length was presented in treatment 7 (30 ppm) and the minimum level in treatment 9 (50 ppm). The minimum mitotic index level and the highest mitotic inhibition corresponded to treatment 9 (50 ppm). The frequently observed cellular abnormality comprised the sticky metaphase, being treatment 9 (50 ppm) where it was mostly found. In the same way, the highest presence of micronuclei and the highest relative abnormality rate occurred in treatment 9 (50 ppm). The results allow determining that L. culinaris is a highly sensitive species to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of disinfectants such as quaternary ammonium, finding the presence of different cellular abnormalities at all applied concentrations. This compound is highly cytotoxic because the presence of micronuclei was even evidenced in the lowest concentration (0.1ppm).

Topic: Applied Sciences
ICTIOFAUNA OF THE ZULIA RIVER MICROCUENCA, CATATUMBO BASIN.
TORRES JEFFERSON 1, GUERRERO ALVARADO CAMILO ERNESTO 2,
1 Universidad Francisco De Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 jeffersont@ufps.edu.co, 2 camiloernestoga@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Abstract: Introduction. Colombia preserves high freshwater and marine fish diversity, although there are growing efforts to expand knowledge of scientific interest, the great geographical complexity of the country makes these efforts insufficient, this is the case of the Catatumbo basin, considered one of the areas hydrographic within the Caribbean slope where the ichthyofaunal reports are still scarce. Goals. Taxonomic identification of fish species captured in the different points of the Zulia River was carried out. Methodology. From November 2019 to March 2020, exploratory fishing was carried out: Agualasal 8 ° 10'48.0 "N, 72 ° 32'22.2" W, mouth of the Peralonso river 7 ° 55 ′ 2.89 ″ N, 72 ° 35 ′ 16.37 ″ W and Ocarena creek mouth 7 ° 50'10.1 "N, 72 ° 38'43.7" W, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen parameters were recorded in each station, a review of existing information in literature related to ichthyofauna was also carried out. of the Catatumbo basin for species identification. Results. 21 species were registered, belonging to 4 orders, 10 families and 20 genera. The orders with the highest number of families were Characiforme with 50% and Siluriform with 30%, According to the number of genera, Siluriform with 50% and Characiform with 35% and according to the number of species they were Siluriform with 52.4% and Characiform with 33 ,3%. Discussion. Seven species of the Catatumbo basin are important in the fishery for consumption in the region, four of these species are found in the Zulia river, these are: Prochilodus reticulatus, Potamorhina laticeps, Pimelodus clarias coprophagus and Mylossoma aconthogaster. Conclusions. Twenty-one species were taxonomically identified, the Characiforme order presented a greater number of families, followed by the Siluriform order, but it is highlighted that the latter presents a predominance in the number of species, this result will provide basic information for the management, protection and conservation of the resource. in order to ensure sustainable projects in the region. Keywords: Basin, biodiversity, physical-chemical parameters, taxonomy, environmental variations.

Topic: Applied Sciences
LISTENING TO THE LIGHT TO INVESTIGATE MATTER
MARIN MOARES ERNESTO 1,
1 Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CICATA Legaria,
Email: 1 emarin63@yahoo.es,
Abstract: More than 100 years ago Alexander Graham Bell discovered that a sound signal can be produced by periodically illuminating a sample placed in a closed container. The photoacoustic effect, as this phenomenon has been called, and the physics of thermal waves related to it, were rediscovered in the twentieth century, and have led to the development of techniques that have many applications. More than 100 years ago Alexander Graham Bell discovered that a sound signal can be produced by periodically illuminating a sample placed in a closed container. The photoacoustic effect, as this phenomenon has been called, and the physics of thermal waves related to it, were rediscovered in the twentieth century, and have led to the development of techniques that have many applications. In this talk, I will briefly tell the story related to this topic, explain what the photoacoustic effect consists of through some simple experiments that can be performed at home, describe some photothermal techniques inspired by it, and illustrate some of its applications.

Topic: Applied Sciences
MICROSTRUCTURE, HIGH TEMPERATURE WEAR RESISTANCE AND THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE OF FLAME SPRAYED NANOSTRUCTURED ZIRCONIA-ALUMINA COATINGS
FERRER PACHECO MARTHA YASMID 1, VARGAS GALVIS FABIO 2, VERA DUARTE LUIS EMILIO 3,
1 UFPS, 2 Universidad de Antioqui, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 marthayasmidfp@ufps.edu.co, 2 fabio.vargas@udea.edu.co, 3 luisemiliovd@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The microstructure, high temperature wear resistance and thermal shock resistance of flame sprayed nanostructured zirconia-alumina coatings have been analyzed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate their phase composition, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to examine their microstructure. Wear resistance was examined with a high temperature tribometer and resistance to thermal shock was evaluated by heating cycles for 5 minutes and cooling. The tests were carried out at room temperature and at 500 ° C. The coatings showed a microstructure composed of well-melted splats with nonoestructures structure, partially melted areas, which resembled the morphology of the powder feedstock, and equiaxed grains.

Topic: Applied Sciences
MODELING AND SIMULATION OF HEAT TRANSFER IN HOLLOW CONCRETE CYLINDRICAL BLOCK WALL
GALLARDO PÉREZ HENRY DE JESUS 1, VERGEL ORTEGA MAWENCY 2, MARIÑO DÍAZ JAVIER ALBERTO 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 henrygallardo@ufps.edu.co, 2 mawencyvergel@ufps.edu.co, 3 javieralbertomd@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The heat transfer study of a tetrahedral concrete block wall with cavities is presented, in order to know its thermal resistance. A one-dimensional theoretical model in steady state is proposed, considering conduction, radiation and convection. The iterative Gauss-Seidel method is used. The simulation is carried out on an hourly basis for two days under extreme ambient temperature conditions. An average thermal resistance value of °Cm2/W is obtained, with variations from 1.8% to 12%. The contributions to the total heat flow by each mechanism are 20%, 9% and 48%, for conduction, convection and radiation respectively

Topic: Applied Sciences
OPTIMIZATION OF THE TETRAZOLIUM TEST IN SEEDS OF COFFEA ARABIGA, CASTILLA VARIETY, THROUGH THE USE OF PRETREATMENTS
BUENDIA CONTRERAS JOSE DUVAN 1, MORENO ROZO LAURA YOLIMA 2, SALAZAR MERCADO SEIR ANTONIO 3,
1 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula , 3 UFPS,
Email: 1 joseduvanbc@ufps.edu.co, 2 Laurayolimamr@ufps.edu.co, 3 seirantoniosm@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world, which has produced a high demand in the production of this fruit from coffee plants (Coffea arábiga). Colombia has stood out globally for the quality of it's coffee more than for the quantity of coffee production. The main varieties of Arabica coffee grown in Colombia are: Tipica, Borbón, Maragogipe, Tabi, Caturra and the Castilla Variety. This research evaluated different methods to enhance the tetrazolium test in seeds of Coffea arabica, Castilla variety. The ripe fruits were collected in the Alto del Angulo village in the Salazar de las palmas municipality of the Norte de Santander department (Colombia). The test was carried out with 1800 embryos that were manually extracted from the cotyledons using forceps. 450 embryos were analyzed without any pretreatment (control). Three groups of cotyledons were immersed in water, sodium hypochlorite (2.5%) and sucrose (10%) for 6 hours respectively. The embryos were extracted, they were placed in a cysteine solution (0.5%) to avoid oxidation, these were washed with distilled water and immersed in solutions of 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride with concentrations of 0.035%, 0.075 % and 0.1% at different exposure times: 6, 9 and 12 hours in the dark. 5 mL syringes in small Petri dishes were used for the applications. The results of the viability test were validated with seed germination, using the wet paper towel method in the dark. The results show that the pretreatments with water and sucrose are not so effective. The best percentages of viability (100%) were found with the application of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO 2.5%), with a high correlation with the germination percentage (93%) at a concentration of 0.1% tetrazolium regardless of the Exposure time, reagent concentrations at 0.075% and 0.035% also showed a high percentage of viability with this pretreatment.

Topic: Applied Sciences
PROPOSAL FOR THE PRODUCTION OF REUSABLE BAGS FROM THE RESIDUE OF THE AFRICAN OIL PALM LEAF (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS) FROM THE ZULIA REGION (NORTH OF SANTANDER)
AVENDAÑO AVENDAÑO ANNY JASBLEIDY 1, RODRÍGUEZ ORDOÑEZ DORA CECILIA 2, PARRA LLANOS JOHN WILMER 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 annyjasbleidyaa@ufps.edu.co, 2 doraceciliaro@ufps.edu.co, 3 johnwilmerpl@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The excessive consumption of plastic bags has become a serious problem for the environment, since its decomposition process lasts approximately 150 years and its useful life in service is around one hour. On the other hand, the Palm industry generates large quantities of African oil palm leaves during the pruning of the crop, which are mostly not used, but are accumulated around the palm waiting for their natural decomposition, this being a slow process, thus causing the presence of insects and bad smells and in rainy seasons they are dragged causing inconveniences in the displacement of employees. To carry out this research, an applicative, experimental and descriptive methodology will be used, since the mechanical properties of the fiber from the leaflet of the African oil palm leaf must be extracted, woven and evaluated for the elaboration of a reusable bag., whose raw material is easy to acquire because it is a waste of little use. The main objective of this proposal is to use an agro-industrial waste to obtain a 100% ecological and environmentally friendly product, which positively impacts the economic, environmental and social sphere of the palm-growing sector of Zulia.

Topic: Applied Sciences
QUANTITATIVE THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHIC FOR DETERMINATION OF ALKALOID TASPINE FROM THE LATEX CROTON SPP OF TWO LOCATIONS FROM NORTH OF SANTANDER
SERRANO SERRANO EDITH CAROLINA 1, ORTIZ ROJAS LUZ YINETH 2, CHAVES BEDOYA GIOVANNI 3,
1 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER , 2 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER , 3 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER,
Email: 1 karito_0892@live.com, 2 luzyinethor@ufps.edu.co, 3 gchavesb@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Croton (Euphorbiaceae) is a plant widely present in Norte de Santander, which has the particular characteristic of having in its bark a red viscous latex known as "drago’s blood" or "sangregado", from which the tree takes its name. This sap is recognized for its ethnomedicinal use and for the presence of a large number of secondary metabolites, including biologically important alkaloids such as taspine. In this study, the quantitative determination by thin layer chromatography (TLC) of taspine present in latex samples collected in two localities of Norte de Santander (Chinácota and Pamplona) was carried out. The analysis was performed on chromatographic plates with silica gel G-60 as the stationary phase and chloroform: methanol (20:1) as the solvent system. The separated products were revealed with a brown color in an iodine chamber with an Rf 0.18, confirmed with the taspine standard. The separation of the samples generated from the taspine calibration curve and the problem samples were analyzed with UVP's VisionWorks ®LS analysis software, according to the methodology proposed by Askal et al (2008). The limit of detection (LOD) of 0.26µg/mL was obtained from the pixel intensity of the spots by determining the standard deviations calculated for three calibration curves at zero concentration. A taspine calibration curve was performed with 10 concentrations (10 µg/mL to 100 µg/mL) and the correlation of pixel intensity with respect to concentration was analyzed with UVP's VisionWorks ®LS analysis software. The results revealed a linear calibration fit in the range of 10 to 100 µg/mL (r = 0.977). The results indicate that the samples with the highest taspine concentrations were Chinácota Pantanos (37.8 µg/mL) and Chinácota Cineral (35.4 µg/mL), followed by Chinácota Manzanares (22.3 µg/mL) and Pamplona (0.7µg/mL). The presence of croton, a non-timber plant resource in the department of Norte de Santander, represents an opportunity to take advantage of its active principles determined by phytochemical studies. Although, it is necessary to continue with studies of environment-stage interaction to understand the ecological-physiological adaptations to reach the use and management of this plant species.

Topic: Applied Sciences
TRANSESTERIFICATION OF SACHA INCHI AND CASTOR OIL, AS A BASE IN BIOFUEL PRODUCTION
BUSTOS MORALES NATHALY LUISANA 1, ROA ARDILA DIEGO ANDRES 2, MEZA JORGE 3, ROA MANUEL FERNANDO 4,
1 Universidad de Santander, 2 UNAM, 3 UDES, 4 Universidad de Santander,
Email: 1 nathab3108@gmail.com, 2 droa77@gmail.com, 3 dir.geologia@udes.edu.co, 4 man.roa@mail.udes.edu.co,
Abstract: The transesterification reaction has become very important due to the formulation of biofuels, especially biodiesel, consists of the conversion of the triglycerides of an oil of vegetable origin to esters, in the presence of an alcohol and catalyzed by a strong base. , usually sodium or potassium hydroxide, the result is the corresponding ester of the alcohol used, in addition to glycerin, in this research the transterification reaction of Sacha Inchi oil and Castor oil is explored, as possible ways to obtain biofuels.

Topic: Applied Sciences
USE OF ORGANIC WASTES FOR BIOALCOHOL AND BIOFERTILIZER PRODUCTION
BUSTOS MORALES NATHALY LUISANA 1, ROA MANUEL FERNANDO 2,
1 Universidad de Santander, 2 Universidad de Santander,
Email: 1 nathab3108@gmail.com, 2 man.roa@mail.udes.edu.co,
Abstract: Municipal solid waste contains organic matter that undergoes a natural degradation process, forming a dark-colored polluting liquid with a very pungent odor, which is called leachate. This has increased concern, due to the negative consequences that these polluting effluents generate when they meet water and soil. This project describes a technical-environmental panorama to produce bioethanol and fertilizer from the organic fraction of fermentable urban and domestic solid waste with high sugar content. The general objective is to avoid leaching at fruit sales points and in homes, making 100% use of the raw material. For this purpose, the residues were pre-treated to eliminate all kinds of contaminants (growth of microorganisms) and extract their juices. To accelerate the fermentation process, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was added, this process was carried out in a preliminary phase at laboratory scale, which was designed to obtain bioethanol by means of an experimental anaerobic fermentation unit. After fermentation was completed, the separation process was carried out by filtration; for the distillation process, a simple homemade assembly was carried out to separate substances with a lower boiling point than that of water, carrying out the distillation process twice, for the determination of alcohol, a qualitative analysis was carried out and a respective characterization of the distillate was performed. Finally, the remaining solid residues from the fermentation process were used to obtain a natural solid bio-compost, which was later duly characterized.

Topic: Applied Sciences
SPECTRAL FLOW CYTOMETRY
BONILLA DIANA 1,
1 CYTEK Biosciences,
Email: 1 dbonilla@cytekbio.com,
Abstract: Flow cytometry enables the characterization of structural and functional properties of the cells. The conventional implementations of this technology has been utilized in multiple fields, including immunology, medicine, biology, microbiology and for clinical, research and industry applications. Recent advances in instrumentation and reagents have facilitated the development of more sensitive technologies in the cytometry field, including spectral cytometry, imaging cytometry and mass cytometry. The goal for this talk is to educate the audience on the development and use of full spectrum flow cytometry to understand immune responses with higher resolution and a more comprehensive characterization of multiple immune cells.

Topic: Basic biomedical sciences
A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW OF ARCHITECTURAL TECHNICAL DEBT MANAGEMENT
PEREZ BORIS R. 1, CORREAL DARÍO 2,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad de los Andes,
Email: 1 borisperezg@ufps.edu.co, 2 dcorreal@uniandes.edu.co,
Abstract: Context: Architectural technical debt is injected when architectural decisions are made to accomplish short-term goals but possibly affecting maintainability of the software system. Some cases include violations of best practices, consistency, and integrity constraints of the software architectures, such as the presence of structural violations and the introduction of architecture smells. ATD needs to be kept under control to keep the system healthy in the long term. If ATD remains unseen or uncontrolled could cause it to accumulate and hence difficult to repay, thus making challenging the conduction of maintenance tasks, introducing new features, as well as meeting system QAs, etc. Despite the impact of architectural decisions on the system developed or to be developed, identification of the debt is still difficult to carry out because there are a lack of initiatives to handle it and lack of effective tools to support this task. Objective: Numerous studies are published on Architectural Technical Debt identification and management. It is important to summarise and consolidate the existing knowledge in the area to provide directions to researchers and practitioners. This research work provides a systematic literature review in this topic, aiming to guide researchers and practitioners in the field of software testing. Method: We followed the standard protocol for conducting a systematic literature review. First, research goals were defined using the Goal Question Metric (GQM). Then we formulate research questions corresponding to each goal. Finally, metrics are extracted from the included papers. Based on the defined selection criteria a final set of 13 primary studies are included for analysis. Results: The selection process resulted in 2 journal papers, 2 book chapters and 9 conference papers. We found that identification and measurement are the most studied activities for ATD management, and most of the studies rely on source code revision. Most studies evaluated their approaches on open-source case studies. Conclusion: There is significant room for future research on architectural debt. Despite the positive trend of evaluating approaches on large scale open source studies, there is a clear lack of results from studies done in a real industrial context. There is also a lack on tools for debt management without considering source code.

Topic: Computer Science
DATA MINING MODEL FOR THE ANALYSIS, DESCRIPTION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE COMMUNITY ACTIVE SEARCH FOR COVID-19 IN THE DEPARTMENT OF CESAR
MARTINEZ ACOSTA DEIVIS DE JESUS 1, TORRES PEDROZO YULIBETH 2, SUAREZ BRIEVA EYDY DEL CARMEN 3,
1 Universidad Popular del Cesar, 2 Universidad Popular del Cesar, 3 UNIVERSIDAD POPULAR DEL CESAR,
Email: 1 deivismartinez@unicesar.edu.co, 2 yulibethtorres@unicesar.edu.co, 3 eydysuarez@unicesar.edu.co,
Abstract: Public health is a state and citizen responsibility for the protection of health as an essential, individual, collective and community right achieved based on the conditions of well-being and quality of life; For this reason, in the current circumstances, it is necessary to work for the benefit of this active community search that constitutes an essential element for the timely capture of events of interest in public health, for that reason several alternatives have been created for this purpose, among which the following stand out: timely follow-up to the identification of signs and symptoms of Covid 19, given that the department of Cesar is one of the municipalities with a high contagion rate and a significant percentage of occupied ICU beds, in order to follow-up it has been developed a mobile web application in order to publicize the health status of the population related to the identification of signs and symptoms of COVID-19, characterize risk conditions such as: occupation, travel, habits, comorbidities, crowded areas, compliance with the quarantine established by government entities, among others; This measure established at the beginning of the pandemic by SARS-CoV2 has made it possible to have the necessary data to support decision-making in public health. Through data mining techniques it is intended to generate knowledge about the presence of risk factors, taking into account sociodemographic variables, municipality of residence, pathological conditions, among other risk behaviors that may make the population more vulnerable or condition the prognosis of the COVID-19 cases. Finally, with the application of the CRISP-DM model, it is possible to obtain descriptive knowledge to identify the geographic location (municipality) that is at risk and / or needs immediate intervention, as well as the projection of possible places where the situation could worsen. to take timely actions according to the identified factors. The data analyzed provide timely and relevant information that allows proposing pertinent strategies in favor of the health of the population.

Topic: Computer Science
METHODS FOR CONTINUOUS INTEGRATION AND DEPLOYMENT IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSERVICE-BASED APPLICATIONS
VERA RIVERA FREDY HUMBERTO 1, PEREZ BORIS R. 2, PUERTO CUADROS EDUARD GILBERTO 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 fredyhumbertovera@ufps.edu.co, 2 borisperezg@ufps.edu.co, 3 eduardpuerto@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The development of microservice-based applications implies a continuous delivery and deployment to keep the services up-to-date and ready for operation. The application of the new DevOps culture in an agile development team, especially in the development, deployment and maintenance of microservices is essential, because it allows improving the integration, delivery and deployment times of microservices, collaboration between development teams and operations to automate processes, it achieves that the time that passes between developing a new functionality or service, as well as solving an incident and having the changes ready in production is substantially reduced. In this work, the practices on which DevOps is based are explained and discussed, such as continuous integration, continuous delivery, continuous deployment, as well as the use of tools that facilitate these practices. A continuous deployment process used in the development of a set of microservices is proposed as a case study.

Topic: Computer Science
QOS-BASED WEB SERVICE RANKING USING PATTERN RECOGNITION
ADARME JAIMES MARCO ANTONIO 1, JIMENO PABA MIGUEL ANGEL 2,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad del Norte,
Email: 1 madarme@ufps.edu.co, 2 majimeno@uninorte.edu.co,
Abstract: Due to the exponential growth of web services and their providers, software developers are frequently faced with selecting the most appropriate web service for a particular functional requirement. Each Web service is evaluated through its QoS parameters, and, in general, services may have similar values and functionality, a task that requires the software developer to select services most efficiently. We propose a pattern recognition algorithm called Ar_WSDS, which uses the notion of patterns and signals based on the systematic functioning of the brain, which offers a way of decomposing the combinatorial problem into recognition modules capable of analyzing each QoS parameter using a quality value desired by the user and selecting it by giving a ranking value that allows classifying the service according to its QoS parameters. Ar_WSDS ranks the web service from the QoS parameters analysis that the user wants to use. This process can be given two ranking processes, the first using key signals, that is, the user values for each QoS parameter of service must be met in a binding interval, the second-ranking process is called by partial signals, whose operation is to choose from a group of web services the most suitable for the value requested by the user. Web services are classified by the system and assigned a number called ranking, which allows to have a hierarchy of services based on the different QoS parameters. Dynamic creation of recognition modules from the signals that need to be recognized and analyzed provides a system capable of ranking web services for any QoS parameters. The system is tested through a QoS-Test dataset, and web services are classified and ranked using different QoS values desired. System testing is performed using a dataset from the QWS project, which offers nine quality metrics that were collected from different vendors, as well as defining the specification to the WSDL document that describes how a client can access the service through its interface. Web services are classified and ranked using different desired quality values.

Topic: Computer Science
ANALYSIS OF THE HASHTAGS PUBLISHED ON THE TWITTER ACCOUNTS OF THREE COLOMBIAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES DURING THE HEALTH EMERGENCY GENERATED BY COVID-19
LOZANO CÁRDENAS FÉLIX JOAQUÍN 1, MALDONADO ESTÉVEZ ERIKA ALEJANDRA 2,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 felixlozano@ufps.edu.co, 2 erikamaldonado@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: In the field of social networks such as Twitter, tags or hashtags are currently simple and agile ways of connecting people, topics, information, events and emotions. Their structure and functionality have evolved by virtue of their communicative value and their ability to move between the descriptive and the connotative. The health emergency generated by Covid-19 affected different institutions and organizations in Colombia, including universities, which underwent significant changes in their daily activities to face the pandemic and had to design communication strategies mediated by ICTs to keep the university community informed about the measures adopted to deal with the situation and give continuity to their teaching, research and extension work. The purpose of the research presented here was to analyze the hashtags contained in the messages published in the official Twitter accounts of three Colombian public universities, in an observation window between March 25 and June 26, 2020, corresponding to the initial stage of the health emergency in the country, in order to investigate their level of interaction during the observed period and whether the content was related to issues related to Covid-19 or to the mission functions of the institutions. For this purpose, a methodological design with a quantitative approach was established, based on the content analysis of 1871 tweets published by the universities during the aforementioned period. Among the results obtained, it was shown that the universities stood out for their use of hashtags as pertinent communication tools to generate connection with the different university bodies, in addition to prioritizing topics related to university functions more than to Covid-19 itself. Keywords: Hashtags, Twitter, Covid-19, interaction, communicative tool.

Topic: Education Sciences
AN ANALYSIS OF LITERACY MEDIATED BY THE ESCUELA NUEVA MODEL
GELVEZ CABALLERO ROBER GIOVANNI 1, RINCON VILLAMIZAR NYDIA MARIA 2,
1 Francisco de Paula Santander University, 2 UFPS,
Email: 1 robergiovannigc@ufps.edu.co, 2 aprendizaje2020@gmail.com,
Abstract: This research identifies how literacy works from the Escuela Nueva model in the pedagogical practices of Primary School teachers in a Rural Educational Center in the municipality of Tibú, Norte de Santander, Colombia, where the dynamics of the armed conflict, Venezuelan migration and illegality affect the educational, economic, social and cultural context of the region. It should be noted that the area borders the Venezuelan rural border line. The theoretical bases come from authors such as Brian Street (New Literacy Studies) and Daniel Cassany (Contemporary Legal Practices); in addition to the Curricular Guidelines of the Spanish Language and the Basic Learning Rights established by the Ministry of Education of Colombia. The methodology is oriented from the qualitative approach, with a type of study from the Pedagogical Action Research-I.A.PE, to support the interdisciplinary dialogue that arises in rural schools. The information collection applied techniques such as the semi-structured interview, workshops and direct observation. The Escuela Nueva Pedagogical Model comes from active European schools, but in Colombian rural realities are re-signified as flexible models, which are designed to guarantee quality education in the most remote areas of the Colombian geography. Finally, it is concluded that the teachers who have historically received training at Escuela Nueva are able to better mainstream their practices with areas such as technology, science and the arts.

Topic: Education Sciences
APPLICATION OF MATHEMATICAL CONCEPTS IN THE STUDY OF PHYSICS IN SECONDARY BASIC EDUCATION. THE SLOPE OF THE STRAIGHT LINE
PRADA NÚÑEZ RAÚL 1, GAMBOA AUDIN 2, AVENDAÑO CASTRO WILLIAM RODRIGO 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander ,
Email: 1 raulprada@ufps.edu.co, 2 audingamboa@ufps.edu.co, 3 williamavendano@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The interdisciplinary nature of knowledge is one of the ideas promoted in our country on the basis of current regulations. It is hoped that students in educational institutions will be able to recognise that possessing excellent communication skills (reading and writing) can contribute to improving their performance in solving mathematical problems, for example. It is within this framework that this research arises, which focuses on demonstrating the extrapolation of mathematical concepts in the understanding of basic concepts in Physics, such as the concept of the slope of the straight line that in a position-time graph of uniform rectilinear motion represents the speed with which the body or particle moves in each time interval. In order to achieve this objective, we worked with a group of tenth grade students from a private educational institution. A questionnaire was designed and validated by the researchers and the teacher in charge of the subject at the educational institution under study. The students had 90 minutes to complete the questionnaire in which they had to select the correct answer, but justifying their choice. The results show that 50% of the students interpret the graphs adequately when describing the characteristics in each time interval, but they do not have the generalisation capacity to associate the concept of speed with that of the slope of the straight line.

Topic: Education Sciences
BORDER REALITY AND SOCIAL IMPACT OF MIGRATION OF THE VENEZUELAN POPULATION IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JOSÉ DE CÚCUTA. (2016-2019)
MONSALVE GÓMEZ MARTHA ISABEL 1, RODRÍGUEZ TARAZONA LAURA YAZMÍN 2,
1 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCSICO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 2 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER,
Email: 1 Marthaisabelmg@ufps.edu.co, 2 laurayrodriguez2912@gmail.com,
Abstract: This completed research is entitled: THE BORDER REALITY AND SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE MIGRATION OF THE VENEZUELAN POPULATION IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JOSÉ DE CÚCUTA. (2016-2019) Migration in recent years has generated a broad social impact in the municipality of San José de Cúcuta, due to the great displacement of the Venezuelan people, which has derived a sequence of social, cultural, economic and labor problems that It has given a perception of the reality that Venezuelan migrants are experiencing and that has also had consequences in this Municipality in a general area. The theoretical explanation of migration: lights and shadows - (Joaquín Arango 2003. Migration, gender and social justice. Perspectives on human insecurity- (EThanh-Dam TruongDes GasperJeff HandmakerSylvia I. Bergh 2014). The culture of migration: Growth The prevalence of migration within a community causes changes in traditional values ​​and perceptions, increasing the probabilities of future migration (Piore, 2015). Relevant events that have occurred in Venezuela have made the people have to leave their country to supply the family basket, improve the living conditions generated by migratory displacement in addition to maximizing their income, minimizing risks and to reduce the limitations associated with a variety of problems of different capital conditions. The objective of this completed research is propose strategies to raise awareness and inform about the causes and consequences generated by the impact of migration of the Venezuelan people in the municipality, Determine the social, cultural and political effects that migratory displacement has had. Identify the obvious causes and consequences of the migration of the Venezuelan people in the region. To demonstrate the impact that the Venezuelan migrant population has had in the social and political sphere, as sources of information, the methods of data collection, design of interviews and preparation of surveys to the Venezuelan population will be applied.With this research, we will learn more about all the factors that have been produced by the extensive migratory flow that has occurred in the last year, and in which we must be aware. It was sought to analyze, understand and know the causes and consequences generated by the social, cultural and economic impact of the migration of the Venezuelan population in the receiving municipality, a type, quantitative-qualitative or mixed investigation was implemented, based on this process It will be possible to learn more in depth about all the factors that have occurred due to the extensive displacement of migrants that has occurred in the last two years, this in order to analyze the consequences that the migratory flow has had. Likewise, the descriptive approach was applied, which tries to make the phenomena to be investigated more complex, capturing the links of the phenomenon under analysis with all the dimensions that intervene, as well as the recognition of its historical construction process, and the description of its characteristics. Key Words: Migratory flow, Border, Venezuelan population, Social impact, social, labor, cultural and economic problems

Topic: Education Sciences
BUILDING COMMUNITY: AN APPROACH FROM SOCIAL PARTICIPATION
SANTOS LINA 1, JAIMES MARQUEZ MARITZA CAROLINA 2, CASTILLO SARMIENTO ALMA YISLEM 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santader, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 linamarcelasp@ufps.edu.co, 2 maritzacarolinajm@ufps.edu.co, 3 almayislemcs@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The research project carried out in Paso de los Ríos, building community: an approach from social participation is the result of a sequential, systematic process of the social practice process I and II (2020-2, 2021-1), which required the development of a theoretical-practical exercise with virtual and blended learning strategies in alternating mode caused by the health crisis and the Covid-19 pandemic. Based on Ander-Egg's approach, a diagnosis was made to identify the problems, needs and particular social dynamics in which the members of the Paso de los Ríos community coexist and interact on a daily basis; from there, the research focused on addressing participation as a community development strategy. Techniques such as interviews, community history, SWOT matrix, made possible dialogues, reflections, collective knowledge, community knowledge, fundamental in the collection of particular information that was later analyzed under the position of Lillo and Roselló (2004), for whom community social work seeks the social welfare of the population, through their active participation; analysis, awareness and resolution of problems that affect it, starting from the existence and empowerment of resources that they possess and; taking into account that the social problems that were identified are deeply rooted in the community, this project was directed under in theoretical reference of the Doctor in Social Sciences, Alisa Delgado de Tornes, (2013) who defines socio-educational intervention as: "a set of activities to be carried out, organized, with the co-participation of all the social actors involved and with the purpose of acting on an aspect of reality in order to understand and transform it. "(p.47), providing strategic elements that allow using the socio-educational action as a door to emancipation that sensitizes and organizes the Paso de los Ríos community regarding the importance of elements such as union and organization, with the objective of empowering the skills or resources that characterize them so that they can be self-managers of their own development. This project was elaborated with the purpose of strengthening the social cohesion of the Paso de los Ríos village, that is to say, the bonds of union among the members of the community, with the objective of promoting training and learning processes that reinforce the social fabric of the collective. This research made it possible to visualize professional action from a sociological approach in which the Social Worker analyzes the context from the macrosystem to the microsystem with a catalytic action, that is to say, he is a support in the processes of change using different modalities of Social Work in order to create favorable conditions: and educational, when through pedagogical strategies it is sought to enhance the resources and skills of the community.

Topic: Education Sciences
COMPETENCIES IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICE OF ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL TEACHERS IN NORTE DE SANTANDER
GALLARDO PÉREZ HENRY DE JESUS 1, VILLAMIZAR JAIMES DANIEL 2, MALDONADO ESTÉVEZ ERIKA ALEJANDRA 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 henrygallardo@ufps.edu.co, 2 danielvj@ufps.edu.co, 3 erikamaldonado@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Teachers in elementary and secondary education have had to incorporate new information and communication technologies in their pedagogical practice, often without having been trained in their use. With the pandemic generated by Covid-19, teachers had to migrate the exercise of their pedagogical practice, taking it from a face-to-face methodology to a non-face-to-face one, in most cases supported virtually. The research, framed in a multi-method approach using ethnographic research method and a factorial design from the quantitative approach, aims to assess the ICT competencies of elementary and middle school teachers in the department of Norte de Santander and their incorporation in their pedagogical practice, as well as the levels achieved in the teaching and learning process with their students. The results are compared in the different areas of the department and teacher training needs are established to strengthen these competencies.

Topic: Education Sciences
COOPERATIVE LEARNING: AN INNOVATIVE ACTIVE METHODOLOGY
CRUZ GAFARO OSCAR ADRIÁN 1, GUTIÉRREZ YEPES CARLOS ANDRÉS 2, DURAN CONTRERAS LUIS ÁNGEL 3, CARRILLO PARADA JOSÉ LUIS 4, LESMES SILVA ANGGY KARINA 5,
1 FESC, 2 FESC, 3 FESC, 4 FESC, 5 FESC,
Email: 1 est_oa_cruz@fesc.edu.co, 2 est_ca_gutierrez@fesc.edu.co, 3 est_la_duran@fesc.edu.co, 4 est_jl_carrillo@fesc.edu.co, 5 ak_lesmes@fesc.edu.co,
Abstract: Innovation is the greatest challenge that educational institutions have, being thus, that cooperative learning is one of the active methodologies, where the student is the central point of the processes and the teacher only becomes a mediator, motivator and facilitator. ; Likewise, it is based on a humanistic model in which the student is oriented to achieve autonomy and cares about their constant improvement, learns about the concept of teamwork and develops those social skills for the common and collective benefit. Being, this is how the Santa Teresita Educational Institution arises, with an interesting proposal for the adaptation of its processes in cooperative learning, where its students are in the constant search for scientific knowledge and each aspect they develop in the classroom is linked to emotions that generate meaningful experiences and contribute to their knowledge and healthy development.

Topic: Education Sciences
DEBATES AND REFLECTION: PEDAGOGICAL ACTIVITIES THAT ENCOURAGE THE COMPREHENSIVE LEARNING PROCESS OF THE ACCOUNTING CONCEPT
HINCAPIÉ MEJÍA JUAN PABLO 1,
1 Universidad del Valle,
Email: 1 juan.pablo.hincapie@correounivalle.edu.co,
Abstract: The aim of this presentation is to analyze the pedagogical influence that debate and reflection activities have on the comprehensive learning process of the accounting concept, in the students of the accounting theory seminar subject of the public accounting program of the University of the Valley headquarters North of Cauca. The methodology followed in the research is exploratory and descriptive, its approach is mixed and relies on deductive, analytical and synthetic methods, as well as content and discourse analysis techniques.

Topic: Education Sciences
DEGREE OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT SAFETY AND HEALTH AT WORK THAT COMPANIES HAVE IN NORTH OF SANTANDER- COLOMBIA
GUERRERO JAIMES RUTH 1,
1 UNIVERSIDAD ECCI,
Email: 1 ruthjaimesguerrero@hotmail.com,
Abstract: Summary. The occupational health and safety management system (SG-SST) is an issue that has taken on great relevance in Colombian companies in recent years. This new system obliges employers to carry out a permanent recognition of the working conditions that affect the well-being, safety and health of workers, allowing them to carry out improvement actions with opportunity. Being such a relevant topic for companies, this research started by measuring the degree of knowledge about safety and health at work that companies in Norte de Santander Colombia have, in order to have a broad panorama that allows establishing strategies that provide information necessary for companies in Norte de Santander on occupational health and safety management systems. Taking into account the objectives set out in this study, this is a descriptive research, it is aimed at determining the degree of knowledge that Norte de Santander companies have about safety and health at work, for which an instrument is designed in order to obtain information on the population under study. The databases in the chambers of commerce of the cities of Cúcuta, Ocaña and Pamplona were consulted, where all companies with an updated commercial registry of all economic sectors were taken into account, allowing the application of a questionnaire that facilitated the collection of information. The statistical analysis led to the conclusion that, in general, 94% of the legally constituted companies in Norte de Santander are not aware of the existing Colombian legislation on occupational health and safety. What can become a limitation for companies due to non-compliance with the standards required in Colombia with respect to safety at work. It is recommended to increase information campaigns on the subject, which allow entrepreneurs to access a greater knowledge of the subject. Keywords. Companies from Norte de Santander, health and safety at work.

Topic: Education Sciences
DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETENCES IN LOGISTICS THAT RESPOND TO THE CHALLENGES DEMANDED BY LOGISTICS 4.0
BOHÓRQUEZ RODRÍGUEZ JUAN CAMILO 1, SARMIENTO SAAVEDRA OSCAR EDUARDO 2, BERMUDEZ HERNANDEZ ERICK YESID 3,
1 Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje, 2 Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje - SENA, 3 SERVICIO NACIONAL DE APRENDIZAJE - SENA.,
Email: 1 juancamilo.b@misena.edu.co, 2 oesarmiento682@misena.edu.co, 3 eybermudez59@misena.edu.co,
Abstract: Colombia is going through a very important and favorable time for the promotion of entrepreneurship. For several years, different circumstances have made entrepreneurship a development alternative for various communities, which face situations such as unemployment, displacement, lack of opportunities or social reincorporation, product of the post-conflict. Although this issue has grown favorably in the country, there are barriers and gaps to be overcome and it is the purpose of this article to delve into how logistics and the training of human talent are key factors for the sustainability of ventures. In accordance with the above, this work presents the results of the research called "CONDITIONS FOR ADAPTATION OF TRAINING ENVIRONMENTS FOR DEVELOPING LOGISTICS SKILLS" where one of its objectives was to mediate technical, transversal and soft skills, required in logistics business environments Based on the study, a sample of 19 companies in the city of Bogotá were carried out, which employed young apprentices from the Technology in Logistics Management program in recent years belonging to the National Learning Service SENA. With this, the relevance of the logistics competencies in the work exercise was determined and identifying the new skills that are contemplated in the new training program called Technology in Coordination of Logistics Processes, which, based on the results of the investigation, gives an answer to the challenges posed by changes in the logistics dynamics of the country and, of course, of sustainable entrepreneurship. The results obtained from this research have interested the National Logistics Sector Board, due to the relevance of the results obtained, which in socialization with them, lead to rethinking the functions and positions of the National Map of Occupations in the logistics area, and therefore hence, the process maps of the curricular designs of the technological and technical programs of logistics at the national level, allowing to take into account new competences in accordance with the requirements of the current labor market.

Topic: Education Sciences
DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETENCES IN LOGISTICS THAT RESPOND TO THE CHALLENGES DEMANDED BY LOGISTICS 4.0
BOHÓRQUEZ RODRÍGUEZ JUAN CAMILO 1, SARMIENTO SAAVEDRA OSCAR EDUARDO 2, BERMUDEZ HERNANDEZ ERICK YESID 3,
1 Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje, 2 Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje - SENA, 3 SERVICIO NACIONAL DE APRENDIZAJE - SENA.,
Email: 1 juancamilo.b@misena.edu.co, 2 oesarmiento682@misena.edu.co, 3 eybermudez59@misena.edu.co,
Abstract: Colombia is going through a very important and favorable time for the promotion of entrepreneurship. For several years, different circumstances have made entrepreneurship a development alternative for various communities, which face situations such as unemployment, displacement, lack of opportunities or social reincorporation, product of the post-conflict. Although this issue has grown favorably in the country, there are barriers and gaps to be overcome and it is the purpose of this article to delve into how logistics and the training of human talent are key factors for the sustainability of ventures. In accordance with the above, this work presents the results of the research called "CONDITIONS FOR ADAPTATION OF TRAINING ENVIRONMENTS FOR DEVELOPING LOGISTICS SKILLS" where one of its objectives was to mediate technical, transversal and soft skills, required in logistics business environments , based on the study carried out on a sample of 19 companies in the city of Bogotá, which employed young apprentices from the Technology in Logistics Management program in recent years belonging to the National Learning Service SENA. With this, the relevance of the logistics competencies in the work exercise was determined and identifying the new skills that are contemplated in the new training program called Technology in Coordination of Logistics Processes, which, based on the results of the investigation, gives an answer to the challenges posed by changes in the logistics dynamics of the country and, of course, of sustainable entrepreneurship. The results obtained from this research have interested the National Logistics Sector Board, due to the relevance of the results obtained, which in socialization with them, lead to rethinking the functions and positions of the National Map of Occupations in the logistics area, and therefore hence, the process maps of the curricular designs of the technological and technical programs of logistics at the national level, allowing to take into account new competences in accordance with the requirements of the current labor market.

Topic: Education Sciences
DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETENCES IN LOGISTICS THAT RESPOND TO THE CHALLENGES DEMANDED BY LOGISTICS 4.0
COLMENARES BOCANEGRA FLOR YAMILE 1, BOHÓRQUEZ RODRÍGUEZ JUAN CAMILO 2, SARMIENTO SAAVEDRA OSCAR EDUARDO 3, BERMUDEZ HERNANDEZ ERICK YESID 4,
1 Institución Educativa Luis Carlos Galán, 2 Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje, 3 Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje - SENA, 4 SERVICIO NACIONAL DE APRENDIZAJE - SENA.,
Email: 1 floryamilecolmenares@gmail.com, 2 juancamilo.b@misena.edu.co, 3 oesarmiento682@misena.edu.co, 4 eybermudez59@misena.edu.co,
Abstract: Colombia is going through a very important and favorable time for the promotion of entrepreneurship. For several years, different circumstances have made entrepreneurship a development alternative for various communities, which face situations such as unemployment, displacement, lack of opportunities or social reincorporation, product of the post-conflict. Although this issue has grown favorably in the country, there are barriers and gaps to be overcome and it is the purpose of this article to delve into how logistics and the training of human talent are key factors for the sustainability of ventures. In accordance with the above, this work presents the results of the research called "CONDITIONS FOR ADAPTATION OF TRAINING ENVIRONMENTS FOR DEVELOPING LOGISTICS SKILLS" where one of its objectives was to mediate technical, transversal and soft skills, required in logistics business environments Based on the study, a sample of 19 companies in the city of Bogotá were carried out, which employed young apprentices from the Technology in Logistics Management program in recent years belonging to the National Learning Service SENA. With this, the relevance of the logistics competencies in the work exercise was determined and identifying the new skills that are contemplated in the new training program called Technology in Coordination of Logistics Processes, which, based on the results of the investigation, gives an answer to the challenges posed by changes in the logistics dynamics of the country and, of course, of sustainable entrepreneurship. The results obtained from this research have interested the National Logistics Sector Board, due to the relevance of the results obtained, which in socialization with them, lead to rethinking the functions and positions of the National Map of Occupations in the logistics area, and therefore hence, the process maps of the curricular designs of the technological and technical programs of logistics at the national level, allowing to take into account new competences in accordance with the requirements of the current labor market.

Topic: Education Sciences
DIDACTIC INTERVENTION FOR THE EXTRACTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF STEROIDS IN URINE
CIPAGAUTA ESQUIVEL EDNA CAROLINA 1, ANGULO FLOREZ DIEGO HERNANDO 2, VARGAS AGUILAR EDGAR EDUARDO 3, TORRES MERCHAN NIDIA JANETH 4,
1 UNIVERSIDAD DE BOYACA, 2 UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA Y TECNOLOGICA DE COLOMBIA, 3 UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA Y TECNOLOGICA DE COLOMBIA, 4 UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA Y TECNOLOGICA DE COLOMBIA,
Email: 1 eccipagauta@uniboyaca.edu.co, 2 diego.angulo@uptc.edu.co, 3 edgar.vargas01@uptc.edu.co, 4 nidia.torres@uptc.edu.co,
Abstract: This work describes a didactic strategy for teaching a miniaturized solid-phase extraction method in the context of laboratory practical training [LPT]. It is based on the students' previous imaginaries in order to generate conceptual changes and promote meaningful learning through a few laboratory sessions. This article will report on the experience of combining the use of a sample preparation technique—PT-SPE—with a didactic intervention exercise for the improvement of procedural skills. We present the results of the application of LPT in the multi-determination of three steroids in urine samples using HPLC-DAD-PT-C18-SPE, which show adequate recovery rates and validation parameters. The results of the intervention show improvement of skills related to solid-phase extraction methods. It is concluded that there were conceptual changes in analytical processes, an adequate familiarization with new sample preparation methodologies, a significant increase in chemical vocabulary and understanding of concepts, along with the application of lower-order cognitive processes to the enhancement of higher-order cognitive skills.

Topic: Education Sciences
DIDACTIC STRATEGY TO TEACH THE CONCEPT OF FRACTION AS A PART-ALL RELATIONSHIP IN THE FIFTH GRADE, FOCUSING ITS HISTORICAL ORIGIN.
GAVIRIA URIBE GERMÁN ALFONSO 1, SUAREZ BRIEVA EYDY DEL CARMEN 2,
1 Universidad Popular del Cesar, 2 UNIVERSIDAD POPULAR DEL CESAR,
Email: 1 germangaviria@unicesar.edu.co, 2 eydysuarez@unicesar.edu.co,
Abstract: According to Obando (2003), the way in which teaching-learning processes are currently oriented in classrooms, with respect to fractions, is a source of erroneous conceptualizations on the part of students. Knowing that one should begin by working on the primary interpretations of the fraction given throughout history (for instance, part-whole), a historical-epistemological, disciplinary and didactic analysis of this concept was made. In the last report of the SABER Tests about the performance of fifth grade students at IE San Isidro Labrador de Atánquez (Cesar), it was made visible that some learning needs to be prioritized for the design of improvement actions. One of these learnings refers to the fact that 61% of students do not use common fractions to describe situations, nor do they recognize and interpret fractions in different contexts. In this way, a classroom diagnosis was made on this interpretation that allowed to detect some critical points, for example, that many schools work from the count, a situation that has led most of the students to focus on the conceptualization of the natural number and not in that of the fraction as such; Thus, we have our students being victims of the dichotomy between the continuous and the discrete, between the number and the magnitude. A didactic strategy was proposed, then, supported by the use of low-cost and easy-to-achieve didactic materials, supported by the COPISI methodology and prioritizing concrete work. Methodologically, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the development of the proposed didactic strategy was carried out, based on an initial test (pretest), on the development of six work sessions carried out in the classroom and, finally, on a final test (postest), concluding that all this intervention favored the appropriation of the concept of fraction, as Part-Whole, in the students of the selected sample.

Topic: Education Sciences
EDUCATE ON RESETTLEMENT, THE CASE OF THE STUDENTS OF THE SACRED HEART OF JESUS SCHOOL IN GRAMALOTE
MONTERO FERREIRA MILTON ALIER 1, CACUA HERRERA KAREN YULEIMY 2, LEMUS RANGEL JEFFERSON ANDRÉS 3,
1 UFPS, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander , 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander ,
Email: 1 miltonaliermf@ufps.edu.co, 2 herrerakarenyuleimyc@ufps.edu.co, 3 jeffersonandreslr@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The presentation is the result of the research entitled "Sense of belonging of the students of the educational institution Sacred Heart of Jesús with the municipality of Gramalote, Norte de Santander", specifically of the first specific objective, to determine the actions with which the students develop their sense of belonging towards Gramalote. The research was carried out taking the socio-educational theory as the main reference, interpreting the aspects that have influenced the appropriation of the territory for the students from the educational field, with special emphasis on the traditions and customs that were had in the old urban area, as well as the way in which you have been adapting to the new space, its transformations and changes to remain latent in the physical context of Gramalote, likewise, it was investigated about the participation and initiatives proposed and executed by members of the school, whether they are students, teachers or administrators. The process was carried out from a qualitative methodology of phenomenological design, obtaining the information through semi-structured interviews with outstanding students of the last three academic degrees. Inside the results, four large subcategories were recognized in the interpretation: appropriation of symbols and signs of the municipality, knowledge and appreciation of the history, appropriation and care of new territory and management of emotions in the family.

Topic: Education Sciences
EDUCOMMUNICATIVE STRATEGIES TO PREVENT BULLYING IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN NORTE DE SANTANDER
MIRANDA ÁLVAREZ JOSE ALBERTO 1,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 josealbertoma@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to prevent bullying at the San Luis Gonzaga School in Chinácota, through an Educommunicative strategy that seeks to promote healthy coexistence in the classroom, in addition to contributing to the mitigation and prevention of the problem. The above is justified in Cúcuta, Norte de Santander, where it is recognized that "58% of students resolve their differences with violence and aggression, according to a study by the Red Nortesantandereana Escuela Sin Violencia." (Rincón, May 7, 2020), evidencing that bullying is "an aggressive behavior to cause intentional, repeated and prolonged harm in time" Olweus (2007, p. 2). The study is of qualitative approach with analytical-descriptive approaches to issues such as Bullying, cyberbullying and/or school bullying, addressed to 119 ninth grade students and 104 tenth grade students, selected through a non-probabilistic sample by convenience. Having mentioned this, one of the instruments to be applied is a survey to students, in order to diagnose the incidence of this phenomenon and collect the necessary data to dimension the social, cultural and virtual context in which they are. Then, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with rectors, teachers, psychology or counseling departments and parents' representatives of the ninth and tenth grades. Finally, the strategy will be based on the book Educar en las Redes Sociales: Programa Preventivo PRIRES, by José María Avilés (2019), an educational program that helps students to identify risk factors, establish emotional limits on the privacy of information on social networks and on digital identity, to be made available to managers, teachers, students and parents

Topic: Education Sciences
EFFECTS OF CONFINEMENT BY COVID 19 ON THE SOCIAL SKILLS OF CAREGIVERS BELONGING TO THE ASSOCIATION OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES AND THEIR CAREGIVERS OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF LOS PATIOS (ASOPERDISCUI).
GALVIS VASQUEZ NICOLLE JULIANA 1, LEON MUÑOZ MARIA CAMILA 2, RAMIREZ AYALA GIOVANNY 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander , 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander , 3 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER ,
Email: 1 nicollejulianagv@ufps.edu.co, 2 mariacamilalm@ufps.edu.co, 3 giovannyra@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Social skills are the set of actions and behaviors that characterize us as human beings, these skills help us to function within society and lead us to solve daily life situations effectively, that is, acceptable to the subject itself and for the social context in which it operates. During the year 2020 the human being had to be confined due to force majeure due to Covid 19, in this period of time there were not only health effects but also emotional and coexistence levels, which is why many of the social skills of humans were weakened by this confinement. The general purpose of the investigation will be carried out with the association of people with disabilities and their caregivers (ASOPERDISCUI) of the municipality of Los Patios, which is made up of 35 caregivers, of Colombian and Venezuelan nationalities who accompany their children every Wednesday and family members with multiple disabilities to trainings conducted by IMRD. The objective of this research work is to recognize the effects of confinement by Covid 19 on the social skills of caregivers belonging to the association of people with disabilities and their caregivers of the municipality of Los Patios, this recognition will be carried out by determining the status and knowledge about the issues of social skills in caregivers, The methodology is oriented from the qualitative approach followed to this and through an instrument it will be analyzed what was the impact of confinement by Covid 19 on the social skills of caregivers and according to this As a result of this instrument, strategies will be designed to strengthen these skills in them. It is important to make the concept and types of social skills known to this type of population, since we use these tools in our daily lives, but we do not take into account that they are part of this set of interpersonal relationships, which as behaviors emitted by the individual in a context in which each one develops, they come to express feelings, attitudes, desires, opinions or rights depending on the situation that arises, highlighting that Covid 19 is a pandemic generated by the virus and that this forced the society to be confined to prevent the impact of this. Due to this confinement, the individuals lost direct contact with society and when they returned, many of the social skills of each individual were affected.

Topic: Education Sciences
FULL-TIME HIGH SCHOOL: A CHALLENGE FOR PUBLIC POLICIES
GUIMARÃES HONORATO HERCULES 1,
1 Instituto Naval de Pós-Graduação,
Email: 1 hghhhma@gmail.com,
Abstract: The objective of this research is to analyze how public policies are directed to offer Full-Time Education, that is, to achieve the number six goal of the National Education Plan (PNE). The relevance of the study, in a summarized form, is to verify if the public policies in force are aligned to support meeting the target in question, specific for Full Time High School. The methodological approach of investigation adopted in this research was quali-quantitative. The research had two initial stages: the first consisting of data collection and statistical analysis of the goals established by the National Plan for High School; and the second is a subjective analysis of how these goals are being met by public policies. The work portrays the scenario of Brazilian education regarding the increase in the enrollment rate in Secondary Education, the offer of Full-Time Education and fostering the quality of Education in High School in Full-Time, considering the time span from 2014 to 2024, according with the PNE. Points of improvement in education were highlighted in some regions of Brazil, due to the adoption of high school by some States, as well as obstacles yet to be overcome were reported. However, the study showed us that goal 6 (six) of the PNE has not been achieved so far, showing that public policies are not being able to change the Full-Time High School scenario. As a suggestion to overcome the political barrier that proved to be a differential for materializing the goals, it is recommended that the National Plan be widely known, understood, debated and monitored by society as a whole and, thus, guide public policies for the materialization of their goals, especially goal six, the focus of this article.

Topic: Education Sciences
ICT-MEDIATED PEDAGOGIC STRATEGY FOR STRENGTHENING READING COMPREHENSION
BARAJAS VALLEJO NANCY ASTRID 1,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 lisveastrid@gmail.com,
Abstract: Reading comprehension is fundamental in the relationships and interrelationship of the fundamental elements that give autonomy to the communicative process of humanity for educational purposes. Technological tools and reading do not go at odds, nor does it upset or slow down reading or writing. Through this research project, a proposal will be developed to strengthen the reading comprehension competence in students by incorporating technological tools; The above is reflected in the Colegio Padre Rafael García Herreros in its low performance in this competition, since the results for ninth grade, in the area of Language; it shows no statistically significant differences between the school's average score in 2017 and its average score in 2016. The present research proposes a mixed approach which is based on the simultaneous use of qualitative and quantitative methods (Bryman, 2006 cited in Moscoso, J. N. 2017) in order to have a greater understanding of the study; where the advances are given according to the analysis of the data collected and the interpretation to establish comparisons and determine the strategy. In the research, data triangulation and methodology were used, which allowed the analysis of the results of the ICFES in the reading comprehension competition of recent years and the characterization of students to arrive at an innovative pedagogical strategy that gives solution to the problem posed. It was determined that students would like to develop their reading comprehension skills using a mobile app; in line with the above, it is evident that with the appearance of the "Digital Natives" (PRENSKY, 2011 cited in Schwabe, R. H. 2013) changed the concept of education. By performing the analysis of the information collected with students and teachers; a pedagogical proposal has been designed, a "APP "Do we read?, according to its purpose: Exploratory, Informative, study, critical and recreational; as a resource where pedagogical activities can be carried out.

Topic: Education Sciences
INTERPRETATION OF KINEMATICS GRAPHS. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFICULTIES IN STUDENTS OF SECONDARY BASIC EDUCATION
PRADA NÚÑEZ RAÚL 1, GAMBOA AUDIN 2, AVENDAÑO CASTRO WILLIAM RODRIGO 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander ,
Email: 1 raulprada@ufps.edu.co, 2 audingamboa@ufps.edu.co, 3 williamavendano@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: This research work allows us to identify the difficulties that Secondary Education students have in the interpretation of Uniform Rectilinear Motion graphs (Distance vs. Time graphs). A quantitative approach is adopted at a descriptive level, following the implementation of a questionnaire provided in an online version. The results allow us to identify that the students say that the subject has been seen, but they do not feel comfortable with the teaching process given by the teacher. This situation allows us to conclude that the difficulties are associated with two main categories: some associated with the teaching process by the teacher and others associated with the student and their academic process

Topic: Education Sciences
"MIGRANT BOYS AND GIRLS AND INCLUSION IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JOSE DE CUCUTA: CHALLENGES AND CHALLENGES IN PANDEMIC"
MONSALVE GÓMEZ MARTHA ISABEL 1, GONZÁLEZ CHACÓN DANNY NEMECIO 2,
1 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCSICO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 2 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER,
Email: 1 Marthaisabelmg@ufps.edu.co, 2 DANNYNEMECIOGC@dd DANNYNEMECIOGC@UFPS.EDU.CO,
Abstract: This ongoing project entitled "MIGRANT BOYS AND GIRLS AND INCLUSION IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JOSE DE CUCUTA: CHALLENGES AND CHALLENGES IN PANDEMIC" shows us the causes that determine migration, which can be seen from political, economic and sociocultural aspects of a country, in this case Venezuela, it is possible to mention the need of the families that make up the nucleus, such as parents and children, who are forced to seek other alternatives such as their economic well-being and therefore in search of greater academic training, since in their country of origin it does not offer at this time the possibility of seeking greater personal and family progress, this to minimize inequality, in the socioeconomic gap and the possibilities of progress. These determining factors lead these individuals to make the decision to seek better living conditions in other societies. Migration is a social phenomenon that occurs worldwide, thousands of people leave their countries of origin, mostly fleeing the internal conflicts typical of their territories, seeking to improve their quality of life. Migration is an event as old as history itself; man began to migrate from the first moment when he faced the need to seek more and better life opportunities. Migration is generated mainly by social, political, economic, personal, cultural problems, among others. It is a fact that the mobilization of people has always existed, but in recent years it has increased.Ruiz García, A (2002), cited by (Rivas, 2019). The methodological approach is proposed which is located within the qualitative theory, interpretive and socio-educational approach in the context where human experiences occur, without manipulated variables, how the actors think, live and interpret the different situations that occur in their context social and to be able to know how the phenomenon occurs, considering its positive and negative aspects, to later be analyzed and be able to contribute with the analysis, to the formulation of a critical look about how these policies are being implemented and to know if they are actually being produced the expected results. Qualitative research allows to know the reality of each actor in their context, in addition to the social networks of which they are part. In this sense, qualitative research suggests that competent and qualified observers can report objectively, clearly, and precisely about their own observations of the social world, as well as the experiences of others; on the other hand, researchers approach a real subject, who is present in the world and who can, to a certain extent, offer us information about their own experiences, opinions and values ​​(Rodríguez, G, 1996). Information will be collected from the participating population, through a set of techniques or methods such as semi-structured interviews, life stories, case studies or documentary analysis. Keywords: Migrant Boys, Girls, Socio-educational Action, Educational Inclusion, Pandemic, Human Rights, Public Policies.

Topic: Education Sciences
MULTIMODAL PRODUCTION BETWEEN DYADS IN A DIGITAL SPACE
BONILLA VALENCIA PILAR DEL CARMEN 1, DE CASTRO DAZA DIANA PATRICIA 2,
1 Universidad del Valle, 2 Universidad del Valle,
Email: 1 pilar.bonilla@correounivalle.edu.co, 2 diana.decastro@correounivalle.edu.co,
Abstract: Introduction: The purpose of the research is to analyze the multimodal and collaborative production process of two dyads between the ages of 9 and 11 in a digital space called Creando Juntos designed on the Google Sites platform; in which children explore the production and interaction possibilities offered by digital platforms in the challenge of a co-construction activity with a peer. Multimodality is specified in this study in the collaborative production process in which children have the possibility in the digital space of designing the productions proposed in the activity from the variety of semiotic registers. Multimodality is defined as the set of approaches that understand communication and representation not only from linguistic aspects, but also taking into account the wide range of forms of communication that subjects use, Jewitt, et al (2016). The different studies reviewed on multimodality emphasize the possibilities that digital technologies offer to the development of writing and reading practices; and pose the challenge in the educational field of configuring scenarios to strengthen creativity, by providing different ways and possibilities to learn, communicate and construct meanings (Bal, 2018; Burnett & Myers, 2006; Chaverra & Bolivar, 2016; Cordero, Ibaseta, Otaíza & Chiuminatto 2018; Manghi, Lagos & Pizarro, 2016; Ranker, 2015; Wells & Miller, 2017). In this way, this research provides new understandings about the use of digital technologies for educational purposes, which implies assuming the challenge of innovation and creativity in digital settings that involve the different ways of learning of children when they build knowledge. Objective: The objective of the research is to analyze the multimodal production process of children in the three productions made in the digital space: a video, a story and a blog. Method The research is qualitative, a case study was developed, defined as a single case with an integrated design; which integrates more than one unit of analysis. In this regard, Jiménez and Commet (2016) state that the case studies are dense and complex because they seek to respond to how and why events or phenomena occur from multiple perspectives, making the exploration and analysis deeper. Four girls between 9 and 11 years of age participated, enrolled in the fourth and fifth grade of elementary school. The multimodal production activity consists of fourteen meetings with the dyads through the Google Sites and Google Meet platforms. To analyze multimodal productions, two categories were proposed: a) Uses of semiotic resources b) Forms of interaction in the multimodal production process. Results Among the preliminary results of the research, it is identified that the multimodal production process of the two dyads was enriched by the use of various semiotic resources in the three productions: the video, the short story and the blog. In the collaborative and multimodal production activity, the dyads used oral and written speeches, the use of images, emoticons, music videos and graphic design of the digital space to construct meanings. During the multimodal production process in the Creando Juntos digital space, dialogic relationships were built, expressed in the negotiation of meanings in the recognition of comments and contributions between peers, as well as in the agency of the participants in the collaborative activity. Conclusions The digital space Creando Juntos is an innovative proposal since it provided the participating girls with various possibilities of production and interaction, and to be creative agents of new meanings in a collaborative activity mediated by digital technology. In the multimodal production process, the participants explored and discovered new ways of communicating and constructing meanings with digital technology. The multimodal productions of girls in the digital space Creating Together allow us to recognize the incidence of digital technology in educational practices, and requires reflection on how to learn and teach in digital environments, and how to propose new provocations to children's creativity . Referencias: Bal, M. (2018). Improving informative and narrative writing skills associated with multimodal literacy of middle-school students. Cypriot Journal of Educational Science. 10(4), 79–94. Burnett, K & Myers,J (2006). Observing children writing on screen: Exploring the process of multi-modal composition. Language and Literacy. 8(2) 1-31. Chaverra- Fernández., D & Gil-Restrepo, C (2017). Habilidades del pensamiento creativo asociadas a la escritura de textos multimodales. Instrumento para su evaluación en la Educación Básica Primaria. Folios, 45, 3-14. Jewitt, C., Bezemer, J., & O’Halloran, K. (2016). Introducing multimodality. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Topic: Education Sciences
NON-FORMAL LEARNING SCENARIOS AND PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICE IN VIRTUALITY
CASTRILLON JAIMES YUSBELY CECILIA 1, BONILLA SUÁREZ MYRIAM YANETH 2, MORA CIFUENTES PAOLA MILENA 3, MERCHÁN RANGEL NANCY 4,
1 UNIMINUTO, 2 UNIMINUTO, 3 UNIMINUTO, 4 UNIMINUTO,
Email: 1 YUSBELY.CASTRILLON.J@UNIMINUTO.EDU.CO, 2 myriam.bonilla@uniminuto.edu, 3 PAOLA.MORA@UNIMINUTO.EDU, 4 nancy.merchan@uniminuto.edu,
Abstract: In the professional training of the students of Degree in Early Childhood Education of the University Corporation Minuto de Dios of the Regional Center Cúcuta, competencies are developed within the guidelines and pedagogical criteria to meet the quality requirements that the educational system needs in Colombia in early childhood. This training process begins with different pedagogical moments to focus the interaction of the student with the different scenarios, where his role as a teacher in training transforms him from the practice of observation I; where non-formal educational scenarios have been transformed into virtual scenarios due to the current situation due to the pandemic. This has led to redesigning the work plan to adapt it to the virtual mode where the needs to interact with the context and people has been replaced by technology. In order to achieve the execution of the activities from the environment of each of the students, it was necessary to guide them in technological competences making synergy between observation and ICT. In consequence of the above, the modality of teaching and virtual learning develops even more skills in students to interpret, analyze and evaluate non-formal educational contexts that are difficult to access or in distant places; this promotes meaningful learning, raising motivation and vocation for teaching; the ability to observe and describe the scenarios and processes where the pedagogical practice is developed makes the researcher of formative processes use an action research methodology to publicize the results in a detailed way from the interaction with the context and the observed participants. As one of the results obtained, it was possible to build the pedagogical practice in non-formal scenarios, by designing and adapting the work material, techniques and instruments to collect information, and to build the reflection from a different perspective and experience, where the student acquires knowledge through innovative learning strategies for the transformation of the teacher's work in early childhood. The work carried out in the practice of observation I of the students of degree in early childhood education, highlights the commitment that acquires to learn and train in pedagogical competences at the end of their process of professionalization. The student manages to assume the responsibility of knowing the teaching process in non-formal scenarios to create significant changes that include the diversity that exists in all classrooms, the role and importance of family participation in early childhood, the conditions of school infrastructure and educational agents , and the relationship of non-formal scenarios to the learning process. All these activities observed by the students, showed the ability to design relevant and necessary tools for the understanding of the theme that develops each context or scenario, the working group and the applicability of the pedagogical practice in relation to the virtual modality focuses on the analysis of observation as a technique to collect information from the exercises and activities carried out with the work team , in order to consolidate the transformation of critical thinking by demonstrating that it is able to adapt to different situations in its work as a teacher. The collaborative work and interaction with the teaching advisor is important, for the understanding of the scenarios and activities that each one develops from various perspectives, one is the virtual modality where you must not only observe the scenario, but also must do hermeneutics to contextualize what in your immediate environment does not exist, so extract new information and remove from the comfort zone the undergraduate student , manages to place different situations and problems in its academic environment so that it proposes solutions or alternatives that leads to generate discussions with the working group for the agreement of innovative ideas. In this way, the dynamic that was generated in the practice of observation I in a virtual way gave the students a wide variety of situations that happen in the work of the teacher in the different training spaces for early childhood to modify the process of reading, judging and acting as a basic exercise in each learning based on the praxeological model of uniminuto.

Topic: Education Sciences
PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICE MEDIATED BY ICT IN THE ACADEMIC PROGRAM OF BACHELOR IN NATURAL SCIENCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION, UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER
MURILLO BARRERA ROSA DANIELA 1,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 daniela_murillo_926@hotmail.com,
Abstract: The objective of the current research is to determine the use of ICT tools used by teachers who guide the different subjects in the Academic Program for the Degree in Natural Sciences and Environmental Education of the Francisco de Paula Santander University in their pedagogical practice. based on theories of constructivism by Lev Vigotski (Vigotski, 1979) and Jean Piaget (Piaget, The stages of intellectual development of the child and adolescent, 1868): David Ausubel's significant learning theory (Ausubel, Hanesian, & Novak, 1983) and Jerome Bruner's theory of learning by knowledge (Bruner, 1994). It was determined as a research project with a qualitative research approach and a descriptive methodological design. The participating subjects were chosen intentionally, which were a total of 12 teachers linked to the academic program in question, who guide subjects in it, have more than five years of experience in teaching and, above all, showed a special interest in participate in this research. An interview script was used as an instrument for data collection. The results established the ICT tools used by the teaching staff of the program, their usability and the strategies they apply in their teaching work; as a result, a Glossary of ICT Tools was obtained.

Topic: Education Sciences
PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICE OF ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL TEACHERS IN TIMES OF PANDEMIC
GALLARDO PÉREZ HENRY DE JESUS 1, VILLAMIZAR JAIMES DANIEL 2, VERGEL ORTEGA MAWENCY 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 henrygallardo@ufps.edu.co, 2 danielvj@ufps.edu.co, 3 mawencyvergel@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: With the pandemic caused by Covid-19, the educational sector has been affected by the need to migrate from an educational model centered on face-to-face work to a model of non-face-to-face teaching. The research characterizes the pedagogical actions carried out throughout this process by elementary and middle school teachers in public sector educational institutions located in the rural area of Catatumbo in the department of Norte de Santander, Colombia. The methodology is framed in a multi-method approach using ethnographic research method and a quasi-experimental design from the quantitative approach. The research describes the pedagogical activities carried out by teachers, involving both ICT-mediated activities and other pedagogical actions and the resources used to carry out the non-presential teaching process and achieve the proposed learning levels, as well as the changes made in the short term in their pedagogical practice with long-term projection.

Topic: Education Sciences
PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF THE BUSINESS ADMINISTRATOR: FROM THEORY TO PRAXIS
RODRIGUEZ ISIDRO FRANCISCO ESTEBAN 1,
1 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER,
Email: 1 franciscoestebanri@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: University education assumes new challenges in professional training, from this perspective, the objective of this research was to analyze the professional training of the Business Administrator, from theory and practice, from the referents of teachers, students and graduates from the Francisco de Paula Santander University, which made it possible to generate theoretical contributions to strengthen the training and development proposal of the Educational Project of the Program (PEP). Theoretically, Business Administration was assumed from a set of rules, principles, thought with a certain universality (Theory) and, with the fulfillment of certain practices (Praxis), from the ontological, epistemological and axiological vision. The Research was approached from the interpretive paradigm, assuming the Grounded Theory as a method; Furthermore, he used the hermeneutical documentary analysis, which allowed theoretically comparing national and international references with the UFPS proposal, in the formation of the Business Administrator. The following participated in the study: 10 teachers; 10 graduates, 10 students from the last semester and 10 who were in the sixth to seventh semester, who were interviewed from the fundamental elements of professional training, emphasizing the theory-praxis relationship. The findings yielded as categories of analysis, * Educational Processes of the Program, * Academic Development, * Aptitude of the Educator, * Development of the Practical component of the Program and Academic Processes. From the categories, codes emerged that made it possible to define their relationships, triangulating the perceptions of the different actors with the analysis of the guidelines promulgated by national and international agencies for the professional training of the Business Administrator. The meeting points refer to academic processes, training in competencies, student empowerment, strengthening of the Curriculum, from an ethical vision, with a business projection, proposing theoretical elements for the improvement of the PYP, emphasizing the articulation in the curricular mesh , the rules and principles of Administration (theory) with practices (praxis).

Topic: Education Sciences
PROJECT BASED LEARNING AS A STRATEGY TO PROPOSE SOLUTIONS TO PRESSING PROBLEMS: A CASE OF STUDY FOR DESIGNING AN INDOOR AIR PURIFICATION SYSTEM BY A MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAM OF UNDERGRADUATE ENGINEERING STUDENTS.
CCAMA-MAMANI KATERYNE 1, CHIPOCO HARO DANAE 2, GUTIERREZ MARIA ROSA 3, PALOMINO-MARCELO LUIS 4, RODRIGUEZ-REYES JUAN CARLOS F. 5,
1 Universidad de Ingeniería y Tecnología - UTEC, 2 Universidad de Ingeniería y Tecnología - UTEC, 3 Universidad de Ingeniería y Tecnología - UTEC, 4 University of California San Diego, 5 Universidad de Ingeniería y Tecnología - UTEC ,
Email: 1 kateryne.ccm@gmail.com, 2 danae.chipoco@utec.edu.pe, 3 mgutierrezp@utec.edu.pe, 4 lpalominomarcelo@ucsd.edu, 5 jcrodriguez@utec.edu.pe,
Abstract: Currently, undergraduate engineering education involves a theoretical and a practical component. However, the latter is based on manual activities such as isolated experiments in a laboratory. These activities do not necessarily cover real-life challenges and result in recently graduated engineers without real-life experiences. Moreover, many companies look for professionals that not only have problem-solving skills but also soft skills. Thus, UTEC created a course called Interdisciplinary Projects with the objective of promoting critical thinking and skills for the resolution of current problems through a collaborative framework between different disciplines. In this context, an interdisciplinary group of students was formed to develop an air filtration system to improve indoor air quality and to decrease the probability of COVID-19 infection. Twelve undergraduate engineering students were organized into three groups where they learned about antiviral nanocomposites, user-centered design, and electromechanical systems design. The different groups worked in a collaborative way: they showed their progress and received feedback from each other through weekly meetings. In addition, they leaned on applications to organize the group work and share the bibliography consulted. Finally, we collected feedback from these students on the proposed learning method. Herein, we discuss the positive impact of problem-based learning and interdisciplinary work in undergraduate engineering education based on this experience.

Topic: Education Sciences
RESIGNIFICATION OF A TERRITORY, THE RETURN OF THE LONG-LIVED COMMUNITY TO A COLOMBIAN MUNICIPALITY
FUENTES GOMEZ LUISA VALENTINA 1, CHACON LEAL GLORIA ZULEMA 2, MONTERO FERREIRA MILTON ALIER 3,
1 UFPS, 2 universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 UFPS,
Email: 1 luisavalentinafg@ufps.edu.co, 2 gloria.leal198821@gmail.com, 3 miltonaliermf@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: This presentation reflects the final results of the research entitled "Participation of the elderly from Gramalote in the resettlement process to the new urban area", highlighting the redefinition of a territory through the return of the long-lived community to a municipality in Colombia , the presentation recognizes the problem of resettlement from the perspective of older adults from 2017 to 2020, as a result of the natural disaster caused by a mass removal phenomenon in 2010. The results presented are part of the third specific objective of the study, which was focused on identifying the challenges and projections for the participation of older adults in the resettlement process to the new urban area Gramalote, from the methodological point of view, it is a study Qualitative cut with a phenomenological approach, the information was obtained from in-depth interviews conducted with eleven older adults from the municipality. To identify the challenges and projections of participation, three categories of analysis were developed: the social visibility of the elderly, the recognition of the elderly in the territory and the adaptation to the new urban area, culminating in the respective conclusions regarding the participation of older adults and theoretical references.

Topic: Education Sciences
SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS: A SHORT REVIEW
QUINTERO-QUINTERO WILDER 1, BLANCO-ARIZA A. B. 2, GARZÓN-CASTRILLÓN M. A. 3,
1 UFPSO, 2 Universidad Simón Bolívar, 3 Universidad Simón Bolívar,
Email: 1 quinterowilder@ufpso.edu.co, 2 abarizab@unisimon.edu.co, 3 magarzon@unisimon.edu.co,
Abstract: The main objective of this study is to provide a summary of the general review of studies related to intellectual capital in higher education institutions. In addition, a compilation of information from the Scopus database and other sources was obtained and analyzed through direct comparison of the articles and books found. The results indicated that higher education institutions, by having high levels of Intellectual Capital, are contained in a trained and innovative human capital; a robust structural capital in organizational, technological, and research processes; and a relational capital with academic and research networks. Finally, in almost all cases, the number of scientific production (articles and books mainly) is published by the full-time teacher of the main institutions in Colombia.

Topic: Education Sciences
SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN COLOMBIA: A CASE STUDY
QUINTERO-QUINTERO WILDER 1, BLANCO-ARIZA A. B. 2, GARZÓN-CASTRILLÓN M. A. 3,
1 UFPSO, 2 Universidad Simón Bolívar, 3 Universidad Simón Bolívar,
Email: 1 quinterowilder@ufpso.edu.co, 2 abarizab@unisimon.edu.co, 3 magarzon@unisimon.edu.co,
Abstract: The main objective of this study is to provide a general view of studies related to intellectual capital developed in Colombia. A compilation of information from the Scopus database was obtained and analyzed using Excel with the direct comparison and analysis of graphs. The results showed that Colombian scientific production is associated with 31 public universities, representing the 80,529 elaborate by 44,761 authors in three relevant topics Agricultural and Biological Science, Physics and Astronomy, and Medicine. The data obtained show that 56.61% of the institutions are above the average. This behavior depends on the number of researchers and full-time teachers by the institution related to the intellectual capital.

Topic: Education Sciences
SOFTWARE FOR TEACHING MATHEMATICS DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC
MUÑOZ TELLO ANDRÉS FELIPE 1, DUARTE HERRERA MARCELA 2,
1 Universidad Santiago de Cali, 2 Universidad del Valle y Universidad Santiago de Cali,
Email: 1 antello05@gmail.com, 2 marcela.duarte@correounivalle.edu.co,
Abstract: In times of COVID-19, the use and good management of technological tools has almost become mandatory in educational settings. In particular, in the area of ​​mathematics, the change from the strictly face-to-face modality to the virtual or alternate modality means that the evaluation must be adjusted to the contingency, rethinking the ways in which it is planned, designed and executed. From a case study with a qualitative approach, some data obtained over seven academic periods of the Calculus II course, taught at a University of Santiago de Cali (Valle del Cauca, Colombia) were analyzed, so that they can be recognized these transformations, through the learning results obtained by the students. For this, the pedagogical elements and relationships put into play are taken into account, questioning the role played by each of the actors in the teaching-learning process. This information is taken as raw material for reflection and improvement proposal for quality evaluation processes, which can be a more effective measure of meaningful student learning, valued through the use of digital platforms. As elements of discussion and conclusion, this research shows the variations in student performance and the role of the teacher in the virtual and alternating modality, to point out the importance of the adaptation processes of educational practices in the teaching of mathematics in higher education. As a means of expanding this analysis, the elements where the pedagogical practice of the teacher varies before and after the pandemic are presented, and it is shown through examples or exercises, how the software can be implemented to promote learning. It is expected that such systematization of the results derived from the teaching experience will be useful to continue improving the educational processes in pandemic and post-pandemic.

Topic: Education Sciences
STATE OF TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION AT THE FRANCISCO JOSÉ DE CALDAS DISTRICT UNIVERSITY
BRICEÑO CASTAÑEDA SERGIO 1, SUAREZ OSCAR 2,
1 UNIVERSIDAD DISTRITAL FRANCISCO JOSÉ DE CALDAS, 2 Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas,
Email: 1 sbricenoc@udistrital.edu.co, 2 ojardeys@correo.udistrital.edu.co,
Abstract: The purpose of this presentation is to report the status of research in technology education at the district university through research projects, master's thesis and doctoral thesis that have been developed in recent years. The “a priori” categories focused on the design and conceptual perspectives, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the methodological strategies and science technology society curriculum. The research is bibliographic, with a quantitative approach. The results show that the greatest contribution to the area is made by the master's degree in technology education, with the ICT category in methodological strategies being the one with the greatest contribution, dominating the qualitative approach in research. By way of conclusion, a contribution is established in the systematization of educational experiences in the company of teachers who completed their Master's Degree in Technology Education. Future work requires treating the information through data exploration techniques to infer emerging categories that indicate current and future trends to direct research efforts.

Topic: Education Sciences
THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC HEALTH ON MIGRANT WOMEN FROM VENEZUELA IN A STATE OF GESTATION IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JOSÉ DE CÚCUTA IN THE YEAR 2016-2019
MONSALVE GÓMEZ MARTHA ISABEL 1, CELIS GÓMEZ GABRIELA ALEXANDRA 2,
1 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCSICO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 2 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER,
Email: 1 Marthaisabelmg@ufps.edu.co, 2 julidanna_152@outlook.com,
Abstract: This research entitled: The impact of Public Health on Migrant Women from Venezuela in a State of Gestation in the Municipality of San José de Cúcuta 2016-2019, a topic where the problems that have led to the impact of women's health can be evidenced pregnant women and migrants from Venezuela and prenatal care, where the collapse in the municipality's health system can be evidenced, is proposed so that health professionals provide care, support and information to pregnant migrants from Venezuela. This includes promoting a healthy lifestyle, including good nutrition, detecting and preventing disease, providing family planning counseling, and supporting women who may be experiencing pregnancy Population migration refers to the movement of a person or group of people who cross the borders of a geographic area, destined to settle indefinitely or temporarily reside outside the country of origin. Migratory movements are caused by a variety of reasons, some of which are related to the search for opportunities. Work, better socioeconomic conditions, keep learning, fly Prevent human rights violations, transfers caused by natural disasters and, ultimately, war is characterized by the search for better prospects. Migration is a stressor and is related to the following problems Health, economy, gender, politics, society and family, because when people move from one place to another, they face conditions Background problems that are different from the situation that they faced each other before leaving; and these changes will affect your behavior, social relationships, diet, growth, health can change your life significantly In the city of San José de Cúcuta there is a large influx of Venezuelan immigrants, but we see that this influx is not controlled. (MINSALUD, 2017) He also made it clear that hospitals are obliged to attend to emergencies, and the EPS must ensure that people who present immigration cards, passports, special residence permits, diplomatic certificates or residence permits are in contact with the system. Therefore, because imsalud formulated a development plan to serve the community, in Cúcuta it took care of a large number of Venezuelan immigrant women who were pregnant. This research in development proposes the following Objectives: Analyze the impact of Public Health on pregnant migrant women from Venezuela, and Identify the different epidemics due to the forced and involuntary displacement of migrant women from Venezuela in their vulnerable condition. Determine the amount of population of migrant women from Venezuela in a state of pregnancy that has been treated in public health entities. Two instruments will be designed and applied: the survey and the semi-structured interview. (Bernardo and Calderero (2000) consider that the instruments are a resource that the researcher can use to get closer to the phenomena and extract information from them. Keywords: 1-Border Population 2-Migrant Women 3-Pregnancy 4-Migratory phenomenon 5-Public health

Topic: Education Sciences
THE RELATIONSHIP SOCIAL CONSCIENCE-SEMIOTIC REPRESENTATION-DRAWING IN THE EXPERIENCE OF CHILDREN. A REVIEW.
SALAS MORENO RICARDO 1,
1 Universidad Autónoma de Manizales y Universidad del Valle,
Email: 1 ricardo.salas@correounivalle.edu.co,
Abstract: This paper is part of the research project entitled Social conscience, semiotic representation and drawing in the experience of children. It was presented in the research line in development of consciousness, in the PhD Program in Cognitive Sciences at Universidad Autónoma de Manizales, Colombia, and in the Research Group on textuality and cognition of the School of language sciences at Universidad del Valle , Colombia. The objective of the phase shared here is to review the empirical background of the research problem from a qualitative approach. The general question that guided the search was: What has been investigated about drawing in childhood and its relationship with social conscience and semiotic representations? A critical position is assumed regarding what has been done about the object, the subjects and the research methods or approaches. 120 articles published between 2010 and 2020 were included, mainly in English and Spanish. The search was carried out in the databases Web of Science, Scopus (Elsevier), Science Direct (Elsevier), in Google Academic and Microsoft Academic, and included the Journal of Theoretical Biology, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, and the Journal of Experimental Child Psychology; the Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection (EBSCO) was also used; Psychology Database (ProQuest); Redalyc (Open Access); SciELO (Open Access); Social Science Database (ProQuest); and Dialnet. For the search, the following descriptors were determined: conscience, social conscience, representation, semiotic representation, children's drawing, icon, index, symbol. The following Boolean operators were used, with their English equivalents: consciousness AND drawing; drawing AND consciousness; social representation OR social awareness; social conscience NOT class conscience; awareness NEAR social ; awareness ADJ social ; awareness WITH social; drawing AND semiotic representation; drawing AND social representation; semiotic representation NOT mental representation; representation WITH semiotic; representation NEAR semiotic; representation ADJ semiotic; drawing OR icon; drawing AND text; drawing AND sign; drawing AND symbol; (children OR infants) AND (drawing OR representation); "Social conscience in children"; "Semiotic representation and drawing"; "Social conscience and semiotic representation". The selected investigations were classified into three broad categories, namely: (1) works on consciousness in children; (2) works on drawing in children; (3) works on the drawing-semiotic representation relationship in children. Within each of these categories, the works were classified by specific areas or themes. It is concluded that drawing is becoming increasingly important as an instrument for investigating conscious cognitive processes in children, even though it has not been assumed from an interdisciplinary perspective of cognitive sciences or adequately from a phenomenological approach. Bringing phenomenology, semiotics and hermeneutics to the cognitive sciences in a complementary way seems to constitute an unprecedented attempt that, in itself, could justify the effort put into the project.

Topic: Education Sciences
THE ROLE OF MOTIVATION IN THE LEARNING PROCESS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION
ACUÑA GIL MARITZA 1, PATIÑO QUINTERO CARLA KATERINNE 2,
1 Corporación Universitaria Minuto de Dios, 2 Corporación Universitaria Minuto de Dios,
Email: 1 maritzabiosistemica@gmail.com, 2 cpatinoquin@uniminuto.edu.co,
Abstract: The study is proposed in correspondence to the line of research in human development to which the research seedbed in child pedagogy -PAIDOS is attached. From there, the approach to the pedagogical practice of early childhood education teachers is sustained; particularly with regard to reviewing motivation as a key aspect in the development of training processes in Colombia. This makes sense considering the gaps in the scientific literature in objects of study properly related to childhood. While the investigative work has the purpose: to recognize the main pedagogical contributions that configure motivation as a theoretical category, associated with the formation of infants. The study is structured from the interpretive paradigm, adopts a qualitative design and performs a documentary analysis that allows identifying from a systematic review and coding process (open, axial and selective) the following findings in relation to motivation in early childhood education: knowledge Discipline is mediated by the affective abilities of the students, the epistemic nature of the guiding activities (games, art, literature, exploration of the environment) determines the didactic proposals, the family context constitutes an extriseco factor that permeates the integral development, the relationship knowing -context-teacher constitute an incident factor in the construction of learning, cultural recognition-family of the infant is the communicative base in the formative process.

Topic: Education Sciences
TRAINING PROGRAM ON BIOLOGICAL RISK AND PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES AIMED AT PERSONNEL OF THE LABORATORIES OF THE FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES OF THE UFPS
CONTRERAS VELASQUEZ ZAIDA ROCIO 1, GUTIERREZ DURAN JOSE ALFREDO 2, NEIRA HURTADO YESIKA 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 INDEPENDIENTE,
Email: 1 zaidarociocv@ufps.edu.co, 2 josealfredogd@ufps.edu.co, 3 yesikanh@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Know aspects related to biological risk such as microorganisms that are intentionally and unintentionally manipulated in laboratories, the transmission mechanism of infectious diseases related to these microorganisms, epidemiology and prevention strategies; It is the beginning of an epidemiological surveillance process aimed at knowing the biological agents with which there is a risk of occupational exposure. METHODOLOGICAL DESIGN: Pilot strategy of an exploratory and social type with a view to observing the level of acceptability of the personnel involved with the processes and activities developed in the laboratories of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences in the appropriation of knowledge about the biological risk that is manipulated in the laboratories. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thematic axes were selected according to the needs identified by the personnel involved in the different laboratories, which allows them to improve their knowledge of biological risk. A 10-hour meeting was organized through the Meet platform, convening the teaching staff, laboratory workers, students, and general service personnel from the Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. RESULTS: There was a total attendance of 109 people among teachers, assistant workers, students, and general services during the four meetings, with an average attendance of 27 workers per meeting. During the first meeting, an introduction and conceptualization on the epidemiology of infectious diseases was carried out; a second meeting aimed at understanding signs and symptoms in each of the human body systems; a third encounter that exposed the microorganisms that are manipulated in laboratories intentionally and unintentionally; Finally, they received training on antimicrobial treatments and strategies for the construction of an epidemiological surveillance design directed at biological risk. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to generate a positive impact on the working staff and the group of students who attended, by making known the importance of knowing the microorganism that is intentionally and unintentionally manipulated in laboratories, the epidemiology of each of them , the warning signs and symptoms that must be taken into account and the prevention strategies that must be taken into account to avoid risks of the appearance of occupational disease related to mishandling or occupational accidents. The attendance was much higher than expected and, according to what was stated by the attendees, the learning expectations related to the topic discussed were met. Likewise, the importance of the subject is such that it is necessary to create spaces that allow expanding the training possibilities for personnel who are exposed to this type of risk, especially those professionals who do not belong to the health field and who Due to their area of competence, they are not trained in health prevention for this type of biological agents. KEY WORDS: occupational health , infectious diseases, education

Topic: Education Sciences
A COMPARATIVE READING ON THE CONCEPT OF THE ABSURD CONDITION OF HUMAN EXISTENCE, BETWEEN ALBERT CAMUS AND JEAN GRONDIN.
MELO MUÑOZ CHRISTIAN GEOVANNY 1,
1 University of Valle,
Email: 1 melo.christian@correounivalle.edu.co,
Abstract: This article aims to interpret and criticize the concept of absurdity (also named non-sense) presented in Albert Camus's book The Myth of Sisyphus. The interpretation will be carried out according to a reading of the postulates presented in the book The sense of life by author Jean Grondin. Grondin reveals epistemic, linguistic, and methodological gaps and contradictions in those existentialist philosophers as Albert Camus, who stated that individuals should embrace the absurd condition of human existence, that is, the futile acceptance that life has no meaning or sense. Therefore, Jean Grondin exposes absurdity as a paradox: accepting that life has no meaning requires, at first, the acceptance that life has or had already one. So, absurd becomes just a feeling that follows reasoning and the conclusion that we, human beings, are cognitively limited to comprehend the sense of life. It means life has a meaning, but we are not allowed to reach it.

Topic: Conflict and Peace
ANALYSIS OF LAW 1448 OF 2011 ON THE VICTIMS OF THE ARMED CONFLICT IN THE CATATUMBO NORTE DE SANTANDER AREA 2016-2019.
MONSALVE GÓMEZ MARTHA ISABEL 1, RINCÓN MORALES EDDY KARIME 2, RINCÓN MORALES MARISOL 3,
1 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCSICO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 2 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 3 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER,
Email: 1 Marthaisabelmg@ufps.edu.co, 2 Eddykarierm@ufps.edu.co, 3 marisolrm@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: This research is based on Analyzing Law 1448 of 2011 On The Victims Of The Armed Conflict In The Area Of Catatumbo Norte de Santander 2016-2019, it arises as a response of the national legislature to the violent problem of our country, through this law, the fundamental right of the victims was recognized. One of the problems of repairs, according to Martha Minow (1998), lies in the search to repair the irreparable. In the population of Catatumbo, human rights are violated by armed groups outside the law and part of the national army. One of the most important and representative advances that the Colombian government has made in favor of the victims of the armed conflict has been the enactment of Law 1448 of 2011, Victims and Land Restitution Law, which contains a set of care measures, comprehensive assistance and reparation for those who, under the terms of the law, are considered victims of the internal armed conflict. However, leaving as a relevant consequence the obligation on the part of the State to vindicate the dignity of the victims who have suffered damages as a consequence of the infractions of International Humanitarian Law or of serious or manifest violations of international Human Rights norms during the conflict , to make effective the enjoyment of the rights to truth, justice, reparation and guarantees of non-repetition, thus materializing their constitutional rights. In conclusion, the type of research that was applied is qualitative research whose objective is to explain, predict, describe or explore the "why" or the nature of the links with the population under study and in terms of the hermeneutical method legal study is the interpretation of the rules, laws and legal texts. The Internal Armed Conflict:Loss of identity, uprooting are phenomena faced by a certain population, due to unjustified violence. (Law 387, 1997). Regarding human rights, they are the instruments and mechanisms to control and limit the action of the state, and the compass of social efforts to achieve the common good. Qualitative research was chosen, the objective of qualitative research is to explain, predict, describe or explore the "why" or the nature of the links between unstructured information. Research Approach The research focus is legal hermeneutics is an important first step in the materialization of the legal method. The focus of the research is legal hermeneutics is an important first step in the materialization of the legal method, a considerable theoretical effort to methodologically integrate aspects such as the context of the interpretation or the subjective dimension of the same without renouncing the substantive and procedural values ​​of the Legal method, that is, to the ideals of certainty and security, the Key Subjects in this investigation are the Victims of the conflict in the Catatumbo Region. Keywords: 1-Internal Armed Conflict, 2- Human Rights, 3 4-Forced Displacement, 5-Justice, 6-Victims 7-Law 1448.8- International Humanitarian Law

Topic: Conflict and Peace
CHALLENGES OF HIGHER EDUCATION TO STRENGTHEN THE PEDAGOGY OF PEACE, IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE POST-CONFLICT IN THE POPULATION OF THE CORREGIMENTO DE JUAN FRIO -MUNICIPALITY OF VILLA DEL ROSARIO
TRUJILLO TOSCANO LUIS EDUARDO 1, MONSALVE GÓMEZ MARTHA ISABEL 2,
1 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 2 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCSICO DE PAULA SANTANDER,
Email: 1 letrujil@ufps.edu.co, 2 Marthaisabelmg@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The present research "Challenges of Higher Education to strengthen the Pedagogy of Peace, in the Framework of the Post-Conflict in the Population of the Corregimiento de Juan Frio Municipality of Villa del Rosario" aims to strengthen the Pedagogy of Peace, in the population of this district marked by violence in previous years, and evidencing the violation of the fundamental rights of the inhabitants of this area, regardless of sex, gender, or age, with this research it is sought that the population through the pedagogy of peace, can strengthen the social fabric of this community, where through higher education they are guided in the accompaniment to generate the culture of peace, and this in turn is transmitted and replicated from generation to generation, to achieve recollection, and forgiveness, and forgetting, in the post-conflict framework as fundamental elements the union and social construction in the community. Quoting Abraham Magendzo (2000), he affirmed: that human rights should be the ethical foundation of a new educational paradigm of an education Liberating research; transforming and educating for citizenship; The armed conflict is the violent manifestation of groups outside the law towards vulnerable populations, which are usually found in the parts where there is less presence of the State and where the most degrading atrocities are committed against the human being;That is why, in view of the magnitude of the scourge, studies have been carried out on the subject trying to find alternative solutions, hence, in this work the consequences of the armed conflict in the township of Juan Frío, one of the one of the greatest recipients of the scourge, which worsened at the beginning of the year 2000, at a time when the community of Juan Frío suffered a social crisis, due to the atrocious attacks by the paramilitaries, which killed approximately 560 people on the Frontiers front, and many more to disappear, the actions of these groups led to the partial destruction of the town and its inhabitants: on a physical and psychological level, it is committed to the recovery of the social fabric of the Juan Frío district is based on implementing efficiently what is established in the National Constitution of Colombia. It is proposed to identify the causes that generated the armed conflict and the violation of their rights and n the population, determine the armed actors and the types of violence generated, carry out a socioeconomic characterization. The type of research to be developed is quali-quantitative, with an exploratory-descriptive design, together two instruments are designed and applied, one type survey consisting of 127 items for a sample of 48 people belonging to social organizations of the district under study, being in its totality a population 150 inhabitants. A convenience sample is selected, the semi-structured interview is also applied to 5 leaders of each of the organizations. Keywords: Pedagogy, Culture of Peace, Population, Human Rights, Education, Legal Support, Post-conflict.

Topic: Conflict and Peace
COLLECTIVE MEMORY RECONSTRUCTION: CHRONICLES TO MAKE VISIBLE THE LGBTIQ COMMUNITY VICTIMS OF VIOLENCE IN COLOMBIA, THE CASE OF NORTE DE SANTANDER STATE.
CHIA ESTUPIÑAN LUIS ERNESTO 1, MORANTES PÉREZ MAYER STEPHANNY 2,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 luisernestocest@ufps.edu.co, 2 mayerstephannymper@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: This research looks forward to reconstruct the individual and collective memory of LGBTIQ community members who were victims of the armed conflict in Norte de Santander state in Colombia, through the production of chronicles that portray the experiences of this community, which has been object of discrimination and violence within the frame time of Colombian´s arm conflict. On the other hand, the choice of the population under study is justified taking into consideration the constant invisibility of the LGBTIQ community, showing that in Colombia the situation is discouraging. According to the Victims Unit (2020) 4,088 persons that belong to the LGBTIQ community were recognized as victims of the internal armed conflict in the country. The above mentioned gives certainty of the existence of a significant number of people who were violated by armed actors such as FARC, the paramilitaries and the Public Force itself, in a systematic and premeditated manner. Likewise, a similar context is presented in Norte de Santander state, since there is a registry of 210 LGBTIQ victims, according to the National Information Network (2021). Therefore, this project finds in the reconstruction of memory the necessary milestones to vindicate a community that for years has been violated and made invisible in Norte de Santander state, as well as empowering the victims in their internal reparation process, all this, from social communication. The methodology to be used is qualitative, with instruments such as in-depth interviews, focus groups and workshops.

Topic: Conflict and Peace
COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE TOWNSHIP OF LA VICTORIA
MOJICA CARVAJAL DEIVER ANTONIO 1, NAVARRO GALLARDO DANNY MARCELA 2, JAIMES MARQUEZ MARITZA CAROLINA 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 deiverantoniomc@ufps.edu.co, 2 dannymarcelang@ufps.edu.co, 3 maritzacarolinajm@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The main objective of this research is to recognize community participation in the protection of the environment in the township of La Victoria (2021-2). Considering that environmental problems are an important and interesting element to address and investigate, given the relationship and interaction between humanity and nature, in which the current way of life has managed to destroy and diminish the finite capacity of natural resources, the biodiversity and ecosystems that meet human needs. From the paradigm of critical theory, the participation of the community to protect the environment is analyzed, inquiring about the ways in which they participate and the concerns of people for the environmental problems that surround them, in social, political and economic aspects. The study sample is intentional, with 10 participants, between the ages of 20 and 70, male and female, with a heterogeneous level of education and socioeconomic stratum. The instruments to be used are: focus group and semi-structured interview. It is important to mention that this process will be supported by the use of ICT, being these tools that allow reaching the community to expand the information and have better access to it.

Topic: Conflict and Peace
COMPLEMENTARY CURRENCY FOR SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION: THE MONETARY TECHNOLOGIES NECESSARY FOR ITS SUSTAINABILITY
ORZI RICARDO 1,
1 Universidad Nacional de Lujan (UNLu) y Universidad Abierta Interamericana (UAI),
Email: 1 ricardoorzi@gmail.com,
Abstract: Abstract: Since 2005, at the National University of Luján (UNLu) and since 2007 at the Inter-American Open University (UAI) we have been working on social currencies. For more than fifteen years we have studied and collaborated in the creation of these complementary currencies, whose designers had decided to work outside the circuit generated by the monopoly in the issuance of the official currency. Presently, we live in a constant process of “commodification”, where "almost" everything is mediated by money, almost everything we consume, we buy, currency and credit have become essential for our day to day. We live in a market society, as Polanyi suggested, where both the paper currency minted by central banks, as well as electronic money, which is issued through this secondary creation of money by commercial banks, are the necessary means to acquire the goods we consume. The monopoly of the issuance and control of monetary circulation, which has been exercised, until now, by the central and commercial banks, proved devoid of tools to control these excesses of the concentrated financial system and to ensure the monetary circulation in the popular sectors, because it is in those sectors where the currency always becomes scarce. Let us remember that, today, 95% of the money that circulates in the economy is not paper money, but is electronic money, created by commercial banks, which has changed even the logic of the banking system as an intermediary, since today there are loans that create deposits and not as we studied in economics manuals. To be able to speak of social currency we need to re-characterize the official currency, to denature both the currency and the markets. We need to remember that the official currency is an unconscious product of the modern worldview of the industrial age and responds to the imperatives of its origin, national states that, allied with a nascent bourgeoisie, needed to establish themselves in a capitalist system that was going through its first stages of development. Therefore, it is a currency that reproduces the principles that structure capitalism, a currency that promotes the paradigm of permanent growth, in a world that today we recognize as limited, the prevalence of the practice of competition over cooperation, and the model of a society made up of individuals who seek only their own personal satisfaction, as Lietaer already anticipated in 2005. In this context, starting in the 1980s, but especially since the 2008 crisis, we perceive the emergence of complementary currencies and social currencies, created by a community that decided to exercise its citizen power and generate a means of exchange and payment, wherever the official currency was scarce. With this instrument, they prevented, in part, that the crisis would end the local economies. Currently there are about 5000 enterprises and experiences of complementary and social currencies. For us, the creation of a local monetary system allows generating money where there is none, it promotes an increase in the level of activity, but it also generates citizenship, a citizenship aware that through the creation and management of the organization of currency circulation can make a perceptible intervention in the reality they live: managing their own money, which incorporates their own values, they can solve day-to-day situations, but also contribute to the development of their communities and participate by assisting the population that most need it. The exposition will be developed following this order: we will try first to situate ourselves in the global financial economic context, which forces us to talk about local development and the necessary complementation with a currency that is different from the official currency; then we will characterize complementary currency as a different institution from the official currency; later we will describe -within the so-called complementary currencies- the social currencies. Finally, through a brief explanation of some cases, we are going to analyze the different technologies that make these means of exchange and payment more sustainable and more effective: oxidation, backup, and the new monetary technologies that also introduces in the field of information sciences.

Topic: Conflict and Peace
RECONSTRUCTION OF HISTORICAL MEMORY IN LA FORTALEZA (CÚCUTA) DURING 2021 THROUGH AUDIOVISUAL, PHOTOGRAPHIC AND RADIO PRODUCTION
ROJAS JAIMES LAURA CAMILA 1, GÓMEZ GELVES JOHAN ARMANDO 2,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 lauracamilarj@ufps.edu.co, 2 johanarmandogg@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: This qualitative research is focused on the reconstruction of the historical memory of the Colombian armed conflict and Venezuelan migration in the La Fortaleza settlement of the city of Cúcuta through audiovisual, radio and photographic production from which three research subgroups emerge. It is important to clarify that this summary is presented by the audiovisual production of the project whose instrument for collecting information is the semi-structured interview and the life stories of the victims and migrants, who are involved in a space of identification and recognition of events that occurred in previous years. Regarding audiovisual production, the specific objective is to produce a documentary miniseries composed of six chapters with an approximate duration of 5 to 10 minutes each, based on the documentary genre with an interactive approach, which emphasizes the testimonies and the predominance of the dialogue. According to the narrative that the miniseries will have, the non-continuous classification has been selected, that is, the sequence of the episodes independently. Within the theoretical references of the research, Mate (2006) finds that he analyzes the terms of history and memory as appropriations of the past, and takes into account the forgetting that is constituted in two ways: the first, which refers to the ignorance of the facts associated with ignorance, and the other, which corresponds to downplaying what happened in relation to injustice. It also recognizes the importance of a unique historical past that happens without a trace. In this way, memory rescues the events that are not recorded within the official archives, but are told by the victims that history tried to silence. The development of this project will allow to expand the knowledge that is had on these particular subjects (armed conflict and migration). Currently the present investigation is in progress, and it is expected to intervene in the La Fortaleza community in the first semester of 2022 to carry out the pre-production, production and post-production processes. For them, they have the technical script instruments, a recording plan for television and photography, an interview format and the structure of a series of workshops with which it is intended to contextualize the community on the concepts of memory, historical memory and production of contents.

Topic: Conflict and Peace
TEXTILE NARRATIVES ON GENDER VIOLENCE WITH THE SURVIVING WOMEN, AND THEIR DESCENDANTS, OF THE MASSACRE OF NOVEMBER 16, 1949 IN EL CARMEN, NORTE DE SANTANDER
SANGUINO TRILLOS LINETH MARCELA 1, ABRIL SOTO DANIELA MARÍA 2,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 lsanguino0303@gmail.com, 2 danielamariaasot@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: This social intervention-type project seeks to reconstruct the historical memory of the surviving women, and their descendants, of the El Carmen massacre, a municipality in Norte de Santander. The way to achieve the objective is the weaving of backpacks, turning them into memory collecting instruments. Considering that the conflict environment is everyday and that gender violence is subsumed by social violence (Torres, 2015), we understand how necessary it is to give visibility to this type of violence, to try, with increasing force, remove from anonymity the aggressions that are exerted on women because of their gender, and being seen as a territory of conquest or as a means to demonstrate power. This research seeks to become an instrument so that these women can tell what they have been silent so far, this being a form of vindication and healing with respect to the past. The research approach will be carried out from a qualitative approach, in which it will have key actors, such as the women of El Carmen, survivors of the massacre carried out on November 16, 1949 and the descendants of the survivors (daughters and granddaughters). Finally, the body mapping and the semi-structured interview will be adopted as information gathering means. As a fundamental element for the development of the project, the fabric will be used as a means of communication with women, in order to consolidate bases to generate trust and from there, build the story.

Topic: Conflict and Peace
THE SCHOOL IS AN OASIS THAT SHOULD NOT DIE: THE RESIGNATION OF THE CATATUMBO SCHOOL FROM THE VOICES OF THE STUDENTS
URBINA CÁRDENAS JESÚS ERNESTO URBINA CÁRDENAS 1,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula santander,
Email: 1 jesusurbina@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Approach to the problematic issue. Catatumbo constitutes a rich territory affected by all forms of violence. The poverty rate reaches 53%, a percentage that exceeds the national average, only 27% of the population has potable water coverage. Three of the municipalities that make up this area are among the 10 towns in the country with the highest number of hectares of coca leaf planted: Tibú with 16,096, Sardinata with 5,047 and Tarra with 4,916 hectares (North Santander Departmental Development Plan 2020- 2023). The instability of the territory is exacerbated by four phenomena: the exponential growth of illicit crops, the regulation and instability produced by the confrontation of different armed groups, the growth of insecurity and its humanitarian impact, and the crisis that originates with Venezuelan migration (FIP, 2020). The public university cannot turn its back on this reality, a reflection and redirection of the social responsibility policy is necessary. In this general framework, this presentation presents the SCHOOL representations of a group of students who attend a Rural Educational Center of Catatumbo, (Finú Project, code: PFC 012-2020). Guiding question. How do the students of an educational center in Catatumbo represent the school and how from these new meanings is it possible to create a teacher training program in the UFPS faculty of education? Methodology. It is based on the proposal called Creative and Transformative Action Research (Urbina & Pérez, 2017), of a mixed type, includes immersions in the territory and data collection through interviews and focus groups. It receives contributions from the Theory of Social Representations (Moscovici, 1979; Weisz, 2017) and the Grounded Theory of Strauss and Corbin (2002). It was carried out in three phases: (a) Interactive work with the participants; (b) holding workshops and gathering information; (c) conversational groups for the discussion of the findings. Eight students from a Catatumbo school participate: (8) female and three (3) male, between 14 and 16 years old. The information was analyzed using the Constant Comparison Method (CCM), data reduction, systematization and interpretation through line-to-line coding, grouping of relevant concepts, and determination of macro-categories (Charmaz, 2006). First, the intersubjective process of data construction is made explicit, and then the relationships of trust and difficulty involved in this process are shown. Both the findings inherent to this epistemological exercise, as well as the meanings of school for these young people are exposed (Arias, 2017). Results. The representations of rural school are shown beyond the idea of ​​training space (Larrosa, 2019), understood as the space where the community protects the social fabric that has been decomposed by illegal actors, an open place where things other than the coercion to which they are subjected by those who hold the weapons, an oasis that should not die, because it represents the meeting point and the axis of the community (Boix, 2014). Conclusions: The elements detected contribute to the need to rethink from the Faculty of education, the approach to teacher training. It is not enough to train teachers with high disciplinary skills, it is necessary to understand the representations of school and pedagogy, from the point of view of its actors; and from these meanings, propose a new teacher training program. Bibliographic references Arias, J (2017). Problemas y retos de la educación rural colombiana. Revista Educación y ciudad, (33), 53-62. https://doi.org/10.36737/01230425.v0.n33.2017.1647 Boix, R. (2014). La escuela rural en la dimensión territorial. Revista Innovación educativa, (24), 98-97. https://doi.org/10.15304/ie.24.1959 Charmaz, K. Construyendo teoría fundamentada: una guía práctica a través del análisis cualitativo. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/39120429_CHARMAZ_Kathy_C_Constructing_Grounded_Theory_a_Practical_Guide_Through_Qualitative_Analysis Larrosa, J. (2019). Esperando no se sabe qué. Sobre el oficio de profesor. Noveduc. Moscovici, S. (1979). El psicoanálisis, su imagen y su público. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Huemul. Plan de Desarrollo para Norte de Santander 2020-2023 “MAS OPORTUNIDADES PARA TODOS” http://www.nortedesantander.gov.co/Portals/0/PDD%20NdS%202020-2023%20(Ordenanza%20006%20de%202020).pdf Fundación ideas para la paz - FIP, (2020b). ¿En qué va la implementación del Acuerdo de Paz en el Catatumbo? Avances y desafíos. https://ideaspaz.org/media/website/FIP_CapitolioTerritorio_Vol4_Catatumbo.pdf Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (2002). Bases de la investigación cualitativa: técnicas y procedimientos para desarrollar la teoría fundamentada. Editorial Universidad de Antioquia. Urbina, J. & Pérez, J. (2017). Representaciones sociales de estudiantes de ingeniería sobre seguridad y salud en el trabajo: Investigar desde problemas significativos de aprendizaje. Revista Educación en Ingeniería, 12 (23), 35-42. htt

Topic: Conflict and Peace
"TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE AND THE UNIVERSITY AS A SCENARIO OF PEACE".
BARBOSA MONSALVE CANDY SELENE 1, VILLAMIZAR LAGUADO EDWIN 2,
1 INDEPENDIENTE, 2 ESAP,
Email: 1 ZELENE007@GMAIL.COM, 2 edwvilla_2@hotmail.com,
Abstract: This completed research is titled "Transitional Justice and the University as a Scenario for Peace." Language users access various texts or listen to speech, for this they use the media and symbolic and / or metaphorical structures that lead to the elaboration of apparently personal discursive representations of everyday events, and at the same time, they infer shared social beliefs of a more general nature within the representational framework of the context. In this case, an approach to the transitional justice discourse within a university context in a territory where conflict has prevailed is based on the criterion that any transition to peace faces ideologies acquired, expressed and reproduced by the hegemonic discourse through of agents and discursive strategies of media manipulation.The complex interaction of such discourses, whether of dominant groups, dissidents and opponents within the university context, determine their impact on the imbalance of social equality, and consequently on the reproduction of their inequality. For this reason, the need to train in the field of human rights in the academic horizon is constituted as an axis of a new citizenship, since it allows to face the manipulative discourse of transitional justice, which sustained in old practices of discrimination, exclusion and Polarization; it only exponentially reproduces the rupture of the social fabric.Hence, how pertinent it is to learn to identify, promote and promote an adequate democratic discourse in the university environment around human rights, transitional justice and peace. To do this, it has been proposed to go beyond content analysis by making a firm commitment to a defense of the need to improve traditional methodological designs, resorting to methodological triangulation that led to complementing content analysis through discourse analysis; to delve a little deeper into the critical social and communicative complexity that surrounds the teaching of human rights and transitional justice in times of transition and post-conflict.The appreciative approach implemented in human rights made it possible to guide a pedagogical device on human rights and transitional justice that included cartoons as metaphorical elements in four (4) focus groups made up of sixteen (16) teachers from the Public Administration Program of the Escuela Superior de Public Administration ESAP Territorial Norte de Santander-Arauca, to promote the construction of a more critical and deliberative character capable of reconfiguring the discussions of the transition in the university environment as well as the education of transitional justice. The results made evident a polarized or undemocratic discourse on the part of the majority of teachers towards transitional justice and human rights, which guides the need to take into account a more responsible or appreciative pedagogical approach for their teaching and at the service of the future territorial public administrators. Keywords: Discourses on transitional justice, transitional justice and education, human rights, appreciative approach and culture of peace.

Topic: Conflict and Peace
ANALYSIS OF RESULTS FROM THE REDESIGN OF AN ELECTRONIC SMELL SYSTEM FOR THE BENEFIT OF COCOA QUALITY.
FLOREZ MARTINEZ ALEXANDER 1, JAIMES ALBARRACIN RICHAR 2, VARGAS FLÓREZ JESÚS OMAR 3, QUINTANA FUENTES LUCAS FERNANDO 4,
1 UNAD, 2 UNAD, 3 UNAD, 4 UNAD,
Email: 1 alexander.florez@unad.edu.co, 2 richardjasal1981@gmail.com, 3 jesus.vargas@unad.edu.co, 4 lucas.quintana@unad.edu.co,
Abstract: The development of the research project optimizes an electronic olfaction system implemented for the benefit of cocoa quality in the post-harvest process, it starts from the precedent of an existing system where the possibility of redesigning the concentration chamber, chamber of measurement and reduction of the multisensory matrix of 9 to 6 sensors from the manufacturer MQ, responsible for perceiving volatile compounds emanating from cocoa samples. For the data acquisition process, an Arduino board with connection to a PC was used and by using the LabVIEW software an algorithm is performed that allows the execution, automatic control of the system and data storage, then the data is analyzed using the algorithm of automatic learning for the purpose of validating the results, which shows that the system has the ability to discriminate the volatiles submitted that correspond to cocoa samples in a fermented, over-fermented and dry state with a total variance percentage of 86%.

Topic: Control and Automation
CONTROL OF A PITCH SYSTEM FOR A HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE ROTOR
MORENO GARCIA FRANCISCO ERNESTO 1, SANDOVAL MARTINEZ GLORIA ESMERALDA 2, CAICEDO MEDINA CHARLIE YAMIR 3, PABON SILVA JONATHAN FREYBERTH 4,
1 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 2 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 3 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 4 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER,
Email: 1 femgarcia@ufps.edu.co, 2 gloriaesmeraldasm@ufps.edu.co, 3 charlieyamircm@ufps.edu.co, 4 jonathanfreyberthandresps@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: A first research phase on wind turbines controlled by pitch systems is presented. The rotor of a three-blade wind turbine was characterized and a pitch angle change mechanism was developed by regulating the inclination of the blades by controlling the revolutions per minute (RPM). Using proportional derivative control (PD) in circuit, incidence angle increments are found that reduce RPM by 30%. 50 RPM generated satisfactory relative stability, but 70 RPM generated blade turbulence.

Topic: Control and Automation
COVID-19 AND CHILDREN WHO ARE VICTIMS OF FORCED DISPLACEMENT
HERNANDEZ GRANADOS LIANY YETZIRA 1, OSORIO SANCHEZ EDUARDO GABRIEL 2,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 lianyyetzirahg@ufps.edu.co, 2 eduardogabrielos@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The present investigation was carried out by means of a qualitative methodology, with emphasis on the hermeneutical method and documentary analysis; the main objective is to analyze the current pandemic situation caused by COVID 19 in relation to children and adolescents who are victims of internal forced displacement in Colombia, in line with the humanitarian crisis of the victims of the conflict. The emergency measures adopted at the national and regional levels have impacted on the effective enjoyment of rights by the most vulnerable populations, especially internally displaced children and adolescents, who have been led to a health, socioeconomic and economic crisis. of protection. In this sense, the UN special rapporteur on the human rights of internally displaced persons has stated that this population has a greater risk of exposure to the coronavirus, given their limited access to sanitation, food, housing, water and care. health, increasing their vulnerability to the continuation of the conflict, and in turn to forced displacement; as well as the need for differentiated attention to the displaced population in the State's offer regarding the health emergency, in attention to the principles of non-discrimination and a differential approach as a materialization of the right to equality. In the case of children and adolescents, they are especially vulnerable to isolation measures that expose them to domestic violence, mainly in conditions of poverty or overcrowding, due to unsanitary conditions and the lack of basic tools for adequate practices. hygiene or for access to digital platforms preventing their right to education, exposing them to forced recruitment.

Topic: Law
LIMITS TO FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION ON SOCIAL MEDIA
CASADIEGOS SANTANA MARTIN HUMBERTO 1, CARRASCAL VERGEL ANA MARIA 2, JAIME JAIME LIZBETH 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña, 2 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER OCAÑA , 3 UNIVERSIDAD FRNACISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER OCAÑA ,
Email: 1 mhcasadiegoss@ufpso.edu.co, 2 amcarrascalv@ufpso.edu.co, 3 ljaimej@ufpso.edu.co,
Abstract: The modern printing press arises in the middle of the 15th century and with it we begin the emergence of a series of rights that are consolidated through the history of the positive law of humanity. At the end of the 20th century, the printing press maintained its dominant position as an invention for the dissemination of ideas, texts, laws and information, however with the empowerment of the internet and the emergence of social networks, the monopoly of information at the head of the media communication, begins to present a turn, where individuals using their creed profiles for social networks, see the possibility of disseminating ideas, criticism and other information. The freedom of expression that begins its materialization process from the moment in which an individual expresses his ideas with the aim of disseminating them publicly, finds its greatest stage in the use of the printing press, radio and television, as means of communication. massive that were originally under the dominion and management of the State. With the emergence of the Internet and the empowerment of social networks, by individuals, the monopoly of information would no longer be under the discretion and care of the mass media and the State, but would take a turn to that anyone who had information of importance and interest, could disseminate it without major limitations. This scenario of guarantee in the full exercise of the right to freedom of expression seems to be a fact of a positive. However, the absence of controls on the use of networks and expressions by individuals of all kinds, made us think that the first fundamental right of an absolute nature would be in the process of being built, which would operate without any type of attributable file. However, from legal hermeneutics in the construction, study, analysis and application of constitutional principles, translated as fundamental rights, in constitutional and democratic states, rights operate under limits of normative interrelation that must respect the interaction with other rights that are They are attributable to other people, therefore no fundamental right can be absolute, since you must understand this weighting logic. In this order, the present academic work has as its main objective the study of the limits of the fundamental right to freedom of expression in social networks, analyzed under the legal order of the constitutionality block, in order to establish the scope and limits in the normative and jurisprudential development of the right to freedom of expression in social networks by natural persons.

Topic: Law
DESIGN OF DIGITAL STRATEGY FOR THE DISSEMINATION OF RESEARCH EVENTS OF THE UNAD SEEDBEDS APPLYING THE CONCEPTS OF UX AND UI.
SERRANO ARIAS WILMER NEMESIO 1,
1 UNAD,
Email: 1 wnserranoa@unadvirtual.edu.co,
Abstract: The internet became one of the most important means for information management, which has allowed different forms of knowledge construction to be generated. The development of different strategies in the user experience area makes it possible to strengthen and make training and research activities visible in a clearer and more intuitive way, in the visualization of the different UNAD seedbeds. The web application will comply with the different usability standards and with a friendly interface for the eyes, in order that the information that will be displayed from the different scientific events and other types related to the research that is carried out of each of the seedbeds, with the aim of centralizing all the scientific disclosures carried out by the different seedbeds of the CCAV Cúcuta, which will be the first to test the platform and validate its proper functioning.

Topic: Technology Development and Innovation
DEVELOPMENT OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS FOR OBTAINING BIODIESEL USING THE MICROWAVE RADIATION-ASSISTED HYDRODESTILATION METHOD
MENESES DURAN JOSE LEONARDO 1, HERRERA SUSA DANIEL ANDREY 2, BERMÚDEZ SANTAELLA JOSE RICARDO 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 joseleonardomd@ufps.edu.co, 2 danielandreyhs@ufps.edu.co, 3 josericardobs@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: In this research work, the processes that are involved in the production of biodiesel will be optimized by means of the hydrodistillation method assisted by microwave radiation. This product was obtained with an efficiency in alkaline homogeneous catalytic transesterification of 81% in a process with a duration of 7 minutes, which in its B20 proportion, showed dominant conditions in terms of power, torque and improvement of the percentage of emissions in tests with an internal combustion engine. In this research project, the process of homogeneous alkaline catalytic transesterification assisted by microwave radiation, is based on the development of its mathematical models, to be able to identify which, between two processes; continuous and discontinuous, better yields and better quality of biodiesel production are obtained. In this way, the discontinuous process is about relating the mixture (alcohol, oil and catalyst), submerged in a flask, where it will react with the assistance of microwave radiation and evaporate. In the continuous process, the mixture will be subjected to fluid movement dynamics in a heat exchanger and the process will also be assisted by radiation. Initially, the dynamic characteristics (speed, temperature, radiation, flow, chemical kinetics) will be obtained, and the comparison between them will be made in order to identify with which better yields are obtained, this will be determined by means of the results that will be obtained by the simulations in the computer tool Simulink. Next, the control strategy will be designed that will allow a stable speed to homogenize the mixture within the flask and control the flow of the mixture within the exchanger as a function of time. After obtaining the concentration relationships, we will proceed to design the physical parameters that demonstrate to improve the process in terms of quality, speed, precision and efficiency, and thus, contribute with these models to produce a biodiesel that duly complies with the standards of national (NTC) and international (ASTM-EN) standards.

Topic: Technology Development and Innovation
DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES, GROWTH AND PERSPECTIVES IN NORTE SANTANDEREANAS MIPYMES TO THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC.
VILLAMIZAR NUÑEZ CESAR ANTONIO 1, ADARME JAIMES MARCO ANTONIO 2, RIVERA SIERRA EDUARDO 3,
1 SENA, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Sena,
Email: 1 cavillamizar@sena.edu.co, 2 madarme@ufps.edu.co, 3 erivera@sena.edu.co,
Abstract: Digital transformation processes are a challenge for MiPymes due to the impact of the operational changes caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, resulting in companies having to change their traditional work model to activities that involve a more excellent and more effective use of information technologies. Through SENA, the National Government has implemented consulting and advisory strategies in digital transformation through the #MiPymeSeTransforma line. During 2020, for two cycles of accompaniment, about 130 Northern Santanderean MiPymes were advised, in which three impact indicators were managed, the first includes "Customer acquisition and digital channels" with this is meant to introduce the company in the use of e-Marketing, the second "sales and digital channels" and strengthening the use of e-commerce and all its channels, Finally, "optimization process" including the use of information systems and cloud virtualization and service-oriented architectures. The study includes a review of the implementation of digital transformation strategies through the three impact indicators, emphasizing strengths and areas for improvement taking into account the pandemic period. Furthermore, the study demonstrates the importance of the adoption of technology in areas such as virtualization, digital platforms, information security, and emerging technologies; likewise, it shows how companies adopt in an agile way the use of social networks for their marketing activities, it is also necessary the adoption of data management policies that prove to be incipient in the great majority of companies.

Topic: Technology Development and Innovation
IMPACT MEASUREMENT MODEL FOR SOCIAL PROJECTS OF THE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING PROGRAM OF THE UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER (UFPS).
RODRIGUEZ TENJO JUDIH DEL PILAR 1, GALLARDO PEREZ OSCAR ALBERTO 2,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 judithdelpilarrt@ufps.edu.co, 2 oscargallardo@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Summary. The Systems Engineering program understands Social Projection as the educational action oriented towards the community with the fundamental purpose of developing in the teachers and students of the program, feelings of solidarity and social responsibility towards the community that are manifested through interaction and service projects that aim to improve the quality of teaching and the quality of life, confronting theory with practice in a real field of application, always trying to benefit the communities. Social Projection, as a substantive function, makes the University visible through the articulation of socially relevant research and teaching; it promotes the development of the intellectual capacities of students, through curricular strategies and research dynamics guided by teachers, which allow leading, together, social processes. Based on the initiative, projects have been formulated and implemented, but to date there is no formal model for measuring their impact. The objective is to present a proposal for a measurement model to evaluate the impact of the social projects of the UFPS Systems Engineering Program. The method to be followed is based on a documentary review, a descriptive study taking as a basis the Methodology for Project unification and development such as Scrum for Project Management, the Impact Measurement Initiative Methodology - IMI, the Logical Framework Methodology and the General Theory of Systems to understand the global context of the social responsibility projects of the academic program. Allowing to reflect the logical structure and the scientific rigor of the research process from the mentioned methodologies, as well as the use of techniques and the application of instruments. As a result, it is expected to analyze the social responsibility projects in the Systems Engineering Program of the UFPS, to compile indicators for the measurement of the social impact in technical-social projects developed within the Program, to determine the indicators for the measurement of the impact in social projects taking into account national and international references and to propose an impact measurement model for the social responsibility projects generated by the Systems Engineering Program. It is concluded that there is a need to continue doing research of this type that can be seen from other perspectives.

Topic: Technology Development and Innovation
IMPLEMENTATION OF A VIDEO GAME PROTOTYPE AS SUPPORT TO PROFESSIONAL GUIDANCE FOR MIDDLE EDUCATION STUDENTS. CASE STUDY INSTITUCIÓN EDUCATIVA SAN JOSÉ DE CÚCUTA
OJEDA MELGAREJO CAMILO ANDRES 1, MENDOZA GÁFARO RICHARD ELISEO 2,
1 universidad de pamplona, 2 Universidad de Pamplona,
Email: 1 caom-1998@hotmail.com, 2 remendozag@unipamplona.edu.co,
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to improve the decision-making of high school students from the Colegio San José de Cúcuta educational institution when selecting their professional career, through the creation of a video game prototype in which a process of orientation to young people providing tools that contribute to the construction of their life project. In the same way, trying to promote that video games can serve to advise on the choice of university careers, and in addition to the fundamental objective of the project, the student is provided with the possibility of learning about the state of current trends in the labor market. Thus demonstrating that video games allow exploring and identifying perceptions, emotions, thoughts and activities that young people manifest and carry out, since we can distinguish their aptitudes and abilities. That said, it is proposed to model a video game to support the professional orientation of high school students from the San José de Cúcuta educational institution, with the intention of motivating students to enter a higher education institution and subsequently support them in their development. educational and professional. Therefore, the video game will focus on carrying out an orientation process that allows to recognize interests, abilities and favor the cognitive processes related to assertive decision making, giving the student the necessary tools to identify their vocation.

Topic: Technology Development and Innovation
METHODOLOGY FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ENMS IN A COKER PLANT IN NORTE DE SANTANDER.
AMADOR MARTINEZ SERGIO ANDRES 1,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 sergioandresam@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The constant business growth of Carbomax de Colombia SAS, currently ranked eighth out of the thousand companies of the year in Colombia, according to the portfolio magazine in its July 2021 edition, glimpses its corporate evolution, therefore, from the group of research of advanced processes and minerals (GIPROMAX) proposes the development of various projects that have a positive environmental impact, which contribute to the reduction of GHG and the environmental commitment of the company in accordance with national and international policies in relation to the care and preservation of the environment, therefore, the development of an energy management system in our main production plant in the northern region of Santander will serve as a benchmark for other companies, national and international, as an example of responsibility and work for growth socio-economic and sustainable production processes implementation. The project sought to create and implement an Energy Management System developed under the principle of continuous improvement, the PDCA cycle, initiating this process with an energy census of the equipment and supplies used in each production area, taking into account the uses and Significant consumption of the different energy sources used, this, in order to establish the objectives and goals that were to be achieved and thus propose the most appropriate route of action. These proposals were classified according to the level of investment required and the projected completion time. Subsequently, work continued on applying low investment corrective activities, linking all staff through talks and training on awareness and business and environmental responsibility. As the main objective of the project, the Energy Management System document for the Indumax plant was built and it was socialized with the administrative staff, reminding them of the commitment, importance and benefits that compliance with the recommendations and proposals here displayed would bring to the company.

Topic: Technology Development and Innovation
OUTSURING IT SERVICES IN PUBLIC COMPANIES IN THE ELECTRICAL SECTOR.
PALMERA QUINTERO LUIS MANUEL 1,
1 Universidad Francisco Paula Santander Ocaña,
Email: 1 lmpalmera04@gmail.com,
Abstract: This research article is based on the design of a model for outsourcing IT services in public companies in the electricity sector, which is in accordance with the main needs that arise within the information technology area of the company. The model is proposed within the COBIT 2019 standard for being the most complete and appropriate currently for IT management, which focuses on supporting processes, sub-processes, measurement and continuous improvement in the quality of the provision of the services offered. both from the perspective of stakeholders and the organization. The management model was developed under a descriptive approach and quantitative research, supported by the development of an instrument which served to make a diagnosis of the real state of the company. The model is based on the PDCA cycle which is based on satisfying the needs of the interested parties, allowing to guarantee the fulfillment of the institutional objectives, objectives related to information technology and specific objectives of the company, which are very useful. to ensure the alignment of needs complying with the organizational policies presented by the company when choosing a provider to outsource IT services. Meeting the goals that must be prioritized when contracting with an IT service provider, they must be aligned with the objectives of the company, where all financial dimensions that may be exposed to risk or threats are involved.

Topic: Technology Development and Innovation
OUTSURING IT SERVICES IN PUBLIC COMPANIES IN THE ELECTRICAL SECTOR.
PALMERA QUINTERO LUIS MANUEL 1,
1 Universidad Francisco Paula Santander Ocaña,
Email: 1 lmpalmera04@gmail.com,
Abstract: This research article is based on the design of a model for outsourcing IT services in public companies in the electricity sector, which is in accordance with the main needs that arise within the information technology area of the company. The model is proposed within the COBIT 2019 standard for being the most complete and appropriate currently for IT management, which focuses on supporting processes, sub-processes, measurement and continuous improvement in the quality of the provision of the services offered. both from the perspective of stakeholders and the organization. The management model was developed under a descriptive approach and quantitative research, supported by the development of an instrument which served to make a diagnosis of the real state of the company. The model is based on the PDCA cycle which is based on satisfying the needs of the interested parties, allowing to guarantee the fulfillment of the institutional objectives, objectives related to information technology and specific objectives of the company, which are very useful. to ensure the alignment of needs complying with the organizational policies presented by the company when choosing a provider to outsource IT services. Meeting the goals that must be prioritized when contracting with an IT service provider, they must be aligned with the objectives of the company, where all financial dimensions that may be exposed to risk or threats are involved.

Topic: Technology Development and Innovation
POST-COVID E-COMMERCE WEB APPLICATION FOR THE COMMERCIALIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF NORTE DE SANTANDER
MOGOLLON BUENO NELCY 1, MADARIAGA SUAREZ ENILSA REBECA 2, PEÑA MURILLO ZULEIMA 3,
1 Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje -SENA , 2 Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje -SENA , 3 Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje -SENA ,
Email: 1 nmogollon@sena.edu.co, 2 ermadariaga8@misena.edu.co, 3 zpena2@misena.edu.co,
Abstract: The objective of the research is to build a post-covid E-commerce web application for the commercialization of agricultural products in the department of Norte de Santander. Evidenced how ICTs are part of daily life, forcing companies in the agricultural sector to reinvent themselves due to the loss of their crops and little commercialization, to sustain the level of sales and consumption of their clients, it is necessary that the associations have a approach with this type of changes by implementing electronic commerce. The methodology to be used is of a qualitative approach and a PHVA cycle, which requires data collection, organization and analysis, so that the small producer appropriates the use of the platform.

Topic: Technology Development and Innovation
TECHNIQUE DIAGNOSES FROM GOLD NANOPARTICLES FOR THE DETECTION OF AMYLOID PROTEINS IN NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES
ORTIZ NARANJO BRYAN ALEJANDRO 1, HERRERA MARTINEZ ZEYRIS DAYANNA 2,
1 Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca, 2 Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca,
Email: 1 baortiz@unicolmayor.edu.co, 2 zdayannaherrera@unicolmayor.edu.co,
Abstract: ABSTRACT Introduction. Currently, neurodegenerative diseases (ND) are the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, pose a great challenge in the development of tools for early diagnosis, in this sense, advances in science seek sensitive and selective detection systems, therefore in this manuscript will be announced the importance of nanotechnology. Materials and methods. A literature review was conducted on the representative findings of NPs technologies in neurodegenerative diseases. Articles written in both English and Spanish were included. References between 2015-2021 were also taken into account. Results. In one of the most representative techniques, NPAu were specifically implemented, together with a magnetic center composed of magnetite, which has as a specific ligand a C-terminal cysteine domain present in the B-amyloid protein, these adhere directly to the surface of the NP characterizing the anomalous protein. Subsequently, by means of nanosensors capable of detecting and measuring different concentrations, these pathologies are identified at an early stage. Conclusions. With the advent of biotechnology today, it has been possible to design techniques with NPs that allow the identification of specific mutations and provide diagnosis in individuals. In the investigative models of NPAu, it is possible to infer that the capabilities that make them representative focus on their magnetism and biofunctionality, by specifically binding to amyloid peptides and other ligands present in the protein, major components of amyloid plaques used in these studies. Keywords. Nanoparticles, Gold, Magnetite, Amyloid proteins, Neurodegenerative diseases.

Topic: Technology Development and Innovation
TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF A SCIENCE CENTER IN THE CITY OF CÚCUTA
ARARAT DÍAZ PATROCINIO LEÓN 1, CÁRDENAS MONCADA BETTY 2, PEDROZA ROJAS ÁLVARO ORLANDO 3,
1 Fundación Cultural El Cinco a las Cinco, 2 Fundación Cultural El Cinco a las Cinco, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 plararatdiaz@gmail.com, 2 bettycar50@hotmail.com, 3 alvaroorlandopr@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: ABSTRACT The Cultural Foundation "El Cinco a las Cinco" of the city of Cúcuta took up and matured an idea conceived at the end of the last decade of the previous millennium, in the campus of the UFPS, initially oriented to the construction of a Planetarium, to concretize at the present time the creation in the city of a Science Center, aimed at promoting the culture of research and the appropriation and development of Science, Technology and Innovation, with the purpose of contributing to the construction of a knowledge society in the region of “nortesantandereana” and the border region. The article aims, on the one hand, to socialize a project that will definitely be a milestone in the academic history of the city and, on the other hand, to publicly thank the group of more than fifty professionals from different disciplines who, for more than a year, working devotedly and without charging fees, managed to show that it is possible, with a sense of belonging and in a demonstration of synergy and empathy, to give shape to the collective dreams of the city. The article will outline the philosophy of the Science Center, emphasizing the scope of the Universe, Ecology and Environment, Health and Intelligent Life, Science and Technology and Culture Units as a transversal dimension of the Center. The participation in the edition of the VIII International Week of Science, Technology and Innovation, adds to the efforts being led by the Board of Directors of the Eureka Science Center, to socialize its development in different scenarios in the region and, thereby, strengthen the invitation to Higher Education Institutions and with them, to their different levels, to join, as many teachers have already done, as founding strategic allies in the consolidation of what will be, undoubtedly, the most important Science project in the region.

Topic: Technology Development and Innovation
SUSTAINABLE GLAMPING DOME PROTOTYPE TO PROMOTE ECOTOURISM IN CHINÁCOTA NORTE DE SANTANDER
JEREZ JOSE LAUREANO 1, OVALLES PABON FREDDY OSWALDO 2,
1 Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje SENA, 2 Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje SENA,
Email: 1 joselaureanojerez@gmail.com, 2 fovalles@misena.edu.co,
Abstract: As time progresses, human beings have sought to establish spaces that provide accommodation to rest, security to face the climate and protect themselves from the different dangers to which they are exposed in the open; This need has led to the habit of creating stable structures that provide protection and comfort. Camping is an activity that dates back to primitive times and is currently developed for sports, recreational and tourist purposes. The objective of this project is to design a new prototype of tourist accommodation for the use of ecotourism in the municipality of Chinácota, which is located to the southeast of the Department of Norte de Santander, approximately 40 minutes from the capital of the department. According to the fact that this territory has a natural wealth, history and economic activities such as livestock, agriculture and gastronomy, it becomes a tourist attraction that further boosts the economy of the Nortesantandereana region. This project has a type of applied, experimental and descriptive research, since it implements the Design Thinking methodology in each phase of the project, the purpose of which is to design a prototype of a sustainable glamping dome for the promotion of ecotourism in the municipality of Chinácota. To meet the objectives of this project, the bibliographic collection of databases is carried out and the information is organized according to the following criteria: components of the structure of a glamping dome and applications for tourism; This information makes it possible to analyze the structure itself and establish operating conditions such as frequency, foundation, floor, structuring, polygons, materials, supplies, advice and treatment of the materials to be used. At this stage of the project, interesting information was found about the domes, such as the self-sustainability of the structure due to its spherical shape, its resistance to climatic factors, the use of natural resources and design freedom are maximized. Once the characteristics of the structure were identified, a comparative analysis was carried out between the different existing structures taking into account the advantages, types of material, characteristics, inputs, climatic behavior, biodegradability, carbon footprint and legal support that supports the current project. Once the characteristics of the glamping dome have been defined, the freehand pre-design is carried out, which will serve as a basis to define the dimensions of the dome, number of joints and define the pre-machining process of the wood. Later, with the use of a simulator such as the Rhinoceros 7 software, it will be evaluated whether it meets the characteristics of a tourist accommodation for the use of ecotourism, otherwise, several modifications will be made to the design. Much of the current research that has focused on 3D modeling has helped generate logarithms to facilitate machining, moving, analyzing compartments and obtaining results. These domes, due to their structure formed by polyhedra, have the ease of assembly and installation, where the assembly task can be carried out by both qualified and unqualified personnel, due to the fact that manuals with clear and precise instructions of the plans of assembly and parts lists. The glamplin dome and Ecotourism will allow many companies to direct the strengthening of the diffusion to this new accommodation trend and therefore will allow economic and social development, project development, direct and indirect job creation in the region.

Topic: Industrial Design
FAMILY AND TRANSGENDER WOMEN, STATE OF THE ART FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF A DIVERSE FAMILY OBSERVATORY
CASTRO MARTÍNEZ JEFER ANTONIO 1, SISSA RINCÓN LAURA LIZETH 2,
1 Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca, 2 Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca,
Email: 1 jantoniocastro@unicolmayor.edu.co, 2 lsissa@unicolmayor.edu.co,
Abstract: The documentary research project arises from the interest of contributing to the construction of a diverse family observatory for the Maloka research hotbed of the Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca, through the elaboration of a state of the art on the transformations that have family systems when one of its members identifies as a transgender woman. The above, taking into account that the family is the primary nucleus of society, which is constituted through natural and legal ties and by relationships based on equal rights and duties of all its members. (Political Constitution of Colombia, 1991) In addition to this, it can be understood from a systematic view that the family is an organized complexity that is made up of various subsystems in constant interaction (Escartin, 1992). In this sense, the moment one of the family members presents an identity that is not adjusted to the expressions or behaviors that are associated with their sex at birth (American Psychological Association, 2011) and identifies itself as transgender women, repercussions are generated throughout the family system because the issue of transgenderism leads to stigmatization and social exclusion (Mérida, 2005). Likewise, as the family is a system, what affects one member affects all the other members, given the current socio-cultural environment; where there is a predominance of the hegemonic vision of heterosexuality, which functions as a cultural controller and establishes the parameters that personal, relational and social constructions will have (Wittig, 1978), makes the relationships and links that are established in families they are transformed, since, as has already been said, transgenderism becomes an element that breaks through with the imposed sociocultural order. Thus, the methodological approach is carried out from the achievement of the five phases proposed by Consuelo Hoyos Botero (2000) for the elaboration of the state of the art; preparatory phase, descriptive phase, interpretative phase by thematic core, global theoretical construction phase and extension or publication phase. Being hermeneutics, the science that allows the truthful interpretation of the selected texts; in order to understand the current state of knowledge about the object studied and generate new lines of research to expand the knowledge of social reality.

Topic: Inclusive education and pedagogy
FRIENDLY PAIRS AS A STRATEGY FOR PARTICIPATION AND SOCIAL INCLUSION IN UNIVERSITY LIFE
MORENO PACHON ANGELICA LORENA 1, RICO VILLALOBOS DIANA MARCELA 2, MEDINA VARGAS PAULA ANDREA 3, BARRIOS MENESES NORMA 4, PALACIOS ROZO JAIRO JAMITH 5, ORTIZ QUEVEDO JENNY PATRICIA 6,
1 Universidad Colegion Mayor de cundinamarca , 2 Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca, 3 Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca, 4 UNIVERSIDAD COLEGIO MAYOR DE CUNDINAMARCA, 5 Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca, 6 Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca,
Email: 1 angelicalmoreno@unicolmayor.edu.co, 2 dmarcelarico@unicolmayor.edu.co, 3 paulaamedina@unicolmayor.edu.co, 4 nbarrios@unicolmayor.edu.co, 5 jjpalacios@unicolmayor.edu.co, 6 jpatriciaortiz@unicolmayor.edu.co,
Abstract: The university becomes a transformative experience that promotes autonomy, recognition, capacity development and socialization, however, for some students it can represent a series of situations that cause tension in personal and social development, this happens with greater probability in those who do not have enough support. Based on the above, the project “Peer Friends” was born as a joint initiative of the students and Management Tutorials of the Social Work program, framed in the SOMOS Intercultural Encounters Project; which aims to accompany first-semester students in strengthening their training path, promoting the social responsibility of the student community, of the leaders who are motivated by the implementation of said project where the students from the second to eighth semester They promote issues such as caring for oneself and others, trust, social participation and inclusive spaces. On the other hand, the methodology was developed under a sociocultural perspective that is built from cooperative learning, also known as peer learning, fostering dialogic spaces that contribute to improving the academic conditions of the student community. Consequently, emotional learning is fostered from empathy and connection with the peer friend; In addition, self-motivation and improvement in the academic field is promoted, especially in times of the pandemic as a result of COVID-19. Likewise, this proposal strengthens leadership, communication skills, mitigation of academic dropout and greater social participation.

Topic: Inclusive education and pedagogy
FROM THE CRITICAL PEDAGOGY: A VIEW FROM THE TRAINING IN CITIZENSHIP IN THE PROGRAMS OF FACULTY OF EDUCATION, ARTS AND HUMANITIES AT UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, CÚCUTA
RAMIREZ AYALA GIOVANNY 1, RINCON VILLAMIZAR NYDIA MARIA 2, MONSALVE GÓMEZ MARTHA ISABEL 3,
1 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER , 2 UFPS, 3 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCSICO DE PAULA SANTANDER,
Email: 1 giovannyra@ufps.edu.co, 2 aprendizaje2020@gmail.com, 3 Marthaisabelmg@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Abstract. The general purpose of the research is to determine the influence of Critical Pedagogy on citizenship training in students of the Faculty of Education, Arts and Humanities of the Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, Cucuta; The study identifies various lines of argument of Critical Pedagogy, these emphasize the construction of a social fulfillment for the duty of teachers in terms of the ethical-political perspective, training in public policy; in addition, the discourses for social regulation, cultural teaching, the connection with popular organizations, social and educational movements and critical reflexivity about pedagogical and sociocultural practices. The theoretical references are based on the institution's Critical Dialogical Pedagogical model, which is articulated with Freire's Dialogical Pedagogy and Nussbaum's concept of Citizenship, which leads to the construction of critical and reflective thinking. The methodology is focused on the mixed approach, with a descriptive design for the interpretation of the quantitative data presented in this document. The sample is determined by means of the population, which is made up of the sum of students who are in the eighth and ninth semesters of the Architecture, Social Work, Law, Bachelor of Mathematics and Specialization programs in Pedagogical Practice, to whom applies a survey, which seeks to characterize the current state of civic education in aspects such as non-violence, acceptance of diversity, rejection of any form of discrimination and coexistence in students. One of the most relevant results is that students recognize that teachers almost always create spaces for dialogue and agreement in class and they mostly agree that teachers develop strategies that enable meaningful learning in accordance with the dialogical-critical pedagogical model.

Topic: Inclusive education and pedagogy
LATIN AMERICAN YOUTH AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: A REFLECTION FROM DECOLONITY FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE SOCIAL FABRIC
BARRIOS MENESES NORMA 1,
1 UNIVERSIDAD COLEGIO MAYOR DE CUNDINAMARCA,
Email: 1 nbarrios@unicolmayor.edu.co,
Abstract: When in Colombia and in Latin America they talk about magical realism, they not only talk about our Nobel Prize in literature Gabriel García Márquez, they also talk about the environment, politics, the economy, health, education, equity, and the relationship that young people have their territory which is sometimes reflected as if these were strange and unreal scenarios. Based on this, we will take a panoramic look at the conditions of young people in Latin America. 1. YOUTH SEEN FROM THE LIFE CYCLE APPROACH First of all, I would like to invite you to make a recognition of the situation of young people in the region within the framework of the life cycle approach, which allows us to identify the conditions of the population in light of the understanding of vulnerabilities and opportunities from a human development perspective. 2. AND… HOW ARE YOUNG PEOPLE IN LATIN AMERICA? The education: In this historical moment that the region is experiencing on the issue, it is urgent that governments rethink the training processes in terms of inclusion, gender, accessibility, connectivity, teacher training, among many other needs. Health: In this issue there are 3 incident factors at this point, the first adolescent and unwanted pregnancies, violence, trauma caused by traffic accidents and consumption of psychoactive substances and lastly, a high rate of suicide attempts and effectively the consummation of this. Job: By March 2020, the employability situation of young people is somewhat bleak, taking into account that by that date there were 9.4 million unemployed young people in Latin America; more than 30 million are linked to the labor market from informality. At this point, it is striking how women contribute 7% to this population Participation: Historically, young people have contributed with their blood and sweat to the development of their nations, however, they have been invisible and until a little less than 30 years ago, through their struggles and demands, they have managed to be pseudo-included in the political processes in their respective countries. , which has undoubtedly promoted their voices to be heard through collegiate decision-making or consultative bodies. 3) SPEAKING OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY, WHAT ARE YOUNG PEOPLE IN LATIN AMERICA DOING? Consequently, with the life cycle approach through which reference is made to opportunities, it is essential to recognize that for this process there are two fundamental elements, the first is due to Social Responsibility, which is closely linked to 3 dimensions keys, among which are: social, environmental and ethics. Now, the second element to reference is the SDGs, which promote the reduction of poverty and inequalities (taking into account that our region is the one with the greatest inequality in the world) 4) YOUTH IN RELATION TO DECOLONITY FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE SOCIAL FABRIC OF THE REGION In relation to this point, hermeneutics in relation to decoloniality is taken as the fundamental axis, it is essential for the young people of the region to build social fabric from a perspective focused on the apprehension of the relationship of human behavior with freedom and recognition of its history; which translates into awareness to achieve autonomy and therefore the achievement of dignity of the life of those who make up modern societies. This exercise must start from a holistic element where it is clear that the experiences related to the enforceability of rights and work oriented towards the benefit of others in order to build social fabric based on their life experiences which build the reality that they are living, taking into account elements such as action as a preconceived project, the investigation of the motives present in those actions and the biographical situation of the subjects.

Topic: Inclusive education and pedagogy
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT BASED ON PROBLEM SOLVING MEDIATED BY GEOGEBRA FOR A REMOTE MODE MATHEMATICS COURSE ASSISTED BY TECHNOLOGY.
CASTAÑO MUÑOZ MILTON FABIÁN 1, ROMERO AGREDO STEEV 2, ARÉVALO SOTO ALEXANDER 3,
1 Institución Universitaria Antonio José Camacho, 2 Institución Universitaria Antonio José Camacho, 3 Institución Universitaria Antonio José Camacho,
Email: 1 mfcastano@admon.uniajc.edu.co, 2 sromero@admon.uniajc.edu.co, 3 aarevalo@admon.uniajc.edu.co,
Abstract: This work addresses three specific aspects framed in a research project that seeks implementing a learning environment based on didactic instruments, in order to establish an alternative for teaching-learning processes corresponding to the concept of function in a Mathematics course. In this regard, these aspects focus on i. identifying learning difficulties from the student's perspective, ii. Recognizing the difficulties that the professor has perceived in these processes and iii. proposing a training space for professors in the design and implementation of a proposal that involves problem solving and the use of technologies, by virtue of addressing the difficulties that were identified. Such implementation was carried out through a series of worksheets, as didactic learning instruments, using the GeoGebra software. The previous statements are argued in a reference framework based on learning environments, the theory of connectivism and problem solving in mathematics. According to the above and with the corresponding development of this proposal, the most relevant results are: • Marked difficulties in identifying and working on the analysis of variational thinking, as well as its application in different contexts and problematic situations that involve the concept of function. • Problems in the way how the teacher introduces these processes in the learning environments in the classroom, taking into account the technological component. • The reflection on the modality in which the meetings are currently taking place due to COVID-19, since it originated several alternatives for the development of the classes, however, the positive or negative impact on the learning environments must be analyzed. • Evidence of inadequacy in the management of information and communication technologies and learning and knowledge technologies, turning into shortcomings in the teaching-learning processes. • A need for technological literacy, seen as the compendium of tools and applications that can be used in an educational environment, even more in this development of work assisted remotely by technology.

Topic: Inclusive education and pedagogy
PARENTING GUIDELINES IN FAMILIES WITH NEURODIVERSE CHILDREN (AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER) FROM THE SINAPSIS EXPERT CENTER IN THE CITY OF SAN JOSÉ DE CÚCUTA DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC
RAMIREZ PRECIADO YAHAIRA 1, ALZATE HURTADO SILVIA FERNANDA 2, GALVIS VELANDIA LAURA NATALY 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander , 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander ,
Email: 1 yahairarp@ufps.edu.co, 2 silviafernandaah@ufps.edu.co, 3 lauranatalygv@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: This pre-project addresses the issue of parenting guidelines in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, emphasizing the importance of parenting, how it develops, and how it can vary due to various situations, in this case, a very drastic and unexpected one, such as the global pandemic of Coronavirus (COVID-19). The virus caused multiple changes in all aspects of human life, leading him to adapt to new rules, biosecurity policies, and a new daily life. As a result, a peculiar population was taken as a subject of study, since it presents unique and special characteristics, being children with autism, that is to say, that present some condition, a fact that makes the development of this study even more interesting. For this, we resorted to an exhaustive background search related to the topics of interest, which are parenting patterns, children with autism, family, COVID-19 pandemic, and, of course, social work, the profession from which this research is carried out. All this in order to have a perspective of each one of them, affectations or changes presented, to know what has been approached with respect to the same and likewise to see what have been the results obtained. Thus, the research is supported by six main theories which are: Baumrind's theory, which exposes parenting styles; Bowlby's attachment theory, exalting this existing relationship; the theory of mind, being the basis for the approach to neurodiversity and specifically ASD, together with the cognitive-affective theory; Olson's circumplex model, which provides an appreciation of family functioning, characteristics and a way to evaluate it; and, Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory, as a complement to studying the family from a social work approach. Therefore, the general objective is to identify the parenting patterns implemented in families with neurodiverse children with an autism spectrum disorder in the SINAPSIS expert center in the city of San José de Cúcuta in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic, starting with an identification of the meaning of parenting patterns for the families, followed by a recognition of the parenting patterns used by these families after the pandemic and, finally, to generate strategies from Social Work to strengthen the parenting patterns. Thus, the research is based on a qualitative approach with a phenomenological method, since it seeks to know the reality of the social subjects and the experience they have had in the midst of the pandemic. Thus, a sample of six families with neurodiverse children, especially with autism spectrum disorder, in a range of 4 to 10 years of age, with whom techniques such as semi-structured interview, SWOT analysis and family apgar are applied to facilitate the collection of information. Aguirre and Castro (as cited in Manjarrés and Martínez, 2020) state that when it comes to raising children with disabilities, it is particularly important that parents and families provide sufficient opportunities and strategies for their children to achieve their full personal development, strengthen their interpersonal relationships and enhance processes of autonomy and social inclusion. It is therefore important to strengthen the resilience and adaptive process of each of them, since the adversities that may arise or the changes in society require people to adapt to a new reality, a new context and seek solutions to any new challenge. Therefore, this research is conducted in order to identify parenting patterns in families with neurodiverse children with ASD in a range of 4 to 10 years of age, in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic and the modifications it brought about, due to the influence that unexpected crises have on family dynamics and, in turn, on parenting patterns. Also, from the perspective of Social Work, there is little research related to the parenting patterns of these children, which gives one more reason to study this topic.

Topic: Inclusive education and pedagogy
SOCIOCULTURAL PATTERNS OF INTRAFAMILY VIOLENCE IN THE CASES OF THE SARAVENA-ARAUCA FAMILY POLICE STATION, 2019
LIZCANO GUTIERREZ LINA MARCELA 1, PEREZ GARCIA MARLY TERESA 2, RINCON VILLAMIZAR NYDIA MARIA 3,
1 UFPS, 2 UFPS, 3 UFPS,
Email: 1 lina1999marcela@gmail.com, 2 marlyteresa1998@gmail.com, 3 aprendizaje2020@gmail.com,
Abstract: This research article focuses from an analysis of the sociocultural patterns that generate intrafamily violence in the cases of the Saravena Family Police Station, Arauca, Colombia, during 2019, in order to provide support to the work carried out by this institution , to facilitate the development of high-content prevention programs that contribute to improving the quality of life of the communities in this area. The work is framed from Johan Galtung's theory of violence, Bandura's theory of Social Learning and from the theory of Sociocultural Patterns. The methodology was based on a mixed approach, which allowed the collection of data through techniques such as surveys, interviews and documentary analysis, which later supported the development of categories parallel to intrafamily violence and sociocultural patterns. Thus, the results yielded relevant aspects such as the fact that a persistent pattern of generational and social sexist beliefs presented by the aggressors and the submissive beliefs presented by victims are causes associated with intrafamily violence; It is presumed that violence begins as a social component with repercussions mostly within the home. Finally, it was identified that factors such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, level of education, among others, influence the acceptance, reporting and coping of violence in registered households. In other words, there is a greater statistical probability that women with low education, low or medium socioeconomic status and over 30 years of age suffer from domestic violence.

Topic: Inclusive education and pedagogy
THINKING TEACHER TRAINING IN CONTEXTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION
GARCÍA GARCÍA MIGUEL ÁNGEL 1, ARÉVALO DUARTE MAYRA ALEJANDRA 2,
1 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 2 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER,
Email: 1 miguelangelgg@ufps.edu.co, 2 mayraarevalo@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The possibilities offered by technology-supported education are superior to traditional education systems. However, the massive introduction of ICTs in education and their habitual use in the classroom do not respond to this potential. This is evident in that the quality of learning has not been improved; in the inadequate implementation of teaching and learning models or approaches; in the continued weakness in the development of competencies; in the failure to meet social challenges to achieve the true knowledge society. So it is a complex picture. In order to respond to the problem raised, the question is assumed: How to rethink teacher training in the context of technological innovation? Educational innovation is a process that seeks to advance changes in learning in order to improve it. It implies new ways of seeing and thinking about resources, disciplines, times, methods and the same curriculum, in order to improve the quality of learning processes. These changes are born from the needs or characteristics of the context and must be capable of being measured, at least in terms of impact and appropriation. In this order of ideas, the present work is oriented under the methodology of grounded-theory and inductive-descriptive analysis based on the discourse of educational actors regarding the initial teacher training process in the context of the Francisco de Paula Santander University. (UFPS). As a result, the central category "Comprehensive Continuous Innovation Approach" is described, based on the subcategories of "Training - Teacher Attitude, Institutional Management and Technological Learning Systems". The "Training - Teacher Attitude" component shows that teachers who have a high self-perception of their digital skills tend to show a favorable attitude towards the incorporation of ICT in teaching-learning processes. The "Institutional Management" component defines the conditions for the development of a Culture of Innovation. Finally, the subcategory "Technological Learning Systems" shows that educational innovation does not imply the incorporation of ICT. The introduction of technology in education does not imply the transformation of learning processes either. For this reason, it presents the options for innovation based on student-centered methodologies and technology-centered innovation. The conclusions of this study show that innovation emerges as a need for change, for transformation of the institutional reality, from the systematic response in order to continuous improvement. Which leads us to understand that innovation in the University (UFPS) does not happen spontaneously or unexpectedly. Likewise, it is evident that it is necessary to articulate various proposals that allow advancing processes of innovation and integration of the different educational spheres and institutional levels. Educational innovation with ICT can arise from new practices with already known technology, since the volatility and interruption of new applications does not allow continuity and opposes the evaluative need that requires, in education, long-term processes.

Topic: Inclusive education and pedagogy
ACTIVE POWER FILTER IN SINGLE-PHASE SYSTEMS FOR HARMONIC MITIGATION AND POWER FACTOR COMPENSATION
GONZÁLEZ FABIO ALFONSO 1, ROMÁN VÁSQUEZ KEVIN STEVEN 2, PIMIENTO ARIAS JEAN MICHAEL 3, GÓMEZ GUTIÉRREZ JOSÉ LUIS 4,
1 Unidades Tecnológicas de Santander, 2 Unidades Tecnológicas de Santander, 3 Unidades Tecnológicas de Santander, 4 Unidades Tecnológicas de Santander,
Email: 1 fagonzalez@correo.uts.edu.co, 2 kevin.steven.roman.vasquez@hotmail.com, 3 jmparias@outlook.es, 4 joselgomez03@hotmail.com,
Abstract: The use of an active power filter is presented as a solution to the problems of harmonic distortion and low power factor in a single-phase system, caused by the presence and simultaneous use of non-linear loads. In order to demonstrate what has been proposed and to give preference of use to the method offered by power electronics, it starts with the realization of a review that show the efficiency of the filter, as well as establishes the theoretical foundation by means of which we proceed to characterize the loads according to their harmonic content with the greatest effect on the system. Having defined the load to be used, the parameters were established to carry out the simulation in Matlab / Simulink, implementing the active power filter, in order to show its effects, aimed at mitigating harmonics and correcting the power factor. The simulations proposed in the previous stage are carried out again, but this time implementing a bank of capacitors dimensioned from the reactive power that is demanded by the loads selected for the simulation, this in order to contrast the results obtained by both methods

Topic: Power Electronics
ROBUST QFT CONTROLLER FOR DC-DC BUCK CONVERTER IN PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS
NUÑEZ RODRIGUEZ RAFAEL AUGUSTO 1,
1 Unidades Tecnológicas de Santander,
Email: 1 rrodriguez@correo.uts.edu.co,
Abstract: This paper proposes the design of a robust QFT controller based on performance specifications for DC-DC buck converters in continuous conduction mode, such as current ripple and converter output voltage, load disturbances, parametric variations, robust stability, and compensation for voltage changes of the photovoltaic generator at the input of the DC DC buck converter. Photovoltaic generators are considered as one of the main sources of renewable energy, given the solar potential in much of the Colombian territory, so it is of great importance the implementation of technological solutions that increase their efficiency and allow rapid penetration in the Colombian energy matrix. Having said this, it should be taken into account that the proper operation of photovoltaic generators is affected by the stochasticity and uncertainty in their dynamic behavior, which is linked to environmental conditions, in addition to the efficiency of the regulator, whose performance depends on the control algorithms that calculate the switching cycle of the converter, to maintain the output voltage in an acceptable range. In that perspective, multiple control strategies, both linear and nonlinear, have been implemented for voltage regulators of photovoltaic generators. Recent developments in power electronic control make it possible to increase the power density of the converter and reduce the switching losses of semiconductor devices. Such is the case of controllers based on quantitative feedback theory (QFT), which allow reference tracking, load disturbance rejection in case of process parameter variation and robust stability, whose control law is applicable to power electronic control for compensation of regulator input voltage variation, with good transient response and reduced energy cost. Initially, the modeling of the photovoltaic generator and the electronic buck converter is presented. For the design of the QFT controller and parameterization of the simulation model, a mathematical model of the photovoltaic generator and the DC-DC converter circuit must be available in order to establish operating ranges and parametric uncertainty space of the converter circuit. Next, the design process of the QFT controller is described, whose results, based on model-based design techniques, show that the converter response when the 200Wp solar panel generates 21.5 V and a reference voltage of 12 V output is established, presents an overshoot of about 40%, and a settling time of 15 ms. Similarly, the response of the converter to a disturbance in the output current related to a sudden change in the load resistance of 50% is analyzed. In this test the output current presents a variation of double the initial current of 1.2A. The settling time is in the order of 5.5 ms, and the control signal increases from 51.5% to 52.5%. Finally, to validate the response of the controller to variations in the operating point due to changes in the input voltage of the converter, a change in irradiance on the panel and a temperature gradient are modeled, factors that affect the performance and power generated by the solar panel. The solar panel is subjected to a variation from 25°C to 75°C, which translates into a variation in the output voltage from 30V_DC to 24V_DC, and the response of the converter and the controller to an irradiance variation from 1000W/m^2 to 250W/m^2 is compensated by increasing the duty cycle of the PWM signal applied to the converter's MOSFET. The results obtained show that the linearized state-space model of the converter is valid for the design of the QFT controller since the dynamics of the converter circuit was adequately described, which allowed the design of a robust controller that meets the desired performance specifications, such as robust stability and disturbance rejection. On the other hand, it was possible to demonstrate that the robust QFT control for the Buck voltage regulator applied to a 200 W_p photovoltaic generator showed a robust performance against disturbances of the load connected to the converter and variations in the input voltage due to random changes in the environmental conditions (irradiation and temperature) to which the solar panel is exposed under real operating conditions.

Topic: Power Electronics
DESIGN OF A SMART WATCH PROTOTYPE WITH OXIMETER AND EMERGENCY CALL
ALVAREZ ORTEGA ANDRES ADOLFO 1, ARENAS SIERRA JOSÉ FABIAN 2, MARIN RODRIGUEZ MIGUEL ANGEL 3,
1 UFPS, 2 UFPS, 3 UFPS,
Email: 1 andresadolfoalor@ufps.edu.co, 2 josefabianas@ufps.edu.co, 3 miguelangelmr@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: Smart watches and biometric data measurement devices have increased their importance and use in recent years, due to the need to monitor the different signals of the human body and interpret them to know their status. In the region of the Americas, in the last two decades the number of deaths due to cardiac problems has increased significantly maintaining the second place in non-communicable and communicable diseases; therefore in this research a device was designed to keep track of the heart rate measurement adding the option of emergency call to the doctor or health entity when the pressure is low. A smart watch design is proposed that effectively and accurately performs heart rate measurement, with a low-cost system to compete in the market with devices that perform this action. The system starts by displaying the date and time on an OLED LCD screen, then activates a heart rate sensor to acquire the analog signal and interpret the data to deliver the information. If the recording is within the required range or parameters, it will only display the data and if the recording is outside the limits, a GSM/GPRS/GPS module is activated to record the user's current position and then send it through a text message via the GSM band of the same module. As part of this process, a message is sent requesting help to the doctor or the emergency service to carry out the due process in the given situation. The efficiency was tested by evaluating its response by varying by different pulses the perception of the heart rate artificially, with a reading time of ten seconds, automatically issuing an alert with an approximate duration of ten seconds. The optimization of the system through the acquisition of the heart rate signal and its processing to denote the cardiovascular state of the user has been observed and put under simulation tests, obtaining favorable results for the design and a saving in its final cost of a percentage greater than 50% in comparison with other commercial devices of the same type, making it more affordable to the general population and specifically to the population with cardiovascular problems.

Topic: Electronics and Devices
ELECTRONIC RAIN GAUGE FOR MOBILE SENSOR NODE
CAMARGO ARIZA LUIS LEONARDO 1, GASCA MANTILLA MAIRA CECILIA 2, GOMEZ JORGE 3, MEDINA BYRON 4, MARTINEZ DIAZ ERICK 5,
1 Universidad del Magdalena, 2 Universidad Antonio Nariño, 3 Unviersidad del Magdalena, 4 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 5 Universidad del Magdalena,
Email: 1 lcamargoa@unimagdalena.edu.co, 2 magasca@uan.edu.co, 3 jgomez@unimagdalena.edu.co, 4 byronmedina@ufps.edu.co, 5 erickmartinezd@unimagdalena.edu.co,
Abstract: A solution to monitor environmental variables in cities is the implementation of Wireless Sensors Network (WSN). These networks allow the collection of environmental data that can be converted into information that can be used to make decisions that positively impact the city and its inhabitants. The WSN are composed of sensitive nodes that incorporate a wide range of sensors, and sink nodes that collect the data sent by the sensitive nodes and transmit it to the monitoring center. Sensitive nodes can be integrated into urban infrastructure as fixed nodes or nodes in motion. The introduction of mobility in the WSN (MWSN), facilitates expanding the network coverage and improving the scope of the applications, due to the versatility in the topologies and their implementation; but at the same time, the mobility of the sensor node brings challenges in the deployment of the network and makes it difficult to implement or incorporate the sensors. The rain gauge is the element in the sensitive node that measures the amount of rain that falls in a specific place, this instrument is commonly used in meteorological stations. The problem with this type of device is that they cannot be incorporated into moving platforms due to their design and construction; Because this is based on a double tilting bucket that collects small amounts of water through a funnel, and where the balance varies depending on the amount of water in the buckets, so every time the rain falls and One bucket is filled, the scale oscillates, emptying the full bucket, while the other begins to fill. The measurement of the frequency of the oscillation determines the millimeters of water that fall in the place where it was installed. For the above reasons, this work presents the design and implementation of a prototype of an electronic rain gauge to be used in a mobile sensor node. The development of this device is one of the challenges encountered in the macro research project that aims to develop a mobile sensor node and a fixed sink node for a wireless sensor network in the city of Santa Marta. Projecting a smart city For the construction of the proposed rain gauge, use has been made of a water collecting container with holes in its lower part, a pair of copper bars deployed at the top of the container, an operational amplifier, an analog to digital converter with an output to connect to the bus. I2C, a GPS, and a Raspberry pi that processes and conditions the data. When the copper bars come into contact with the collected water, they close the circuit and generate a potential difference that is detected by an operational amplifier that at its output generates an analog voltage signal that varies between 3.3 to 0 volts depending on the height. of water in the container or the depth to which the rods are immersed in the water. The voltage signal is read by an analog to digital converter that generates data that is sent to the Raspberry pi on the I2C bus. Based on the Torricelli principle and the measurement of the height of the water in the collecting container, the real average velocity of the liquid at the outlet of the lower hole can be estimated. With the velocity and the area of ​​the lower orifice, the flow or volume of the fluid that dislodges the container is estimated. The outlet flow rate is considered the inlet flow rate assuming the container is initially empty. Subsequently, with the measurements of the inlet area of ​​the collecting container, the calculated flow rate, the time it takes to take the sample, the geographical coordinates from where the sample is taken and a computational algorithm made by Python and implemented in the Raspberry pi, we obtain finally the millimeters of water that fall into the sampling area. This algorithm takes into account that the device is in motion. To relate the voltage signal of the operational amplifier with the height of the water in the container, a series of measurements are taken, and making use of a fourth-order polynomial regression, a mathematical model of the height (cm) as a function of the voltage is obtained (H = 1.7042V4 - 14.598V3 + 45.499V2 - 62.7V + 34.578), with an R2 coefficient of 0.99 that validates the model. The prototype was implemented, tested and evaluated in a controlled environment simulating rain with a defined amount of water; this is entered in the developed rain gauge, obtaining an error percentage of 8.5%. This percentage is optimal bearing in mind that the sensor mobile node of the macro project only has to determine if light, moderate or heavy rains are occurring in different parts of the city.

Topic: Electronics and Devices
"CARING FOR YOUR ARRHYTHMIA": USING ICT IN NURSING CARE
GONZÁLEZ CONSUEGRA RENATA VIRGINIA 1, CASTILLO SIERRA DIANA MARCELA 2,
1 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2 Universidad El Bosque,
Email: 1 rvgonzalezc@unal.edu.co, 2 dmcastillos@unbosque.edu.co,
Abstract: Introduction:The increasing number of people who suffer from cardiac arrhythmias, the highly technical treatments that are provided and the physical, psychological and social consequences, as well as the impact on the quality of life of the people who suffer them, have aroused in the professional of nursing the interest in developing strategies that have broad coverage and easy access, such as ICT information technologies. Objective: To develop a strategy for nursing care in people suffering from cardiac arrhythmias by implementing information and communication technology (ICT). Methods: An interdisciplinary approach was contemplated that allowed to build an information and communication technology, from the scientific theoretical knowledge, through the development of three phases. Results: Structuring of an ICT information and communication technology (website) for nursing care in people with cardiac arrhythmias called “Cuidando tu arritmia-Ponle UN ritmo a tu vida”. Conclusion: Information Technology and Communication ICT are useful tools for nursing care allowing greater accessibility and expanding the coverage of nursing care in the health care of people, impacting health outcomes of people and your families.

Topic: Nursing
EFFECT OF AN EDUCATIONAL NURSING INTERVENTION TO REDUCE PAIN IN THE PATIENT WITH MYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION DURING THE POST-OPERATIVE OUTPATIENT
ALVAREZ YAÑEZ DEBORA MILENA 1, CARVAJAL CARRASCAL GLORIA 2,
1 Universidad La Sabana - Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad La Sabana,
Email: 1 demialya@hotmail.com, 2 gloria.carvajal@unisabana.edu.co,
Abstract: Introduction: The needs experienced by patients in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery range from the physiological to the emotional sphere. At a physiological level, pain is an unsatisfied need, which affects other needs such as sleep and physical activity, mood, adherence, and quality of life. Objective: To determine the effect of an educational nursing intervention compared with conventional nursing care, to reduce pain in cardiac surgery patients in the outpatient postoperative period in a highly complex institution in Cúcuta during the second semester of 2020 and the first semester of the year 2021. Methodology: Quantitative, quasi-experimental study, with pre-test measurement in the first postoperative and post-test control and comparison group, in patients with myocardial revascularization from a highly complex institution in Cúcuta, with simple random, Probabilistic sampling, with an estimated sample of 40 patients for each group. To collect the information, the McGill scale and the Trait Anxiety Inventory, IDARE, were used, after filling out the informed consent, pain measurements were performed at the beginning, 15 and 30 days after delivery of the educational intervention, to to determine the effect of the intervention between groups and intragroup compared to conventional care. Results: The experimental group exhibited a statistically significant reduction in pain levels for each of the dimensions and at a general level after the educational intervention (p <0.05) while in the control group there were no significant changes in pain levels between both measurements (p> 0.05). It was also possible to establish that the experimental group exhibited a statistically significant reduction in anxiety levels for each of the dimensions and at a general level after the educational intervention (p <0.05), contrary to the control group, where an increase in the level was evidenced. anxiety, although without important differences with respect to the initial measurement (p> 0.05). Conclusions: From educational interventions supported by nursing knowledge, it is possible to reduce the level of pain and the level of anxiety of the revascularized patient during the outpatient postoperative period. It also contributes to the implementation of actions that promote the quality of care and support during cardiac rehabilitation.

Topic: Nursing
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SUICIDAL IDEATION AND FAMILY FUNCTIONALITY IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS OF THE FACULTY OF HEALTH SCIENCES AT THE FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER UNIVERSITY, PRESENTIAL MODALITY, DURING THE SECOND SEMESTER OF THE YEAR 2020
PINILLA ACEVEDO MERY ALEXANDRA 1, DÁVILA DURAN KRISS MADELEYN 2, QUINTERO CACUA MARIA ANGELICA 3, VARGAS TOLOZA RUBY ELIZABETH 4,
1 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 2 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER , 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander , 4 UFPS,
Email: 1 malexandrapa@gmail.com, 2 krissmadeleyndd@ufps.edu.co, 3 mariaangelicaqc@ufps.edu.co, 4 rubyelizabethvt@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The present research aims to determine the relationship between suicidal ideation and family functionality in university students of the Faculty of Health Sciences at the Francisco de Paula Santander University, face-to-face modality, during the second semester of 2020. The research methodology It corresponds to a quantitative methodology of a descriptive type, correlational design and cross-sectional. The sample is made up of 188 students of both sexes, from the Nursing and Safety and Health at Work programs of the Faculty of Health Sciences of the higher education institution, to whom the instruments, Suicidal Ideation Scale (Scale of Suicidal Ideation) were applied ( SSI) and the Family Functionality Perception Test (FF-SIL). The results indicate that, regarding the variable of suicidal ideation, it was shown that 51.6% present suicidal ideation, where the minimum desire to die stands out with 43.10%; contrary to 48.40% of the participants where suicidal ideation did not occur. In relation to the family functionality variable, it was evidenced that, at the highest level, there are Moderately Functional families with 50%, followed by Functional families with 27.7% and finally there are Dysfunctional families with 19.7%. On the other hand, the relationship between scales was evaluated using Spearman's Correlation Coefficient, where the established statistical significance was 0.05. When evaluating the relationship between the Family Functioning scale and the Suicidal Ideation dimensions, an inverse and statistically significant correlation was observed with each of them (p <0.01), with the highest correlation coefficient being “attitude towards life and death ”(r = -0.477). This shows that the higher the family functioning, the lower the attitude towards life and death, therefore, the lower the suicidal ideation. Similarly, when evaluating the relationship between the Suicidal Ideation scale and the dimensions of Family Functioning, an inverse and statistically significant correlation was observed for all dimensions (p <0.01), with the highest correlation coefficient being “harmony” ( r = -0.393), "cohesion" (r = -0.385) and "communication" (r = -0.380). This shows that the greater harmony, cohesion and communication found in a family, the greater its family functioning, therefore, the less the presence of suicidal ideas. Finally, both variables are correlated, where it is reflected that there is an inverse and statistically significant correlation between Suicidal Ideation and Family Functioning of the students (p <0.01); that is, as Family Functioning increases in their homes, Suicidal Thought or Ideation decreases.

Topic: Nursing
ENERGY VALORIZATION OF HORSE MANURE USING ANAEROBIC BIODIGESTION IN AN AGRICULTURAL FARM
SANCHEZ JORGE MARIO 1, ACEVEDO-PAEZ JUAN C. 2, MORENO GAMBOA FAUSTINO 3,
1 Universidad de Santander, 2 Universidad de Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: 1 jmsanchez@uniguajira.edu.co, 2 jua.acevedo@mail.udes.edu.co, 3 faustinomoreno@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: There are currently about 1,6 million equines, and this is one of the most abundant species in the Colombian countryside (ICA, 2020). Manure from livestock activities is used as compost without any treatment, this incorrect disposal of manure can generate environmental problems such as bad odors, the attraction of vectors, soil acidification, contamination of water bodies with pathogenic microorganisms and greenhouse gas emissions (Pino, 2012). A promising alternative for the stabilization of organic matter present in horse manure is anaerobic digestion (AD), given that this waste is characterized by having a moisture content of 25% w/w, pH of 8,2 and a C/N ratio of 23/1 (Kafle et al., 2015), which are considered as optimal characteristics to carry out the AD process. AD is a complex biochemical reaction that is carried out in an oxygen-free environment by several types of microorganisms (Pavlostathis and Giraldo-Gómez, 1991) and where at the end of the process, different groups of methanogenic bacteria decompose the organic matter to produce methane. In addition, AD is an outstanding alternative for the treatment of horse manure because it brings several benefits: it generates energy in the form of biogas, reduces soil contamination problems, and creates a by-product called "digestate" that can be used as a biofertilizer. The present investigation was carried out in an agricultural farm located in the municipality of Girón (Santander, Colombia). The farm has 2 equines that generate 12 kg of manure per day. First, a manure sample was collected, and the following parameters were determined: total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and pH. In the next stage, a domestic tubular biodigester was implemented, which consists mainly of a polyethylene geo-membrane that stores the organic matter and in which anaerobic digestion takes place. The performance of the biodigester was determined by the removal of organic matter quantified by SV and COD in the influent and digestate of the biodigester, of which a removal of 82% of SV and 74% of COD was achieved in this research, values that were similar to those reported by Lansing et al. (2008) who obtained 80%/83% SV and 86%/92% COD removals for domestic digesters fed with bovine and swine manure, respectively. The average biogas production was 0,5 m3/day (i.e., 0,041 m3/kg manure), a higher production than that reported by Singh and Kaushal (2016) of 0,033 m3/kg manure for a small-scale biodigester fed with horse manure in Kapurpur, India. The biogas produced was used in cooking food, partially replacing propane gas. According to the methane content present in the biogas (55-65%), its lower heating value (LHV) is 26.000 kJ/m3 (Hernández L., 1996). Therefore, the energy supplied by this biogas is 390.000 kJ/month. Applying a calculation of energy equivalence with the propane gas used in the farm, an average monthly energy saving of 60% was achieved with the use of biogas from horse manure. From the economic component, the cost of installing the biodigester was US$ 273,13. Operating costs are not considered because the feed is diluted with collected rainwater, and the system does not require agitation, heating or maintenance. The implementation of the biodigester results in an economic saving of US$7,02/month, which corresponds to the reduction in the purchase of commercial propane gas. Considering that the useful life of a low-cost polyethylene biodigester is 10 years (Samayoa et al., 2012), the payback period is 3,25 years. Finally, the results of the present study show a high transformation of the organic matter present in the horse manure when fed to a domestic biodigester, which demonstrates that AD is a technically and economically viable alternative for the processing of horse manure, which could be implemented in similar farms, thus allowing the recovery of energy and nutrients from this waste.

Topic: Biological Physics
ANALYSIS OF EMOTIONAL SIGNALS THROUGH A BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACE IN THE INTERACTION OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH AN AUGMENTED REALITY APPLICATION FOR THE TEACHING OF PHYSICS
ROJAS CONTRERAS MAURICIO 1, PEÑA CORTES CESAR AUGUSTO 2, MORENO CUEVAS LUZ ANGELA 3,
1 Universidad de Pamplona, 2 Universidad de Pamplona, 3 Universidad de Pamplona,
Email: 1 mrojas@unipamplona.edu.co, 2 cesarapc@unipamplona.edu.co, 3 luz.moreno@unipamplona.edu.co,
Abstract: The scope of this article is to analyze the recording of emotional signals taken with a brain-computer interface through neuronsignals in the interaction of a group of children with an augmented reality application that aims to support the issue of measurement in the teaching of physics. The method used to carry out the analysis begins with the recording of emotional signals with the brain-computer interface of a child in a normal state, then the emotional signals are recorded in a measurement experiment with traditional teaching methods and finally the emotional signals are recorded. Emotional signals of the child interacting with an augmented reality application that has the scope to support the subject of measurement in the teaching of physics. The same method is replicated to the rest of the sample. The result of this research is specified through a correlation analysis between the age variables and the variables commitment, excitement, focus, interest, relaxation, stress in the interaction of a group of children with an augmented reality application for teaching physics. Specifically, it can be seen that the interest and commitment variables increase by comparing the traditional teaching method with the method in which an augmented reality application is used for the teaching of physics, in a complementary way it was possible to identify that the levels stress decrease when using the augmented reality application. Taking as a starting point the analysis of neuronsignals in the interaction of children with augmented reality applications, it can be concluded that the use of vision technologies in the teaching of children improves the emotional signals of children and at the same time reduces stress levels in the teaching-learning process. Additionally, it is evidenced that the use of the brain-computer interface for the recording of neuronsignals can become an alternative method to measure the level of usability of augmented reality applications in teaching.

Topic: Mathematical Physics
ANALYSIS OF PROBLEM SOLVING IN PHYSICS. A STUDY WITH HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS
HERNÁNDEZ SUÁREZ CÉSAR AUGUSTO 1, PAZ MONTES LUISA STELLA 2, AVENDAÑO CASTRO WILLIAM RODRIGO 3,
1 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander ,
Email: 1 cesaraugusto@ufps.edu.co, 2 luisastellapm@ufps.edu.co, 3 williamavendano@ufps.edu.co,
Abstract: The objective of this work is to develop the capacity of students in problem solving competence in the subject of physics. An analysis is presented with the quasi-experimental method by applying a pretest - posttest. An intervention supported by a methodological problem-solving strategy was used, which focused on identifying errors and difficulties by the students themselves and thus favoring the learning and development of this competence. This made it possible to analyze the academic progress of the students. The analysis of the data shows that the performance of the students is improved, in addition to the positive assessment they make of the process, as well as its influence on the change in pedagogical practice.

Topic: Mathematical Physics
APPLICATION OF THE HEAT EQUATION FOR MODELING CONDUCTION WITH AN ENERGY SOURCE.
LÓPEZ CASTRO CÉSAR AUGUSTO 1, CADENA MORALES JOSÉ JULIAN 2, ALBA JOSE MANUEL 3,
1 Universidad de Libre, 2 UFPSO, 3 UFPSO,
Email: 1 cesara.lopezc@unilibre.edu.co, 2 jjcadenam@ufpso.edu.co, 3 jmalbam@ufpso.edu.co,
Abstract: Within the equations of mathematical physics the heat equation has a prominent place. The applications of the heat equation to engineering are part of a growing research interest. An example of this situation can be seen in the heat conduction processes included in areas such as thermodynamics, combustion, fluid mechanics and welding processes. From a mathematical point of view, the study of thermal phenomena is at the heart of Fourier theory. The present research proposed the formulation of a mathematical model that would allow