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Abstracts
ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS IN CONTINUOUS FIBER, ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES TO TRACTION BETWEEN SIMILAR STANDARDS
SIERRA NOSSA IVAN FELIPE 1, BOHÓRQUEZ OSCAR 2, PERTUZ ALBERTO 3, SÁNCHEZ ACEVEDO HÉLLER GUILLERMO 4, GONZÁLEZ ESTRADA OCTAVIO ANDRÉS 5,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 5 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: ivansierranossa@gmail.com
Abstract: Additive manufacturing technology is emerging as a process capable of materializing a computer-aided design model and constructing a piece by adding material by layer and in continuous fibers, a very useful technique that is being successfully implemented as a new alternative for manufacturing processes of prototypes and fundamental parts of mechanical design in the industry. The objective of this research is to know the projection of comparing different current standards developed for mechanical tests to traction in composite materials and according to the experimental tests, the scope and the characteristics in terms of mechanical resistance that these composite material own; additional in this research is planned to create a benchmark for estimating the behavior of the material according to the specifications and results of the experimental tests of each standard. Current international standards for characterization of materials according to mechanical tests are for composite materials manufactured by conventional methods such as manual molding, injection or coatings; the regulations do not specify a categorization for materials manufactured by additive manufacturing, the transcendence of this project determines whether these standards can be applied successfully in this type of materials manufactured with these new technologies or requires of new standard models. With the data analysis, average values of tensile strength for composite materials were obtained in triangular matrix fibers in ranges from 25 MPa to 30 MPa, for deformations no greater than 0.020 mm; values which mean a high degree of resistance for composite materials manufactured by additive manufacturing taking as reference composite materials manufactured in conventional ways.

Topic: AM - Additive Manufacturing
ANALYSIS OF THE ADHESION OF TITANIUM AND DIAMOND-LIKE-CARBON COATINGS ON 3D PRINTED SURFACES
ZAPATA URIBE ANGÉLICA MARÍA 1, VALBUENA NIÑO ELY DANNIER 2, MARTÍNEZ MANUEL 3, DÍAZ LANTADA ANDRÉS 4, PERTUZ ALBERTO 5,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Foundation of Researches in Science and Technology of Materials, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 4 Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 5 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: angezapata7@gmail.com
Abstract: The importance of coatings in engineering has been predominant throughout the development of the new industrial era. The competitiveness of the field has led to the development of better materials that achieve superior properties. The purpose of this research is evaluating the adhesion to the surfaces coated by magnetron sputtering technique. The adherence quality of the deposited coatings on specimens was evaluated adhesion, scratch and indentation tests guided according to ASTM C1624, ASTM D7027, and ASTM E2546 standards respectively, using the Tribolab UMT at constant load. The results obtained allow validating of the additive manufacturing process as possible mechanicals applications.

Topic: AM - Additive Manufacturing
DEVICES FUNCTIONALIZED WITH GRAPHENE-OXIDE MANUFACTURED BY 3D PRINTING
V-NIÑO ELY DANNIER 1, ENDRINO ARMENTEROS J L 2, ESTUPIÑAN-DURAN H A 3, MEJÍA-OSPINO E 4, CABANZO-HERNÁNDEZ R 5, RAMÍREZ-CABALLERO G 6, SANTOS A 7, DÍAZ-LANTADA A 8,
1 Universidad Politécnica de Madrid / Foundation of Researchers in Science and Technology of Materials, 2 Cranfield University, 3 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 5 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 6 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 7 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 8 Universidad Politécnica de Madrid,
Email: deydannv@gmail.com
Abstract: This research work consists of manufacture devices of various geometric shapes using commercial photopolymer pure “Grey PN: F100G” resin (a mixture of oligomers, methacrylate monomers, and photoinitiators) and mass functionalized with graphene oxide at different concentrations (0.2% w/w, 0.4% w/w, 0.6% w/w, 0.8% w/w, 0.10% w/w, and 0.12% w/w). The substrates were manufactured in FormLabs 3D Form 1+ printer by means of additive manufacturing, using the laser stereolithography technique. The substrates were modeled in computer-aided design software and later were manufactured, layer by layer with a resolution of the layer thickness of 100 microns; where, the properties of polymer-based nanocomposites reply on distribution, concentration, geometry, and property of nanofillers in the polymer matrix. Meaning, the increase in the concentration of carbon-based nanomaterials in a polymer matrix could leave result in a less strong and more brittle material. The thermal-mechanical results show the viability and the potential that the additive manufacturing could have with the functionalized materials.

Topic: AM - Additive Manufacturing
EFFECT ON THE HEAT OF HYDRATION, SETTING TIMES AND MECHANICAL RESISTANCE ADDING FLY ASH AND BLAST FURNACE SLAG IN COMMERCIAL CEMENT MIXTURES
GUTIÉRREZ-JUNCO OSCAR JAVIER 1, HERNÁNDEZ CARRILLO CARLOS GABRIEL 2, SARMIENTO ROJAS JORGE ANDRÉS 3,
1 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 2 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 3 Universidad Pedagógica Y Tecnológica de Colombia,
Email: oscarjavier.gutierrez@uptc.edu.co
Abstract: Portland cement (CPC), thanks to its durability, versatility and economy, is the most used construction material in the world and its production follows a growth trend; however, a large amount of energy is required for its production, which generates a large amount of greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants; consequently, a large part of the research focuses on mitigating these effects using the partial replacement of supplementary cementing materials (SCMs). Based on the above, the present investigation aims to evaluate performance in commercial cement paste (CPC), replacement with fly ash (FA) and blast furnace slag (GBFS), characterized by scanning electron microscopy, ray fluorescence X (FRX), surface area (BET) and mechanical resistance to compression in 30 different combinations in order to establish the optimal proportions of the raw materials. Subsequently, four optimal mixtures were selected and characterized during the setting and hardening process establishing the change in the consistency, heat of hydration and setting times. The results established that FA and GBFS, did not generate sufficient capacities to develop stable cementing reactions and greater resistances, due to the high contents of SCMs present in the CPC since its manufacture.

Topic: AM - Additive Manufacturing
ENHANCEMENT OF THE FRACTURE ENERGY OF GRAPHENE OXIDE – EPOXY NANOCOMPOSITES
MUÑOZ GUIJOSA JUAN MANUEL 1, FERNÁNDEZ ZAPICO G 2,
1 Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 2 Universidad Politécnica de Madrid ,
Email: jmguijosa@etsii.upm.es
Abstract: We have successfully developed a novel, scalable method for improving the dispersion, adhesion and delamination level in graphene oxide-epoxy nanocomposites, based on the application of high mechanical energy density. As a result, increases of more than 50% in fracture energy have been achieved in two commercial products. Nanoscale analyses as Raman spectrography, SEM observations and GPC measurements show that changes in the polymer structure occur due to the application of the mechanical energy, which produces less damage in the polymer chains than other processing techniques.

Topic: AM - Additive Manufacturing
EVALUATION OF THE GROWTH OF A FATIGUE CRACK ACCORDING TO THE INTERNAL GEOMETRIC STRUCTURE OF THE MANUFACTURING BY ADDITION.
TORRES ALVAREZ YULLI CLAUDINE 1, BOHÓRQUEZ BECERRA OSCAR RODOLFO 2, PERTUZ COMAS ALBERTO DAVID 3, MARTINEZ MANUEL DEL JESÚS 4, GONZALES ESTRADA OCTAVIO ANDRES 5,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 5 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: ycta1410@gmail.com
Abstract: . Polymers have a wide application field in the industry thanks to their properties; compared to structural metals, these have greater tenacity, greater rigidity, good resistance to heat and abrasion. The pieces constructed in plastic can be manufactured, obtaining final figures without the need for additional processes; these work without lubrication and are silent. Currently, their most important field of application is in mechanical engineering as they are used in gears, valve seats, bearings, etc. This article presents the study of the speed of growth of a crack by fatigue in relation to the number of cycles of effort from an initial size to a critical size of failure in polymeric materials, where it is taken into in account the geometric shape of the printing matrix, evaluating the effect that the stress intensity factor (K) has on the size of the crack and the fatigue stress on the growth rate of the same. Nylon material was used for the model manufactured by means of 3D addition or printing, because the properties of the printed materials include the distribution of material in models whose geometries allow the verification of functionalities where the load is applied in projected directions. The developed procedures are governed according to the ASTM E-647 and E-399 standards; at the same time mathematical formulations were revised and specific trends of these models were validated with the objective of implementing them in applications where the tenacity and resistance to fatigue at specific loads allow, through the fatigue test, to verify said results.

Topic: AM - Additive Manufacturing
GEOMETRIC PARAMETERS IN ADHESIVE JOINTS FOR COMPOSITE MATERIALS PRODUCED BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING
CASAS PULIDO ANDREY FELIPE 1, BOHÓRQUEZ OSCAR 2, QUIROGA MÉNDEZ JABID E 3, PERTUZ ALBERTO 4, GONZÁLEZ-ESTRADA OCTAVIO ANDRÉS 5,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander , 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 5 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: casasandrey@hotmail.com
Abstract: Joints with adhesives are increasingly common nowadays due to the ease of repair, the condition of the new substrates materials, the low affectation by corrosion and the chemical attacks. The adhesive joints have facilitated the coupling processes and the reinforcement of mechanical elements in different areas, due to characteristics such as e.g., uniform distribution of tensions, low cost in its application and maintainability. However, the efficiency of these types of bonding is affected by multiple factors such as overlap length, adhesion width and adhesive thickness. This paper investigates the influence of geometric factors on the performance of the adhesive joint for polymeric substrates manufactured with additive manufacturing. In the first place, numerical models of the union are made to know the stress distributions in the adhesive. The ASTM D3163-96 standard is applied to verify the experimental results for various adhesives.

Topic: AM - Additive Manufacturing
INTERLAMINAR TENSILE STRENGTH FOR COMPOSITES PRODUCED BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING
PAREDES SAAVEDRA ANDREA CAROLINA 1, BOHÓRQUEZ OSCAR 2, RUEDA YESID 3, PERTUZ ALBERTO 4, GONZÁLEZ-ESTRADA OCTAVIO ANDRÉS 5,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 5 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: paredesandrea01@gmail.com
Abstract: The low interlaminar tensile strength of fiber-reinforced composite materials presents serious challenges in the design of structures with a considerable radius of curvature, which are commonly found in a wide range of fields such as aeronautics, civil engineering, maritime industry, energy industry, among others. The objective of the present research is to analyze the interlaminar tensile strength, in the interlaminar layer of a composite material made by a nylon matrix reinforced with fiberglass, using a curved beam produced by additive manufacturing. To achieve this, a numerical model was developed to study the mechanical response of the model. Tests were carried out according to ASTM Standard D6415-99 and, in order to determine which parameters significantly influence the failure of the material, variations were made in the direction of the fiber and the thickness of the test pieces, which were manufactured following the criteria of the aforementioned standard. The results obtained provide relevant information in the prediction of interlaminar tensile strength and specimen behavior after failure.

Topic: AM - Additive Manufacturing
METHOD OF ACTIVATION OF PLA IN AUTO-EXPANDABLE STENTS FOR THE TREATMENT OF CORONARY DISEASES WITH MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY
VARGAS MONDOL MADORISTELL JULIANA 1, PRADA BOTIA GAUDY CAROLINA 2, CAMPOS RUBIO JUAN CARLOS 3,
1 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 2 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 3 UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE MINAS GERAIS ,
Email: julianavm19@hotmail.com
Abstract: Polylactic acid (PLA) as a biodegradable, biocompatible and memory shaped polymer, capable of changing its volume by undergoing a thermal activation stimulus, has been studied for its easy manufacture with currently available additive manufacturing techniques and for its useful application in different fields such as aerospace, textile and biomedical. In the latter, its use is frequent in devices for minimally invasive surgery, specifically in stents for the treatment of coronary diseases, which are implanted with expansion balloons, and which are the case study of this research. By verifying the shape memory property in physical prototypes of PLA manufactured using additive manufacturing, the possibility of manufacturing auto-functional stents at body temperature was analyzed, and finally a proposal was made for the achievement of a self-expanding device at the site of the coronary lesion focused on the material, the activation method and the manufacturing method.

Topic: AM - Additive Manufacturing
SHAPE OPTIMIZATION OF A CONTROL ARM PRODUCED BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING WITH FIBER REINFORCEMENT
CHACÓN PAULA 1, GONZÁLEZ ESTRADA OCTAVIO ANDRÉS 2, SIERRA ALEJANDRO 3,
1 Universidad industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Centro de Gestión Agroempresarial del Oriente, Red automotor, Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje - SENA,
Email: p_chacon96@hotmail.com
Abstract: Additive Manufacturing (AM) makes possible to overcome the limitations of subtractive manufacturing, and supposes a transformation with respect to the traditional processes, allowing to manufacture complex geometries by controlled deposition of material. In the automotive industry, the application of continuous fiber reinforcement, in combination with shape optimization for additive manufacturing, can produce parts with higher performance. This paper investigates the shape optimization problem of a suspension control arm to be produced by additive manufacturing with fiber reinforcement, using finite element analysis. First, the current material, loading conditions and constraints to which the control arm is subjected were determined, considering its traditional design. Then, a numerical model of the part was developed considering its current material and shape to obtain the total deformation and von Mises stress distributions. Afterwards, the new material model was defined, and the shape optimization was performed with the goal of maximizing stiffness. Finally, the results from the optimization process were validated by manufacturing and testing the part.

Topic: AM - Additive Manufacturing
STUDY OF THE EVOLUTION OF A CRACK GROWS IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS REINFORCED WITH CARBON FIBERS.
LIZARAZO DANIEL 1, BOHORQUÉZ OSCAR 2, PERTUZ ALBERTO 3, MARTINEZ MANUEL 4, GONZÁLES ANDRES 5,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), 5 Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS),
Email: daniel7lizarazo@gmail.com
Abstract: Abstract. Nowadays, there are diverse different additive manufacture models, among those, the 3D printing can be highlighted as a method where you create pieces from the layer by layer build based on the piece’s CAD model. Its versatility allows the fabrication of complex figures. Thanks to the technological evolution of the 3D printing, there is a long list of technics that make possible to improve the characteristics of the final pieces; like the usage of additives; post curated technics and oxygen isolation, carbon fiber reinforcement, etc. This paper focused on the reinforcement technique with carbon fibers, studying the influence of the fiber orientation in the evolution of a crack grows using the fracture mechanism. To create the samples, 3D printer with the capacity to apply continue carbon reinforcement fibers was used: The shape of the sample was toked from the ASTM E647 standard, a TCmod type. For the fracture analysis, the Irwin & Orowan theory was applied, because it provides a solution for the ductile materials mechanic, like the ones used in this investigation.

Topic: AM - Additive Manufacturing
CHARACTERIZATION OF TIO2 NANOTUBES GROWTH THROUGH ANODIZATION IN ORGANIC SOLVENTS.
SANDOVAL-AMADOR ANDERSON 1, LOPEZ-JAIMES KATHERINE ALEJANDRA 2, PEÑA-BALLESTEROS DARIO YESID 3,
1 Foundation of Researchers in Science and Technology of Materials, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: anderson84f@gmail.com
Abstract: Los nanotubos de TiO2 han generado gran interés en los últimos años debido a la gran variedad de aplicaciones en las que estos son utilizados. La causa de esto son las excelentes propiedades superficiales que este material obtienen tras crecer mediante el proceso de anodizado. Dichas propiedades pueden ser modificadas fácilmente alterando el proceso de anodizado electroquímico. Por tal motivo, en este trabajo analizamos el efecto que tiene el tipo de solvente en la morfologia superficial y la resistencia a la corrosion de peliculas de nanotubos de TiO2 crecidas sobre la aleacion de Ti6Al4V. Para tal efecto, se crecieron nanotubos de TiO2 en 0,3% w/w NH4F + 2% v/v H2O + glicerol a 30V durante 1 hora y 0.3% w/w NH4F + 2% v/v H2O + etilenglicol a 40V durante 30 minutos. La morfología de las superficies se observó mediante microscopia electrónica de barrido. La resistencia a la corrosión de las muestras se evaluó mediante curvas de polarización potenciodinámica en solución Hanks a 37°C. Los resultados mostraron que los nanotubos crecidos en glicerol tiene una longitud de 0,7 µm con morfología de pared tipo bambu mientras que los nanotubos crecidos en etilenglicol tienen una longitud de 3,3 µm y su morfología es de pared lisa. En cuanto a la velocidad de corrosión se determinó que los nanotubos crecidos en glicerol presentan una mayor velocidad de corrosión que los nanotubos crecidos en etilenglicol. Sin embargo, debido a que as velocidades de corrosion reportadas son bajas se considera que las dos superficies pueden ser empleadas como alternativas para modificar materiales de implante ortopédico.

Topic: BC - Biomedical Coatings
ELECTROCHEMICAL AND BIOACTIVE EVALUATION OF POLYCAPROLACTONE / MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE COATINGS ON TI6AL4V
MONTAÑEZ SUPELANO NERLY DEYANIRA 1, HERRERA PAOLA 2, LÓPEZ MABEL 3, GARCÍA SANDRA 4, ESTUPIÑAN HUGO 5, PEÑA DARIO YESID 6,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 5 Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Medellín, 6 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: ing.nerly.montanez@hotmail.com
Abstract: Composite materials of polymer – carbon nanotubes have been widely studied for biomedical applications due to the versatility of polymers in this field and the excellent mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes. However, carbon nanotubes are materials which can provide some toxicity in biological systems, since they have low solubility in water and organic solvents, tend to form aggregates in solution, are bioincompatible and limited compatibility with polymeric matrices. For this reason, carbon nanotubes (CNT) considered for biomedical applications must comply with this basic requirement of solubility. To improve the compatibility of the carbon nanotubes, they were exposed to treatment with HNO3, NaOH and HCl to eliminate impurities and improve the solubility in other solvents. Polycaprolactone coatings at 2.5% w / v and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g / L) were developed to evaluate the electrochemical and bioactive properties. Techniques such as FT-IR spectroscopy, contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy using SBF as electrolyte and the bioactivity of human osteoseosarcoma cells (HOS ATCC® CRL-1543) by alkaline phosphatase were used. From the reported characterizations, it was observed that the resistance to polarization increases according to the degree of dispersion of carbon nanotubes present in the polymer matrix, decreasing the degradation rate of the material.

Topic: BC - Biomedical Coatings
ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOR OF MULTILAYER COATINGS (HA/Β-TCP), DEPOSITED ON AISI 316LVM
ROJAS SÁNCHEZ CESAR ENRIQUE 1, APERADOR CHAPARRO WILLIAM ARNULFO 2, VERA LÓPEZ ENRIQUE 3,
1 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 2 Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Bogotá, Colombia, 3 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia ,
Email: cesarerojas400@gmail.com
Abstract: In this investigation multilayer coatings of HA/β-TCP were deposited, varying the number of layers, with n=1, 10, 30 and 50 layers, with constant thickness, by the magnetron sputtering technique. The morphological characterization of the coatings was performed by means of atomic force microscopy and characterization by X-ray diffraction, to determine the growth and crystal structure of the multilayers. The evaluation of the corrosion phenomenon was carried out using the electrochemical techniques of Tafel polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, exposing the coating in contact with the test solution called lactate ringer. It was obtained that the corrosion current density decreases and resistance to polarization increases, the greater the number of multilayers, evidencing an adequate homogeneity of the layers and lower porosity, providing a better behavior in the protection against corrosion.

Topic: BC - Biomedical Coatings
FORMATION OF A COMBINED BIOCERAMICS LAYER ON TITANIUM IMPLANTS
TSYGANKOV PETR 1, PARADA BECERRA FREDY FABIÁN 2, SCRIABIN ANDREI 3,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Bauman State Technical University,
Email: piotrtsy@mail.ru
Abstract: Titanium and its alloys are currently the main materials for prosthetics, despite the fact that they have a number of significant disadvantages. The novelty trend in implant technology is the prevention of direct contact of living tissues with the metal surface. For this reason, various types of protective coatings are used, usually on the basе of ceramics or carbon. It is known that in the contact zone it is preferable to create a well-developed or even porous surface with osteoconductive properties. This paper discusses the combined technology of modification of titanium. Implant surface treatment includes two main stages: 1.) growing a porous protective layer of titanium dioxide deep into the material surface (10μm-100 μm) and 2.) filling the pores formed on the surface of titanium dioxide with hydroxyapatite to ensure high osteoconductive properties. The formation of a layer of titanium dioxide is provided by micro-arc oxidation processing with a controllable density of pulsed currents; then the pores are filled with crystalline hydroxyapatite by detonation spraying. The results of the study of tribological and structural characteristics of the modified titanium surface are presented and discussed.

Topic: BC - Biomedical Coatings
NANOSTRUCTURED TITANIUM SURFACES: THE IDEAL MATERIAL FOR IMPROVING ORTHOPEDIC IMPLANT EFFICACY?
GIL LINDA 1,
1 Universidad Nacional Experimental Politécnica “Antonio José de Sucre”,
Email: lindaegil@gmail.com
Abstract: Titanium (Ti) and its alloys have been widely used as implant materials for orthopedic applications owing to their excellent wear resistance, corrosion resistance, lightweight, good mechanical properties, and acceptable biocompatibility. However, such implants still widely experience lifetimes of less than 20 years owing to a variety of reasons eventually leading to implant separation from bone. In 1999, Webster et al. provided the first evidence that osteoblast (bone-forming cells) adhesion and bone formation significantly increases on nanostructured Titania compared with conventional Titania. Since then, nanotechnology has been proposed to improve the quality of orthopedic implants by better mimicking the nanoscale properties of native bone tissue. This conference presents an overview of the recent development of Ti implants, with emphasis on nanoengineered Titania nanotubes (TNTs) structures, for solving key problems to improve implants osseointegration, overcome inflammation and infection together with providing localized drug delivery (LDD) for bone diseases including cancer. Critical analysis of the advantages/ disadvantages of developed concepts and future challenges & directions will be discussed. Our experiences in UNEXPO will be presented.

Topic: BC - Biomedical Coatings
RESISTANCE TO CORROSION AND BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF TRANSITION METALS OXYNITURATES
NUMPAQUE ROJAS GLORIA CAROLINA 1, ROMERO MALAGON EDUARD RICARDO 2, CUBILLOS GONZALEZ GLORIA IVONNE 3,
1 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 3 Universidad Nacional de Colombia,
Email: gnumpaquer@unal.edu.co
Abstract: 316L stainless steel combines the mechanical properties, biocompatibility and corrosion resistance necessary to be considered a material for surgical use. However, when they are used in osteosynthesis processes where the implanted material must remain long periods of time in the organism, the biological fluids can initiate the corrosion process of the steel releasing Ni2+ and Cr3+ ions into the bloodstream. The presence of these metal ions in the host tissue causes a series of inflammatory and allergic reactions due to the attack of macrophages that release proinflammatory cytokines, acidifying the medium, which leads to osteolysis and, in the worst case, a loosening of the implant. The ceramic coatings are resistant to abrasive and tribological environments which make it an effective alternative to mitigate corrosion in AISI 316L, enhance biocompatibility and favor acceptance and functional adaptation of a prosthesis from osteoinduction and osteoconduction processes. Ceramics are bioinert materials with the characteristic of inducing the formation of a fibroblast layer and collagen fibers at the bone-implant interface, achieving a high degree of stability in vivo in the prosthesis. The development of new biocompatible ceramic materials deposited on AISI 316L that favors the proliferation of bone cells, resistant to corrosion in physiological medium, opens the field of research in the search for new biomaterials that stimulate the growth of bone cells, capable of favoring processes of osseointegration, osteoinduction and osteoconduction. The transition metal oxynitrides (ONMT) fulfill these characteristics, due to their high resistance to corrosion and good biocompatibility. In the present work, we synthesized thin films of ONMT on AISI 316L using the technique of sputtering with radio frequency. We evaluated its resistance to corrosion in Hank's physiological solution and its biocompatibility in vitro from MTT cell viability analysis and fluorescence microscopy with mouse osteoblastic cell line C57BL / 6. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that ONMT films are more resistant to corrosion in physiological medium compared to surgical grade steel and highly biocompatible. They promote osseointegration.

Topic: BC - Biomedical Coatings
ADVANCED OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY IN MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION
RANGEL SILVA JOÃO LUCAS 1, CARVALHO I 2,
1 Horiba Scientific, 2 Horiba Scientific,
Email: joao.lucas@horiba.com
Abstract: Optical analysis refers to the broad and general process by which a material's structure and properties are probed and measured. It is a fundamental process in the field of materials science, without which no scientific understanding of engineering materials could be ascertained. While many characterization techniques have been practiced for centuries, such as basic optical microscopy, new techniques and methodologies are constantly emerging. In particular, the advance of some micro-techniques, such as, Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies, photoluminescence, electroluminescence, Micro XRF and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry, which has revolutionized the field. These techniques allow the imaging and analysis of structures and compositions on much smaller scales than was previously possible, leading to a huge increase in the level of understanding as to why different materials show different properties and behaviors. Nowadays, many studies are migrating for nanoscale research, in order to have a better understanding of many nano-process, which can only be determined on the nanoscale and aren't reproducible on the microscale. Thanks to the advance of technology, nano-techniques are becoming more popular, such as AFM-Raman, where combines the AFM capabilities to characterize the morphology and structure, and the Raman capabilities to characterize the chemical composition of the sample at the nanoscale. Applications involving such micro-techniques has been rapidly growing in recent years. The demand comes mainly from several areas in materials science, such as fiber optics telecommunication, solar energy conversion, lasing media, LED and OLED technologies and development of upconversion nanoparticles for biomedical analyses and bioimaging.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
ALTERNATIVE USE OF RESIDUAL EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE FOR THE CREATION OF WATERPROOFING PAINT TO MITIGATE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
TIRIA SANDOVAL LUIS CARLOS 1, ZAMUDIO PEÑA WILLIAM HUMBERTO 2, BELLÓN MONSALVE DANIELA 3, USECHE MONSALVE IVÁN EDUARDO 4,
1 Universidad de Santander, 2 Universidad de Santander, 3 Universidad de Santander, 4 Universidad Nacional Experimental del Táchira,
Email: lu.tiria@mail.udes.edu.co
Abstract: The environmental impacts generated by the great variety of degradable and non-degradable wastes have meant that the sites disposed as sanitary landfills are insufficient places to support the immense volumes of waste, which in many cities of Colombia and in Bucaramanga is not available of concrete actions to minimize the environmental damage that this causes. The expanded polystyrene known in our environment as Icopor is part of that environmental damage with non-biodegradable characteristics that point to a greater contamination so it is reused in multiple ways it is not destroyed so easily; these reasons motivate for this proposal to formulate an alternative use of expanded polystyrene EPS so that its use allows that waste to disappear and be the basis of a paint type enamel useful for users d construction and for the population of scarce resources in self-construction processes. Although there is a registered trademark in Mexico of a nearby product, it is not an obstacle to prototyping a biodegradable material with a high level of thermal resistance at low cost. The objective is: Design and develop the prototype of environmentally friendly waterproofing paint from expanded polystyrene waste as an alternative for general users. Methodologically, we will work with the collection of information from surveys and interviews and we will proceed with the information of the quantitative variables to be processed in SPSS and interpret the results with the relevant statisticians as Chi square. Likewise, a direct analysis of the qualitative variables will be carried out, which will allow complementing the quantitative analysis. For the analysis of laboratory results, tests will be carried out with different solvents to determine the dissolution efficiency of expanded polystyrene, mixtures will be made: expanded polystyrene-solvent in various proportions and will be mixed to be applied on various surfaces (concrete, wood, agglomerates) , etc.). In front of the results based on the different mixtures made in the laboratory, the one that optimizes the characterization required by the user will be the chosen painting as a prototype being the expected result of the project. Regarding the expected impacts are associated, the first to the protection of the environment by the contribution to the decline in landfills, particularly the Carrasco in Bucaramanga, and in general of the unusable deposits that in the long term can generate the collection of the polystyrene waste to be used in the production of the aforementioned paint, the second, to the economic impact as a result of the consumption of low cost inputs that are mixed in the production process of the waterproofing paint, given that in the current conditions the production and marketing of paint products assimilated in the market are of high cost and price and third, a social impact is assumed, if you take into account that in many urban and rural areas of the small municipalities of Santander is very common , self-construction processes which entails facilitating access to the population with low purchasing capacity. The pollution caused by the indiscriminate use of expanded polystyrene (EPS), where the sanitary landfills of the city are infested with this material occupying a lot of space with so little weight, but abundant volume and additionally it is not biodegradable, being a material very resistant to the passage weather. According to a study by the University of Manizales, in Colombia 13% of the total solid waste per year corresponds to plastics and their derivatives, among which is the so-called Icopor.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF THERMAL PROPERTIES OF THERMOPLASTICS WITH POLYVINYL ACETATE AND CASSAVA STARCH MATRIX, REINFORCED WITH 20% FIQUE FIBER AND PINEAPPLE FIBER
SILVA CALDERÓN ELKIN ANDRÉS 1, MONSALVE PEREIRA OSCAR LEONARDO 2, PINTO HERNÁNDEZ WILLIAM 3,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: elkin.silva@uis.edu.co
Abstract: Composite materials reinforced with fibers of vegetable origin contribute to the reduction of environmental impact and over time have become an attractive and a viable alternative for many industry fields. The lignocellulosic fiber reinforcements have shown improvement in the thermal behavior of the composites with thermoplastic matrices. Therefore, the characterization and study of their properties is essential for the development of new materials. In order to study their thermal characteristics, three composite materials were generated from an aqueous solution matrix composed of polyvinyl acetate and cassava starch with a ratio of 2: 1 by weight, and two other mixtures composed of the matrix reinforced with 20% (w / w) of pineapple fiber and fique fiber, respectively. The elaboration of the specimens was carried out using the casting method, in which the mixture was poured into a mold and the evaporation of the solvent was expected. In this sense, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry techniques were used to evaluate the thermal behavior, in order to analyze and compare the three compounds using the matrix without reinforcement as a reference. The fiber reinforced materials showed an increase in the melting temperature and an improvement in the thermal stability compared to the non-reinforced matrix.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOR OF SOIL COMPRESSIBILITY OF THE LACUSTRE DEPOSIT OF TUNJA
JIMÉNEZ JIMÉNEZ OMAR JAVIER 1, PRIETO VACA LINA FERNANDA 2, PACHECO GRACIA ERIKA JULIANA 3,
1 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 2 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 3 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia,
Email: omar.jimenez@uptc.edu.co
Abstract: This document contains the evaluation of a mathematical model for the determination of some of the soil´s compressibility parameters of Tunja lacustrine deposit, through the execution of consolidation tests and complementary tests governed by the Colombian real regulations (INVIAS - 13), this tests were applied to 21 specimens obtained from the microzoning project carried out by the UPTC and other people, in order to analyze later, the behavior of the studied variables and the possibility of expressing with high degree of correlation by a mathematical expression. Also, the results are complemented with those obtained by other researchers and tests carried out on soil samples from the study. Sixteen expressions were generated to determine the compression coefficient (Cc) and recompression coefficient (Cr), as a function of the index properties, according to the soil type: CH, CL and MH, with correlation coefficients up to 93%. These models will serve as a tool to determine approximately and preliminary the magnitude of the main compressibility coefficients. These expressions were compared with mathematical models proposed by other authors in previous research, in order to determine the percentage error.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
ANALYSIS OF THE BEHAVIOR OF TUNJA DIATOMAS, BEFORE DISPERSIVE EFFECT, ACIDES AND SUCTION
JIMÉNEZ JIMÉNEZ OMAR JAVIER 1, ABRIL FARFAN WILMAN FERNANDO 2,
1 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 2 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia,
Email: omar.jimenez@uptc.edu.co
Abstract: The eastern part of the city of Tunja, capital of the department of Boyacá, has an important urban development, generating an anthropological interaction with the environment; where this eastern strip presents particular landscape, erosive, physiographic and geological qualities, such as the presence of diatomaceous deposits. Where, these elements influence the conditions of the surrounding environment and the way in which it interacts with urban development, being determinants in the land uses, for this reason they motivated the study of some physical and chemical properties that may influence the behavior of the material, by identifying and exploring three outcrops arranged in the area, considering the analysis of different characteristics such as the dispersive effect using the pinhole test, acidity with the PH measurement, suction using the filter paper method. Likewise, this characterization is complemented with the evaluation of tests such as Atterberg limits, specific gravity, hydrometer granulometry, among others. The analysis of the obtained results and the pertinent recommendations, are done in a particular way for each upwelling, and in a general way for the deposit of the city, defining the predominant values of the characteristics considered, the existing relationship between them and verification of the behavior of the material.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
APPLICATION OF MATURITY METHOD TO ESTIMATE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASS CONCRETE FOR 2000, 2500, 3000 AND 3500 PSI
GAMBA GÓMEZ OSMAR ALBERT 1, PEÑA RODRIGUEZ GABRIEL 2, PINEDA TRIANA YANETH 3,
1 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia,
Email: Ing.Osmar.gamba@gmail.com
Abstract: The correlation between the maturity index and the compressive strength of concrete is validated according to ASTM C1074, for mixtures with 2000, 2500, 3000 and 3500 PSI resistances. Temperature probes DS18B20 connected by the 1-Wire protocol to the Raspberry Pi 3 card were used to census the data and calculate the maturity index. Concrete mixes were prepared using method ACI-211-1, for A/C ratios of 0.820, 0.748, 0.680 and 0.623. Compressive strength tests were performed using ASTM C39 every 24 hours during a 28-day test scenario, in which a universal machine with a maximum capacity of 50 Ton was used. From the values of mechanical resistance to compression obtained to the 7 and 14 days it is inferred that the concrete has a normal hardening, likewise when comparing the experimental results of the resistance to compression, with those found using the method of the maturity, it was possible to identify that to early ages (less than 10 days) they present uncertainties greater than 10% whereas to ages greater than 10 days of curing this error does not surpass the 5%. In general, it was evidenced that the assembly carried out with the Raspberry pi 3 card and DS18B20 probes reliably allowed the monitoring, recording and storage of temperature and time data during the entire curing process.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
ARDUINO DATA-LOGGER AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK TO DATA ANALYSIS
CONTRERAS CONTRERAS GHIORDY FERNEY 1, DULCÉ-MORENO HÉCTOR JAIME 2, ARDILA MELO REINALDO 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 SIUFIM-Foristom,
Email: cghiordy@gmail.com
Abstract: At thermodynamic systems have several features that can affects its principal variables like temperature, relative humidity, C02 concentration, and others. Incubation processes has presented low efficiency due to the methods applied to control its temperature and relative humidity, as well as energy consumption is significantly high than energy used in the processes. For it, we've purposed a data analysis upon variables of temperature and relative humidity (RH) for both thermal source and load zone. But, this doesn't secure to know energy supplied by source and the energy used, hence voltage and current variables are measured in the same moment that temperature and RH are acquired. This system was developed using software and hardware open-source to reduce costs of acquisition. In other hand, data analysis was done using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) models with the data obtained from sensors in order to increase the precision and accuracy over controller features. Thus, this system has been obtained a most air flow efficiency using a anemometer respect to electrical energy supplied to fans, also have been obtained less energy consumption on heating system using ceramics resistances, and finally a adaptive controller was tested where its variables are fitted using equations obtained form ANNs models.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
CHARACTERIZATION OF MECHANIC-PHYSICIST AND THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF PROTOTYPE OF CONSTRUCTIVE UNITY OF CLAY DESIGNED WITH THERMAL INSULATION ATTRIBUTES AND ORGANIC ADDITIVE OF CISCO'S COFFEE.
NARVAEZ ORTEGA MARLYN STEPHANNY 1, SANCHEZ MOLINA JORGE 2, DÍAZ FUENTES CARMEN XIOMARA 3,
1 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 2 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 3 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER,
Email: stephannynarvaezortega@outlook.com
Abstract: The present investigation is articulated from the clay framework as material wealth of the region of Norte de Santander, Colombia, and seeks to structure attributes of passive thermal cooling in a ceramic piece for low cost masonry type block cooked with physical, mechanical and viable thermals for warm tropical weather conditions of 33 ° C on average. This work is based on a previous study of morphological exploration of the structure of the partitions in Block H10 standard, in which a model of 6 horizontal cavities was established with partitions of oblique geometry that interrupts direct heat conduction inside the unit constructive and is called Form-C, which is taken as an object of analysis, implementing the addition of 5% organic additive of coffee cisco in the 95% clay mixture to study the opportunities in the optimization of thermal performance with respect to a traditional product The characterization is carried out under 2 methodologies: in the first phase, Form-A is manufactured by extrusion method at the laboratory level as a comparative control of the characteristics of a standard part and Form-C to execute evaluations of DMU, ​​RCU, AAU , EFU and determine the qualitative properties of the piece designed taking as method the NTC 4017; in the second stage, a simulation of temperature distribution and heat flux by finite element method in software ANSYS R16 is elaborated to determine the incidence of variables in the mixture on heat transfer; the results obtained show a decrease in thermal energy of 1.5 ° C on average in relation to the traditional product, implementing opportunities from an efficiency perspective that results in a ceramic product industrialized, economic and low environmental impact to generate results on the comfort and energy consumption in buildings.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
CHARACTERIZATION OF SMART MATERIALS REQUIREMENTS FOR ACTUATION IN ROBOTIC APPLICATION
RAMIREZ ARIAS JOSE LUIS 1, RUBIANO ASTRID 2, COGOLLO JOSE GUILLERMO 3,
1 Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, 2 Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, 3 Universidad Militar Nueva Granada,
Email: jose.ramirez@unimilitar.edu.co
Abstract: This work presents the requirements specification of artificial muscles based on smart materials for a robotic finger prosthesis. The first part introduces the robotic finger, designed to mimic human precision grasping. The finger is a result of the project INV-DIS-2061, that concerns the development of a soft robotic finger prosthesis, with artificial muscles. A methodology to determine three critical parameters (strain, frequency, and force) is presented. The methodology uses experimental data combined with kinematics and dynamics. Obtained values are calculated using the developed finger; as a result, we define that main requirements are: (i) Minimum active strain 5:5% for extension-based actuation or 60% bending-based actuation, (ii) frequency (8.89Hz; 22.2Hz), and (iii) force (4.80N; 6.74N) for bending-based actuation or force (17.81N; 25.11N) for extension-based actuation. Finally, a review of smart materials is presented with the aim of choosing the group of materials that can be used as artificial muscles for robotic hands. We show that shape memory alloys can fulfil the established specifications. We also stand out ionic polymer-metal composites as a very promising actuation solution for robotic hands, due to their active strain and settling time, even though the blocking force is below the requirements.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
CHARACTERIZATION OF THE METALLIC PHASE AND THE SLAG PHASE OBTAINED DURING THE INERTIZATION OF THE CATHODES OF SPENT ALKALINE BATTERIES IN LIQUID ALUMINIUM.
MOLINA SILVA JUAN SEBASTIAN 1, DELVASTO PEDRO 2, VERA SERNA PEDRO 3,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Politécnica de Tecámac,
Email: juansemo_0109@hotmail.com
Abstract: As it is well known, spent household batteries are considered special wastes, because of their heavy metal contents. These toxic materials are concentrated in the active parts of the batteries, i. e. cathode and anode. In the case of alkaline batteries, the anode is composed of zinc and the cathode contains manganese oxide. Batteries can be recycled either by low temperature procedures (hydrometallurgy) or by high temperature procedures (pyrometallurgy). A special type of pyrometallurgical processing, called reactive melting, may be suitable for the inertization of some types of spent batteries, such as alkaline ones. The reactive melting consists in adding the anode, cathodes or both in a liquid aluminium pool to promote the reduction of the toxic metals oxides and form an aluminium alloy and a slag phase rich in aluminium oxide. This process is, however, dependant on the surface tension in the slag/metal system, and this aspect is still poorly understood. In this work a sample of alkaline batteries were disassembled and the manganese-rich cathodes were selectively extracted. These cathodes were combined with liquid aluminium and borax as fluxing agent. No stirring was employed in the experiments. The results showed that borax is fundamental to facilitate the reduction of the manganese oxide in the system and, thus, detect an increase in the manganese content of the alloy formed. The scanning electron images of the metal/slag interphase showed the formation of Al-Mn intermetallic species in the metal ingots as well as in the slag phase. Moreover, the x-ray diffraction analyses of the slag phase showed evidences of the reduction of the manganese species to lower valence Mn-compounds and the formation of aluminium oxides. Our results confirm that the reactive melting procedure may be considered a promissory procedure to treat spent batteries and, in the same time, obtain useful materials such as Al-Mn alloys.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
COMPARATIVE FOR OBTAINING THE OPTIMUM DOSAGE OF THE SOIL-CEMENT IN THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF CLAY
ROJAS SUÁREZ JHAN PIERO 1, ORJUELA ABRIL MARTHA SOFIA 2, PRADA BOTIA GAUDY CAROLINA 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: jhanpierorojas@ufps.edu.co
Abstract: The dosage is a technique that allows to adapt the results to the required specifications, establishing the suitable proportions of the raw materials, for the investigation it is considered as main raw material, the clay, being divided in two subgroups: high plasticity and low plasticity; each one counts on different benefits like being more economic for the construction, but at the same time, with disadvantages that can not manage to fulfill the conditions of the norm Invías. The clay was classified depending on its plasticity and the behavior to loads, making a comparison of the results obtained with the use of clay of high plasticity and clay of low plasticity, having as a result the optimal dosage of soil cement more economic.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF THE EXCHANGE-CORRELATION FUNCTIONAL ON THE STRUCTURAL AND ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF RUTILE
BOLIVAR MARIN YOVANNY 1, ALCALÁ VARILLA LUIS ARTURO 2, PEREZ SOTELO DAIRO ENRIQUE 3,
1 Universidad de Córdoba, 2 Universidad de Córdoba, 3 Universidad de Córdoba,
Email: geovannybolivarm@hotmail.com
Abstract: A comparative study is presented, based on Density Functional Theory, of the influence that the different approximations of the exchange-correlation functional have on the structural and electronic properties of titanium dioxide in the rutile phase. In this work, the method of plane waves and pseudopotentials, as implemented in the Quantum Espresso package was used. The approximations to the exchange-correlation functional that were considered are the local density approximation, the generalized gradient approximation in the form of Perdew- Burke-Ernzerhof, the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof for solids, and the Perdew-Wang 91. For each case, the effects due to the inclusion of spin (spin polarization), and the correction of Hubbard (U=4.2 eV for Ti) were also studied.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
COMPOSITIONAL, THERMAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF RECYCLED AND MODIFIED ELASTOMERS FOR INCLUSION IN COMMERCIAL CEMENT MIXTURES
MORA RODRIGUEZ GINA KARYN 1, HERNANDEZ CARRILLO CARLOS GABRIEL 2,
1 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 2 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia,
Email: gina.mora@uptc.edu.co
Abstract: Elastomers are natural or synthetic polymers widely used in industry, thanks to their elasticity and resistance over a wide range of temperatures; However, waste generated are not correctly disposed, especially those used in the manufacture of tires, which have become an environmental problem; consequently, the present investigation has the purpose of modifying the elastomer superficially to generate a strong adhesion with inorganic compounds like the cement, through oxidation and sulphonation processes. For this purpose, solutions were used at 5% concentration of NaOH (in 24 h and 240 h) and KMnO4 in 2 h of reaction and finally was impregnated in a saturated solution NaHSO3 in 1 h of reaction. Subsequently, the modified elastomer was characterized by thermogravimetric technique (TGA-DSC), evaluating the 95% mass loss between 250 ° C and 500 ° C attributed to the carbon compound. In order to establish the compositional variation in the surface, the elastomers were characterized by FT-IR, Raman, FXR and EDS, evidencing the inclusion of functional groups OH, C=O and SO3-, the reduction of carbon present in bonds weak of the elastomer and the presence of inorganic components (K, Na, Mn and S) present in the reaction solution. By means of morphological characterization carried out in SEM, an increase in the roughness of the elastomer as a function of the reaction time is evidenced and the hydrophobicity tests through contact angle techniques, determined an increase in the contact surface between a drop of water and the surface of the elastomer in accordance with the inclusion of polar functional groups by the surface chemical treatment. the characteristics found are relevant for the inclusion and compatibility of elastomer in inorganic compounds like cement matrices; Therefore, it is possible to generate an aggregate value of this waste in the construction industry.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION ON HIGH FREQUENCY OF A MAGNETO-DIELECTRIC COMPOSITE LOADED WITH MAGNETITE POWDERS ALIGNED
LARA GONZALEZ LUIS ANGEL 1, MANCIPE HUERFANO DAVID LEONARDO 2, PINEDA TRIANA YANETH 3, PEÑA RODRIGUEZ GABRIEL 4, MORENO RUBIO JORGE JULIAN 5,
1 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia UPTC, 2 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 3 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 4 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 5 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia,
Email: luisangel.lara@uptc.edu.co
Abstract: Advances in information and communication technologies have required the development of new electronic devices and components to increase the speed in the transmission of large volumes of information and that in turn have benefits Multifunctional, with high permeability and lost losses, with inductive and capacitive properties, which enable them to manufacture next generation microwave communication devices. This type of material is known as magneto-dielectric composite whose functionality is closely linked to the relationship between the matrix and the particles, whose size and distribution should be studied in order to improve the performance of this type of materials. Based on the foregoing, we present the method of manufacture of a magneto-dielectric material made of polyester resin P155 and micrometric particles of magnetite, elaborated in three configurations according to the disposition of the particles in the matrix Polymer, arranged randomly, aligned in parallel and perpendicular to a constant magnetic field of 300 mT during the curing process. Microtapes Were made by adding two layers of conductive copper while healing in the presence of the fixed magnetic field. The characterization of the material was carried out by means of a vector analyser of Networks Rohde & Schwarz ZVB8 Networks, through measurements to a transmission line of 4mm wide, 70 mm long and 0.3 mm thick on the substrate. Were characterized 27 samples under a complete factorial design of 33 variable particle size, concentration and magnetite dispersion in the polymer matrix, reporting the dielectric properties obtained from the analysis of the parameters S of the 27 transmission lines designed, obtaining an optimized model for the configuration with particles aligned horizontally to the magnetic field, in concentration of 20% Wt by weight of magnetite with average particle size of 25 microns. ALL results were obtained using a methodology called cross-matrix analysis

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
DETERMINATION OF THE INTERLAMINAR TENSILE STRENGTH OF THE AFRICAN PALM OIL BUNCHES RACHIS FIBERS COMPOSITE AND EPOXY MATRIX
PINTO FLÓREZ RAFAEL ALEXIS 1, BOHÓRQUEZ OSCAR 2, PERTUZ ALBERTO 3, GONZÁLEZ ANDRES 4, VASQUEZ LEONIDAS 5,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 5 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: rafapin97@hotmail.com
Abstract: The organic composite material is very competitive due to its low density and good flexibility by design, suitable for certain working conditions such as installations where high mechanical strength at a low weight is required, in pipes according to low corrosivity, among others; additionally, it contributes to the environment by taking advantage of organic components that are currently waste. The worked compound consists of an epoxy matrix reinforced with african palm rachis fibers. The specimens were manufactured under the manual rolling process due to the nature of the reinforcement. In addition, this paper sought to analyze the variation of the interlaminar tensile strength by modifying the thickness of the specimen. In the interlaminar tensile strength determination for the organic composite material, a bending test is usually used; for this case, the ASTM 6415-99 standard was used. In order to review its viability as organic reinforcement, the experimental analysis was carried out in this geometry and under this loading mode.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
DYNAMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF VISCOELASTIC MATERIALS FOR USE IN PASSIVE DAMPING SYSTEMS IN THE TIME DOMAIN.
RINCÓN VELÁSQUEZ CARLOS ANDRÉS 1, CALDERÓN JEREZ DIEGO FERNANDO 2, PINTO WILLIAM 3,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: a-rincon@hotmail.es
Abstract: Viscoelastic materials (VEM) are commonly used in passive damping systems in order to reduce the amplitude of mechanical vibrations in mechanical or structural systems. Therefore, the goal of the present paper is to apply an experimental analysis and develop a dynamic characterization for Polybutadiene. Mechanical testing are used to determine the behavior of the materials, under different load conditions. In this case, the application of uniaxial cyclic load is considered for the measurement of dynamic properties of the Polybutadiene. Kelvin-Voigt model is used for show the mechanical behavior of the material and the time dependence of the system, assuming constant temperature. Finally, the model is calibrated using nonlinear least squares method and the results show the dependency of the model parameters and time.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION OF STARCH IN THE PROPERTIES MORPHOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL OF POROUS CERAMIC BASED ON EXPANSIVE CLAYS
SUÁREZ MANCILLA MANUEL FELIPE 1, BERMUDEZ GUERRERO DANIELA 2, DULCE MORENO HECTOR JAIME 3, FERRER PACHECO MARTHA YASMID 4, PEÑA RODRIGUEZ GABRIEL 5,
1 Ufps, 2 UFPS, 3 UFPS, 4 UFPS, 5 UFPS,
Email: manuelss_9508@hotmail.com
Abstract: In this article is used the sacrificial material method to generate different porosities in ceramics based on expansive clays of the metropolitan area of Cucuta for analyze the effect of concentration of starch (porogenic agent) in the properties morphological and structural, likewise calcium carbonate was used like stabilizer. The porous ceramics was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersion Spectra. Finally, the SEM images was analyzed with the software Image J, Image Tool and Origin. The results show that the weight concentration of starch has a relationship with the average pore size, the number of pores and the porous area of the samples where the percentage of porous area and the average pore size of the mixtures increases as starch is added. The number of pores of the mixtures decreased by increasing the weight concentration of the starch.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
EFFECT OF EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE WASTE IN THE CREATION OF WATERPROOFING PAINT
DURÁN BARAJAS SANDRA MILENA 1, BELLON DANIELA 2, TIRIA SANDOVAL LUIS CARLOS 3, ZAMUDIO PEÑA WILLIAM HUMBERTO 4,
1 UNIVERSIDAD DE SANTANDER, 2 UNIVERSIDAD DE SANTANDER, 3 UNIVERSIDAD DE SANTANDER, 4 UNIVERSIDAD DE SANTANDER,
Email: BUC19861004@MAIL.UDES.EDU.CO
Abstract: The production, use and inadequate management of polymers, especially the use of expanded polystyrene, have triggered a series of negative implications such as intense generation of waste, accumulation of toxic substances, pollution of natural resources, mainly water and soil, among others; leading the countries from their research centers to focus efforts on developing solutions aimed at the treatment and reduction of these. Expanded Polystyrene is a thermoplastic polymer with low weight, low thermal conductivity, low cost and low water absorption, which make recycling more complex; however, it has a very high resistance to mechanical compression that makes it viable for study in other uses. In the present work the effect of integrating residual expanded polystyrene in the process of creating waterproofing paint is studied. The research is divided into three major phases: the first, focused on the determination of the technical conditions of the painting, which included the identification of the stoichiometry of the different samples; the second, the characterization and evaluation of the mixtures obtained, and finally, a third phase focused on the evaluation of the environmental impact of the product development. Among the main results, technical viability was identified in the second sample, which has a ratio of 1: 2.5: 2.5 Residual Expanded Polystyrene, D-Limonene and Methyl Acetate respectively.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON CO3O4 SAMPLES SYNTHESIZED BY THE SOL GEL METHOD
CARDENAS FLECHAS LEYDI JULIETA 1, RINCON JOYA MIRYAM 2, BARBA ORTEGA JOSE JOSE 3,
1 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 3 Universidad Nacional de Colombia,
Email: ljcardenasf@unal.edu.co
Abstract: The synthesis of Co3O4 was carried out using the sol gel technique using Cobalt (II) -nitrat hexadydrat as a reagent and as a precursor solvent ethanol in a 1: 3 portion. Stabilization begins in an oven with a ramp of 0.73 ° C / min and temperature of 400 ° C. The sample is ground to subsequently undergo calcination for two hours at 225 ° C, 235 ° C, 250 ° C, 350 ° C, 450 ° C, 550 ° C independently. Optical and characterization tests, UV-Vis and SEM / EDX analyzes were carried out. The results of DRX and Raman indicated that the samples tend to be crystalline with a spinel-like structure of Co3O4 with a cubic cell unit centered on the faces (FCC).

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
EFFECT OF THE CURVATURE OF A CLOSED NANOSCOPIC LOOP ON THE MAGNETO-ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES
ESPITIA MANTILLA JUAN SEBASTIAN 1, TORRES GÓMEZ JHON FREDDY 2, MORALES VILLAMIZAR NANCY LILIANA 3, GUTIERREZ NIÑO WILLIAM 4, PAEZ GONZALEZ CARLOS JOSÉ 5,
1 Univesidad insdutrial de Santander - UIS, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander , 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 5 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: juanes.017@hotmail.com
Abstract: We analyzed the effect of the curvature of the path on the energy spectrum of an electron confined in a closed nanoscopic loop in the presence of magnetic and electric external fields has been studied. The system was modeled using the stationary Schrödinger equation in the framework of the approximation of effective mass and enveloping function, which was solved using the finite element method. The closed loop has been modeled theoretically as a flat waveguide, whose width is small compared to the length of the path. These geometries allowed putting in evidence the variation in the confinement potential of the electron due to changes in the curvature. The variation of the electronic spectrum and of the electronic densities for some low-lying energy states was analyzed as a function of the intensity of a magnetic field applied in the direction of growth and of an electric field applied in the structural plane. The results demonstrate, with clarity, the high sensitivity of the electronic spectrum of a closed nanoscopic loop in the presence of changes in the curvature of the path, which translates into high sensitivity in electronic, magnetic and optical properties.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
EFFECTS OF HUMIDITY-DRYING AND COOLING-HEATING CYCLES ON GEOMECHANICAL BEHAVIORS OF MUDROCKS IN THE LUTITAS DE MACANAL FORMATION
CHAPARRO BARRERA CAMILO ANDRES 1, JIMENEZ JIMENEZ OMAR JAVIER 2, ESPITIA LOPEZ JAIRO MARTIN 3,
1 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 2 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 3 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia,
Email: camiloandres.chaparro@uptc.edu.co
Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study entitled "Effects of wetting-drying and cooling-heating cycles on geomechanical behavior of mudrocks in the Lutitas de Macanal formation". Knowing that mudrocks are materials susceptible to weathering, an intrinsic condition of mineralogy and sedimentary formation, in the "Eastern mountain range of Colombia" superficially this rocky material is found, which implies the vulnerability of stability to environmental factors such as changes in humidity and temperature that are propitiated in the tropical climate of the region. The engineering works that intervene on these materials, eliminates coverages as the plant that mitigates the actions of environmental agents, favoring the effects of physical weathering on the rock. The project determines the effect of changes in humidity and temperature on the resistance to compression of a mudrock, for this, it is conditioned in the laboratory treatments of wetting/drying and cooling/heating, using the technique as vapor equilibrium and heat exchange, the processes were carried out on rock cores extracted from the Lutitas de Macanal formation that crops out in the municipality of Pajarito, Boyacá, Ranchería sector. The present results quantitatively determine the effect of the changes of humidity and temperature on the resistance of the mudrocks, at the same time; it provides a methodological proposal in the application of controlled environments in the laboratory, in order to approximate the experimental results with the original condition of the geomaterials.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES WITH PORCH SYSTEM IN LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE FROM THERMALLY EXPANDED CLAY FROM THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF CÚCUTA, COLOMBIA.
PALACIOS PABÓN JOSÉ DANIEL 1, ROJAS SUAREZ JHAN PIERO 2, CÁCERES RUBIO JOSÉ RAFAEL 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: palacios.daniel_8@hotmail.com
Abstract: The increase of the world population has produced that the cities grow of vertical form increasing the quantity of buildings of great height, is for that reason that have developed materials of efficient construction, that is to say, resistant and with lower density to the conventional one. The objective of the present investigation is to analyze the mechanical behavior of buildings with a gantry system when they are designed with lightweight concrete mixtures manufactured with thermally expanded clay from raw materials from the metropolitan area of ​​Cúcuta. Two structural models were carried out with the help of the Etabs Software, varying the size of the building and varying the type of concrete that was used, in order to compare the properties and characteristics of the light concrete contrasted with conventional concrete. For the modeling of the structure, it was decided to use a high seismic hazard zone because this zone requires a special energy dissipation according to the Seismic Resistant Construction Regulation, the models were placed in a type C soil profile with capacity of 200 kilopascals with use of residential type, since these characteristics are the most common in the city of Cúcuta. It was determined that the lightweight concrete manufactured with raw materials from the metropolitan area of ​​Cúcuta is Structural since it has a resistance to compression at 28 days of 26 megapascals on average (greater than 17 megapascals) and equilibrium density of 1646.16 kilograms per cubic meter (less than 1920.00 kilograms per cubic meter) complying with the minimum requirements demanded by the American Concrete Institute 213R-03 for a concrete to be considered light and structural. The characteristics of light concrete are similar to that of conventional concrete, with the particularity that it has a lower density, that is why buildings have a better functionality, and because the structure is lighter, the structural elements of the foundation have smaller dimension.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
EVALUATION OF CLAYS COMING FROM THE ALGODONAL FORMATION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED IN THE BRICKYARD HORA LTDA IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF OCAÑA, NORTE DE SANTANDER
GUERRERO GÓMEZ GUSTAVO 1, ESCOBAR MORA NELSON JAVIER 2, NOLASCO SERNA CHRISTIAN 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña, 2 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: gguerrerog@ufpso.edu.co
Abstract: This work presents the characterization of the clays coming from the Algodonal formation and the mechanical properties of the products manufactured in the brickyard Hora LTDA, located in the municipality of Ocaña, Norte de Santander, Colombia. In this work, the physical, morphological and thermal characteristics of the clay used for the manufacture of the products and the mechanical properties of the products manufactured in this brickyard were determined. For the physical and morphological evaluation, the results of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used. In the thermal characterization, gravimetric thermal analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were carried out, while for the mechanical properties of the products, standardized non-destructive and destructive quality control tests were carried out on the masonry blocks established in the Colombian NTC 4017 technical standard, methods for sampling and testing of masonry units and other clay products. For this purpose, physical tests were carried out such as Initial Rate of Absorption, 24-hour immersion, dimensions, compressive strength and modulus of rupture or bending strength, following the guidelines of the NTC 4017 standard. The results obtained in these analyses allow determining the properties of the clays and comparing the mechanical properties of the products with the reference values established in the NTC 4205 standard for fired clay masonry, bricks, and ceramic blocks. Finally, a statistical analysis was carried out by means of multiple linear regression, using the SPSS statistical software was found the correlation between the variables compressive strength, initial rate of absorption, modulus of rupture and 24-hour immersion, allowing to formulate changes in the manufacturing process of ceramic materials in the municipality of Ocaña in an efficient and productive way, so that it complies with quality standards and guarantees the physical and mechanical properties of the products.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF A HYPERBRANCHED POLYESTER ON THE THERMAL, RHEOLOGICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE/HEMP FIBER BLEND
TOLOSA ROGER 1, ACEVEDO CARLOS 2, MURILLO EDWIN 3, TOLOSA ROGER 4,
1 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 2 FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 3 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 4 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER,
Email: Roger_tolosa@live.com
Abstract: An alternative to improve the properties of recycled polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and to incorporate again in the productive chain, consist in blending with nature fibers, which may improve the properties of this material. Nature fiber of hemp, are biomaterials and they can be an alternative to the replace of derived from petroleum in polymer blends, mainly in the application as reinforcing materials, but a great inconvenient to its employ is that difficult the processing, since reduce the flow. Therefore, have to employ plasticizing to improve the processing of these blends. The plasticizing usually employed to the PVC (ftalatos) is derived from petrochemical sources and they are toxics. A material that possibly may be an alternative as plasticizing is a hyperbranched polyester polyol obtained of second generation (HBP2G), since it present a low viscosity in molten state, it is not toxic, has high number of OH groups and carbonyl groups. In this study was done the preparation of recycled PVC/hemp fiber/HBP2G (PVCCHBP). In all blends, the amounts of recycled PVC and hemp fiber were 70 and 30 wt% respectively. The blends were obtained in a torque rheometer. The proportions of HBP2G regards to PVC and hemp fibers amount were 5 (PVCCHBP5), 10 (PVCCHBP10), 15 (PVCCHBP15) y 20 % (PVCCHBP20). Additionally was prepared a PVC/hemp fiber blend, which was used as control blend. By torque rheometry was observed that the HBP2G reduced the torque value. By infrared analysis was evidenced the interaction between components of the PVCCHBP blends. The thermal stability of the PVCCHBP blends was lower than that of PVC. Furthermore, it was not observed a tendency in the thermal behavior of the PVCCHBP blends. HBP2G increased the glass transition temperature of the PVCCHBP blends. By rheological analysis was evidenced that the HBP2G reduced the viscosity of the PVCCHBP blends. By scanning electron microscopy was observed that the mechanism of fracture of the PVCC and PVCCHBP was fragile. Furthermore, the HBP2G improved the interaction between PVC and hemp fiber, since the PVCCHBP blends exhibited lowest aggregation of the hemp fiber and number of microcavities than sample PVCC. Elastic modulus of the PVCC blend presented lower than the PVCCHBP blends, but in the case of the elongation at break and tensile strength, was not observed a difference remarkable.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
EVALUATION OF THE ELECTRICAL AND ANTICORROSIVE PERFORMANCE OF GROUNDING ELECTRODES, SURFACE MODIFIED BY MEANS OF REACTIVE SPUTTERING
CAÑON TAFUR LUIS ALEJANDRO 1, SALAS YESID JAVIER 2, CAÑON TAFUR LUIS ALEJANDRO 3, JIMENEZ BORREGO LUIS CAMILO 4, BLANCO RODRIGUEZ JUAN CARLOS 5,
1 Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, 2 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia UPTC, 3 Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, 4 Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, 5 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia UPTC,
Email: luis.canont@javeriana.edu.co
Abstract: A coating of NiO + TiO2 deposited by reactive sputtering was generated simulating the behavior of a semiconductor-like active surface. The coating was deposited on copper specimens and AISI 304, the most commonly used in GS. Its behavior against corrosion was characterized using electrochemical techniques such as the analysis of potentiodynamic curves using the Tafel approach and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Its diode-like behavior was determined by means of a half-wave corrector assembly. A decrease in the corrosion rate of two orders of magnitude with respect to the bare substrate was found and conduction was maintained in the region of voltages greater than 3.3 volts. The mechanical and microstructural characterization used scanning electron microscopy, x-ray fluorescence, adhesion measurements, roughness, wear resistance and microhardness

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
EVALUATION OF THE STRUCTURAL, THERMAL, RHEOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYETHYLENE FUNCTIONALIZED WITH A MALEINIZED HYPERBRANCHED POLYESTER
ARARAT CARLOS ALBERTO 1, MURILLO EDWIN A. 2,
1 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 2 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER,
Email: carlosararat28@gmail.com
Abstract: Low-density polyethylene is a material widely employed in the packing industry. This material presents a low cost, good processability, and resilience. Low-density polyethylene has not polar groups in its structure. Therefore, to improve the interaction in these blends has been done the functionalization of low-density polyethylene mainly with maleic anhydride, which has been reported, but the functionalization degree obtained using this material have been very lows (around 3%). Thus, nowadays are doing investigations in new functionalizing agents to low-density polyethylene. One of these materials is the maleinized hyperbranched polyester; this material has six acid groups in the periphery. Therefore it is more polar and reactive than maleic anhydride. In this study was done the functionalization of low-density polyethylene with a maleinized hyperbranched polyester (LDPE-g-MHBP) in molten state by employing as catalyzer dicumyl peroxide. The concentrations of DCP were 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% y 2.0%. The materials obtained were characterized by infrared analysis, contact angle, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, rheological analysis, scanning electronic microscopy. Functionalization degree of the LDPE-g-MHBP increased with the dicumyl peroxide amount. All LDPE-g-MHBP exhibited a functionalization degree higher than 7%. The contact angle of the low-density polyethylene was upper than those of the samples LDPE-g-MHBP. The thermal stability of the samples LDPE-g-MHBP was greater than that of Low-density polyethylene and this did not show dependence with the dicumyl peroxide amount and the functionalization degree. The low-density polyethylene and the samples LDPE-g-MHBP presented a pseudoplastic rheological behavior. By scanning electron microscopy analysis was observed that the fracture type of the samples LDPE-g-MHBP was fragile. This study showed that the functionalization of low-density polyethylene with a maleinized hyperbranched polyester, affect the properties of low-density polyethylene, but can be obtained materials with good properties and better functionalization degree than those usually reported.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
HYDROGEN CONTENT OF UNDERWATER WET WELDS DEPOSITED BY E6013 AND WW70 ELECTRODES
MORENO URIBE ANDRES MAURICIO 1, QUEIROZ BRACARENSE ALEXANDRE 2, PEREIRA PESSOA EZEQUIEL 3, R. SANTOS VALTER 4, RODRIGUEZ ARIAS ARIEL 5,
1 UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE MINAS GERAIS - UFMG, 2 Laboratório de Robótica, Soldagem e Simulação, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 3 LeTorneau Univeristy, Materials Joining Engineering Department, Longview, 4 PUC-Rio, Mechanical Engineering Department, 5 Laboratório de Robótica, Soldagem e Simulação, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais,
Email: andresmauriciomu@ufmg.br
Abstract: Underwater Wet Welding (UWW) is a repair solution for semi-submersible structures and shipyards. Specifically, the application of this technology with coated electrodes ensures lower costs and reduces maintenance times compared to other welding processes used in the offshore area. Thus, it is of great technological importance the knowledge of the phenomena involved in this process. Within the main difficulties of this technique, the hydrogen absorption in the weld metal is unavoidable due to the dissociation of water vapor around the welding arc. In conjunction with the rapid cooling nature of the aquatic environment, the high hydrogen content in the welding leads to the cracking of hydrogen in the thermally affected zone. Despite the above, few works have investigated the effect of the nature of the coating and polarity on the absorption of hydrogen in underwater welds; in this way, the Wet Weld 70 (WW70) is shown as a solution in controlling the final properties of the weld metal and in the goal of obtaining type A quality joints according to the AWS D3.6M. For the development of this work, welds were made with E6013 and WW70 electrodes, at the simulated depths of 5 m and 10 m and thus, compared to welds made at atmospheric pressure. A hyperbaric chamber and a gravity welding system were used. An electric weld source for underwater operations with constant current characteristics was used to set the operating currents between 170 and 190 amperes. Thus, the amount of diffusible hydrogen in the weld metal produced with the study consumables, as a function of polarity, was evaluated. Also, X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out on slags collected for welds made for the two electrodes, with DCEN and DCEP polarities and for the different ambient conditions. As main results, WW70 electrodes have lower levels of diffusible hydrogen compared to E6013 electrodes. In addition, for DCEP the amount of diffusible hydrogen in the weld metal is higher compared to DCEN for the use of the WW70. The concentration of diffusible hydrogen with the electrode E6013 does not differentiate with the polarity. In addition, there is a relationship between the phase present in the slag and the amount of diffusible hydrogen in the weld metal. Thus, a higher percentage of fayalite in the slag results in lower levels of diffusible hydrogen in the weld metal.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
INFLUENCE OF CALCINATION TEMPERATURE ON THE PROPERTIES OF CE DOPED LAFEO3
OVIEDO CUETER JUAN MANUEL 1, CABALLERO SAMIR 2, SÁNCHEZ PACHECO LUIS CARLOS 3, ARNACHE OSCAR 4,
1 Universidad de Cordoba., 2 Universidad de Córdoba., 3 Universidad de Cordoba., 4 Universidad de Antioquia,
Email: ocjm19@gmail.com
Abstract: Lanthanum Ferrites doped with Cerium at 1, 3 and 5% at. were synthesized by Sol-Gel method with calcination temperatures of 700, 800 and 900 °C. The synthesized samples were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and magnetic measurements. The identified phase for samples corresponds to an orthorhombic perovskite structure with Pbnm (# 62) space group without the presence of impurity phases. Changes in structural, morphological and magnetic properties of samples were observed, associated with the presence of Cerium.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
INFLUENCE OF MECANICHAL MILLING ON THE HYDROGEN ABSORPTION PROPERTIES OF TICRV - BASED ALLOY
AMARIZ ALEJANDRO DAVID 1, PEÑA DARIO 2,
1 Universidad de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: alejandrom@udes.edu.co
Abstract: Modern society faces an imbalance, between the enormous development and environmental degradation caused by heavy pollution, mainly the transport sector that generates almost 40% of pollution. The concept of Sustainable Development is becoming very important as it seeks to reconcile economic growth with environmental preservation. In this context, the hydrogen economy emerges as a viable alternative to produce energy and use it in mobile applications. The current challenge is the production, transport and storage of clean energy. The metal hydrides are characterized by being large stores of hydrogen among them, which stand out are the MgH2 with 7.6% by weight and the alloy Ti-Cr-V with 3.9% by weight, which have many advantages. The influence of the mechanical milling process on the storage capacity of hydrogen and on the desorption process of TiCr1.1V0.9 alloy is studied. The maximum storage capacity was 3.2% by weight at a temperature of 40 ° C and a pressure of 10 bar, observing two types of hydrides coexisting TiCr1.8H5.3 of cfc structure and TiH2, of ccc structure, which release hydrogen in two temperature ranges

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
INFLUENCE OF THE DISPERSION RATE AND CONTENT OF TITANIUM OXIDE ON THE RHEOLOGICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL, FILM, THERMAL OF DISPERSIONS POLYVINYL ALCOHOL, CARBOXYMETHYLCELLULOSE AND TITANIUM OXIDE
ALVAREZ ELKIN 1, MURILLO EDWIN 2,
1 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 2 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER,
Email: alvarezelkin@hotmail.com
Abstract: In this study was evaluated the influence of the dispersion rate in the rheological (static and dynamic analyses), films, morphological and colloidal properties of dispersions of polyvinyl alcohol, carboxymethyl cellulose and titanium oxide (TiO2). In this work were used two proportions of TiO2 (8.21 and 11.83 %) and the following dispersion rates (900, 1200, 1500 and 1725 rpm). The materials were characterized by infrared analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic light scattering, scanning electronic microscopy, rheological analysis, gloss, flexibility, adherence and chemical resistance.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
INFLUENCE OF WATER/CEMENT RATIO ON MECHANICAL STRENGTH OF CONCRETE WITH PARTIAL ADDITION OF FLY ASH AND HYDRATED LIME
HURTADO FIGUEROA OSWALDO 1, CÁRDENAS GUTIERREZ JAVIER ALFONSO 2, ECHAVARRIA PAEZ FRANCISCO JOSE 3,
1 Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje (SENA), 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: ohurtado8@misena.edu.co
Abstract: Three mixtures were made for conventional concrete with different addition of cement, variable (1); 300, 350 and 400 Kg/m3. The aggregates used were assigned by Transmateriales S.A. located in Cúcuta-Colombia. The analysis of the materials of the mixtures, were carried out under the standards of the Colombian Technical Norms and the Tests of the National Institute of Roads. 40% of the concrete mix cementitious material was replaced by fly ash and hydrated lime. The ash was collected from the thermoelectric Termotsajero S.A of the same city. The hydrated lime was recovered from the municipality of Malaga in the department of Santander of the same country. Of the % of cementitious material replaced, 30% corresponded to lime and 70% to ash. With the weights of cementitious material of the concrete mixtures, 3 experimental mixtures were carried out, which had a variable (2) that constituted 60.65 and 70% of the cementitious material in the water ratio. Twenty-seven cylinders were made for experimental mixtures and the same number for conventional mixtures, in order to average the results of water additions. The compressive strength of the cylinders made in the materials resistance laboratory of the Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Cúcuta was tested. The data obtained were tabulated and compared. Concluding in the influence of the % of water in the mechanical resistance of the experimental mixtures and the viability of the use of this type of mixtures in the elaboration of non-structural concretes.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
MANUFACTURE AND EVALUATION OF THE TENSILE PROPERTIES OF A BIODEGRADABLE COMPOSITE MATERIAL REINFORCED WITH COLOMBIAN COCONUT FIBERS
LESMES-ALFONSO SERGIO 1, PERTUZ ALBERTO D. 2, DELGADO WILMER 3, ARCINIEGAS MARLON 4,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: sergio.lesmes@hotmail.com
Abstract: In this work the mechanical properties of a biodegradable composite material made with Colombian coconut fibers were studied. The study was carried out considering a random distribution of fibers within the composite material for three fiber /matrix compositions FM1 (10/90), FM2 (20/80) and FM3 (30/70) in weight-to-weight percentage; each of these was subjected to tensile tests to evaluate the effect of the fibers in each composition, taking into account the mechanical properties of ultimate tensile strength and elastic modulus that allow selecting the composition of greater rigidity and subsequently evaluating its properties under the effects of compression forces. The results obtained show that the more rigid composite material corresponds to the fiber / matrix FM2 composition; which presented a tensile strength of 13.83 MPa and an elastic modulus of 924.46 MPa comparable with those reported in literature; this composition being the most fragile with a percentage elongation of 2.27% and with low tenacity to withstand impact efforts. Finally, the behavior of the FM2 material was compared with the mechanics of Ramberg-Osgood and Hollomon, the latter being the most adjusted.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF THE CONCRETE MIX (500PSI) WITH ACCELERATION ADDITIVES, USING THE MATURITY METHOD AND IST CORRELATION WITH THE TRADITIONAL NORM OF MECHANICAL RESISTANCE TO COMPRESSION NTC 673-2010
MEDRANO LINDARTE CARMEN TERESA 1,
1 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER,
Email: carmenmedrano@ufps.edu.co
Abstract: The mechanical behavior of concrete mixtures for structural elements (5000 PSI) with accelerating type additives was evaluated, using the maturity method and its correlation with the traditional norm of mechanical resistance to compression NTC 673-2010. The design of the mixture was carried out in the company AMD consulting engineering SAS, adding the concentration of the additives according to the supplier's specification. The study of the thermal profile as a function of the time of setting of the mixture, was carried out through an automated adiabatic system, this allowed to calculate the maturity index of the concrete, and to estimate the mechanical resistance of the sample at early ages. The determination of the number of thermal sensors for the readings of the temperatures as a function of the setting time (1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days), was found by means of a factorial experimental design of two Factors. The results allowed to obtain the resistance equation - Maturity for the concrete mixture (5000psi) with accelerator, obtaining a coefficient of determination of 0.96 which indicates that the logarithmic model explains 96% of the variability of the resistance to compression, likewise it was verified that the compression resistance values obtained by the NTC 673 standard for each age of the concrete tested are within the calibration range of the resistances estimated by the maturity method.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RACHIS FIBER OBTAINED FROM THE AFRICAN PALM ELAEIS GUINEENSIS
ANGULO POVEDA LUIS CARLOS 1, BOHÓRQUEZ OSCAR 2, PERTUZ ALBERTO 3, RUEDA YESID 4, GONZÁLEZ ESTRADA OCTAVIO ANDRÉS 5,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santanter, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 5 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: luiscarlosangulopoveda@gmail.com
Abstract: According to the Ministry of Agriculture, Colombia produced 1'645,846 tons of palm oil in 2018, which represents more than 6% of agricultural GDP, accomplishing the fourth position of production in the world ranking and the first in Latin America. The main production waste of this industry is the African palm rachis, with more than 300,000 tons/year, which currently does not have an industrial application and most of the time it is discarded or used for composting. In the present investigation, experimental tests were carried out to determine the strength of African palm fibers. These tests were carried out in an MTS BIONIX universal testing machine under the ASTM D3822M-14 standard. The tensile strength of the fiber, in relation to its weight, reveals the potential of this fiber as a reinforcement material for composite materials, thus, providing the possibility of new uses for this low-price fiber, which is abundant in Colombia.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
MECHANICAL STRENGTH OF EXPERIMENTAL PASTE MORTARS WITH PARTIAL ADDITION OF FLY ASH AND HYDRATED LIME IN RELATION TO THE WEIGHT OF THE CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL
HURTADO FIGUEROA OSWALDO 1, CÁRDENAS GUTIERREZ JAVIER ALFONSO 2, VEGA VANEGAS EDISSON JOSE 3,
1 Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje (SENA), 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: ohurtado8@misena.edu.co
Abstract: In order to highlight the implementation of fly ash and hydrated lime in replacement of a % of the weight of the cementitious material traditionally used for the elaboration of mortar mixtures, a conventional mixture was made for mortars where the materials that compose this type of mixtures were previously selected, analyzed and implemented. The evaluations of the materials were carried out under the standards indicated by the Colombian technical norms that guarantee the reliability of the resulting mixture. The fly ash that was used was obtained from the power plant Termotasajero of the Municipality of San Cayetano, Cúcuta. The hydrated lime was obtained in the municipality of Malaga located in the department of Santander. The experimental mixtures presented a replacement of 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of the weight of the cementitious material traditionally used in the city. At the same time, 10%, 20% and 30% of hydrated lime were added to the experimental mixtures in relation to the weight of the added fly ash. With each one of the elaborated mixtures, both traditional and experimental, 3 cubes were made as indicated in the NTC220. After the 21 days of its elaboration to each one of the cubes, their resistance to compression was determined by means of their respective test in the IBERTEST machine property of the Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander. The data obtained in the tests were compared determining the viability of the addition of fly ash and hydrated lime in the mixtures for paste mortar, with the incorporation of a %. additional water in their designs.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
METAL HYDRIDES WITH BCC STRUCTURE: ADVANTAGES AND CHALLENGES
AMARIZ ALEJANDRO DAVID 1, QUESADA PLATA FABIAN ERNESTO 2, GONZALEZ ESTRADA ANDRES 3,
1 Universidad de Santander, 2 Unidades Tecnológicas de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: alejandrom@udes.edu.co
Abstract: Metal hydrides are considered an easy and safe way to store hydrogen. Storage is one of the keys to the large-scale implementation of the so-called Hydrogen Economy, which will undoubtedly revolutionize the new vision of sustainable development towards a more environmentally friendly world. This paper presents a general review of some alloys based on TiCrV and TiCrVZr showing their advantages and challenges that must be developed for their implementation. The capacity of absorption and desorption as a function of time is shown using a Sieverts type device, the structure is studied by means of XRD as well as its morphology by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy. In the study shows a high capacity of absorption of hydrogen although its desorption at room temperature is not optimal

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
MICROSTRUCTURAL, MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC FEATURES OF THE COMBUSTION SYNTHESIZED SR2FEWO6 MATERIAL
ROA-ROJAS JAIRO 1, VILLA HERNÁNDEZ JORGE IGNACIO 2, SUESCÚN LEOPOLDO 3, SÁNCHEZ DÁLBER RUBÉN 4, GRASSI JOAQUÍN 5, DI BENEDETTO NATASHA 6, LANDÍNEZ TÉLLEZ DAVID A. 7,
1 Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2 Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 3 Cryssmat-Lab/Cátedra de Física/DETEMA, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, 4 Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 5 Cryssmat-Lab/Cátedra de Física/DETEMA, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, 6 Cryssmat-Lab/Cátedra de Física/DETEMA, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, 7 Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia,
Email: jroar@unal.edu.co
Abstract: During the last years the interest in perovskite-type materials has been so great and growing, that it is difficult to cite the most important works because the relevance of each investigation has depended on the specific properties studied. The versatility of this family of ceramic materials lies in the possibility of including many elements of the periodic table within its ideal chemical formula ABX3, where A is usually an alkaline earth or rare earth, B a transition metal or a lanthanide and X usually is oxygen. Within the options of modification of the perovskites, a very important one is the double structure given by the formula A2BB'O6, which allows the introduction of an additional cation, facilitating the occurrence of dramatic changes in the physical properties of the material, which are from insulators, semiconductors and conductors (from the point of view of electrical transport) to paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic and antiferromagnetic (from the point of view of the magnetic ordering), allowing the obtaining of novel ferroelectric, multiferroic, colossal magnetoresistive and half- metallic materials, among others. An interesting perovskite that has been studied due to its magnetoresistive response and because its evidences a metal-insulator transition accompanied by a transition from charge-ordered to orbital-ordered is SrFeO3. This simple perovskite was reported to crystallize in a cubic structure, independent of temperature, with metallic electrical response and the theoretical calculations of electronic band structure do not reveal the occurrence of the Jahn Teller effect. On the other hand, the magnetoresistive response can become negative or positive, depending on the deficiency of oxygen, but does not seem to involve mechanisms of ferromagnetic ordering, which gives it an exotic and interesting character. These unique characteristics of the SrFeO3 material justify the inclusion of transition metals in the B sites of their structure, forming double perovskites of the Sr2FeB'O6 type, which has been done for more than five decades with B'=W. Meanwhile, the author reported the cubic structure of the Sr2FeWO6 without considering the formation of a salt-rock superstructure that is characteristic of this family of double perovskites with cationic ordering, which would be constituted by 8 cubes containing the Sr cation, each one of them octahedrally coordinated with 6 oxygen anions, and the Fe and W cations intercalary located along the three crystallographic axes. The large magnetoresistive nature of Sr2FeMoO6, as well as its half-metallic character, accelerated the studies of Sr2FeWO6 due to the relative similarity between Mo and W, since they belong to the same group of the periodic table. A short report suggests that this material behaves as a semiconductor and antiferromagnetic at temperatures below 37 K, with the iron ground state being high spin Fe2+. However, although the authors describe characteristic cell parameters corresponding to a tetragonal structure, they do not specifically report the space group. In a slightly more recent report, the Sr2FeWO6 is indexed as belonging to the P21/n space group, which corresponds to a monoclinic structure with cell parameters a ≠ b ≠ c. The authors claim that antiferromagnetic type coupling takes place in this material at low temperatures due to the presence of unpaired electrons in the crystallographic iron sites. Some calculations of the electronic structure suggest that the insulating character at high temperatures is due to the fact that the hybridization between 2p-O states and 5d-W states is strong enough to push the 5d band higher in energy, opening the band interval to inhibit the transfer of electrons. Studies of the valence state in Sr2FeWO6 by means of X-Ray absorption near-edge spectra suggest that it mainly has Fe2+ and W6+, with small traces of W5+. In the meantime, because the interpretation of magnetic behavior and the insulating response of this material is an open issue, some relatively recent works in which the content of Mo by W in the double perovskite Sr2FeMo1-xWxO6 is partially replaced have been reported. Some of the reports made for both Sr2FeWO6 and Sr2FeMo1-xWxO6 have to do with samples produced by solid reaction and sol-gel. It is well known that some physical properties of perovskite-type materials depend on the synthesis technique, since surface morphology substantially influences their electrical and magnetic responses. With the aim of contributing to this interesting discussion, in this work the synthesis through the combustion technique, as well as the structural, morphological, resistive and magnetic characterizations of the Sr2FeWO6 material are reported. This work was partially supported by the Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia y Tecnología Francisco José de Caldas – COLCIENCIAS, on the contract FP80740-243-2019.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
MOTT INSULATOR FEATURE IN THE BA2YSBO6 PEROVSKITE OXIDE
GRISALES CERÓN JERÓNIMO A. 1, RODRÍGUEZ M. JAIRO ARBEY 2, ROSALES RIVERA ANDRÉS 3, SALAZAR H. NICOLÁS A. 4, CUERVO FARFÁN JAVIER A. 5, CARDONA VÁSQUEZ JORGE A. 6, LANDÍNEZ TÉLLEZ DAVID A. 7, ROA-ROJAS JAIRO 8,
1 Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2 Grupo de Estudios de Materiales - GEMA, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 3 Laboratorio de Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 4 Laboratorio de Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales, 5 Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 6 Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 7 Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 8 Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia,
Email: jagrisalesc@unal.edu.co
Abstract: A careful experimental and theoretical study of the double perovskite type material Ba2YSbO6 is reported. The results show that this yttrium-based antimoniate oxide crystallizes in a cubic structure, Fm-3m (#225) space group, with evidence of the cationic ordering that characterizes a salt-rock superstructure, and tolerance factor slightly less than the unit (t=0.9791) due to the size differences between the Y-O6 and Sb-O6 octahedrons. The magnetic response shows weak ferromagnetic effects for the temperature values studied (50, 200 and 300 K), with evidence of an antiferromagnetic reentrance at T=118 K under the application of low magnetic fields, which is attributed to the presence of polar ordering, accompanied by octahedral distortions caused by the movement of the cations Y3+ and Sb5+, whose effects are no longer observed in the presence of a fairly high external magnetic field (of the Tesla order). The results of the optical characterization by diffuse reflectance suggest the occurrence of a band gap Eg=4.61 eV, which is characteristic of an insulating material. The electronic structure calculations corroborate the insulating nature of the Ba2YSBO6 complex perovskite. The results allow classifying this material as a Mott insulator, in which the occurrence of intra-site spin-exchange facilitates unpaired spins to the 4d-t2g Yttrium states, mediated by the 2p Oxygen orbitals and 5p Antimony orbitals, resulting in the ferromagnetic character of the insulating material. This work was partially supported by the Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia y Tecnología Francisco José de Caldas – COLCIENCIAS, on the Contract FP80740-243-2019.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
OBTAINING OF APATITE AND COLOPHANE CONCENTRATES FLOTATION FROM PHOSPHORUS MINERALS FROM PESCA, BOYACÁ (COLOMBIA), AS RAW MATERIAL FOR THE FERTILIZERS PRODUCTION
AGUDELO EDGAR 1, LOZANO LUIS 2, PINEDA YANETH 3,
1 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 2 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 3 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia,
Email: edgar.agudelo@uptc.edu.co
Abstract: With a production of around 75,000 tons per year, Colombia ranks as the third largest producer of phosphate rock in Latin America, behind Brazil and Peru, taking into account a share of less than 1% in the region. Since 1999, the production of phosphate rock has increased the demand for fertilizers in the country; however, despite the growth in production in the country, it is not yet necessary for domestic demand, which is why it is the fourth in which it is consumed in the region, reaching a consumption of 144,000 tons / year. Colombia's total reserves for 2005 indicated that they are of the order of 140.64 tons, with the department of Boyacá being the country's largest reserve. Minerals, especially in the fishing zone, allow easy treatment and suitability to be used as raw material in the manufacture of fertilizers, especially superphosphate. One of the problems that arise is related to the low term that many of the deposits in the department have (less than 20%), which makes it difficult to use them as a raw material to produce fertilizer. In this research work is presented the study of the variables of the flotation process that allows to obtain concentrates with a high percentage of flotation phosphorus from the phosphate rock coming from fishing (Boyacá). The physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of the studied phosphoric rock indicates the main component of these metamorphic deposits is the apatite, accompanied by the colofana and with important silica contents. The principles of phosphate rock are detailed from these components. The potential of zeta has been determined, the technique has improved the distribution of the surface charge in the solid / water interface as a function of pH and with the Hallimond tube and in flotation tests in Denver cells, the best concentration conditions are determined and times of the different foaming agents, collectors and depressants, both in direct flotation and in investment, are required to obtain concentrates with P2O5 contents of 24% from minerals with 16% content and a substantial reduction of the contents of silica.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
PERFORMANCE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF RUTA CHALEPENSIS L, ORIGANUM VULGARE.
ARAMBULA CLAUDIA IVONNE 1, GARCÍA IVONNE 2, DÍAZ CLAUDIA ELIZABETH 3,
1 Universidad de Santander, 2 Universidad de Santander, 3 Universidad de Santander,
Email: cl.arambula@mail.udes.edu.co
Abstract: The essential oil of Ruta chalepensis L, a herb belonging to the Rutaceae family, is useful in perfumery, as a flavouring and has insecticidal activity. Its composition depends on the specific geobotanic conditions and several chemotypes have been identified. The oregano plant, also known scientifically as Origanum vulgare L. is a perennial shrub of the labiadas family that is used mainly as a condiment for many dishes due to its characteristic aroma. However, in addition to this use, this plant has medicinal properties that can alleviate the symptoms of some diseases, including digestive and respiratory conditions. Given the above, the effectiveness of the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Ruta chalepensis cultivated in three municipalities of Norte de Santander on gram positive and gram negative bacteria was determined in vitro. The oil extraction process was carried out in the company Bar Perfumería ZOEY by the steam dragging method from 5 kg of vegetable material and the yield was calculated using mathematical equations. Likewise, a sample of the extracted oil was sent to the mass spectrometry laboratory (CROM-MASS) of the Industrial University of Santander for chemical analysis. To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum bactericidal concentration of the extracted oils, the mother solution of 2.5 gr/ml was prepared and from this the different dilutions at concentrations of 1000 mg/ml to 15.62 mg/ml. A suspension of less than 0 was then prepared with sterile saline.5 of the McFarland scale of each of the microorganisms to be tested (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853), which was inoculated in plates with the volumes of diluted solution, soy tripticasa broth and Dimethyl sulfoxide, then incubated at 37°C for 18 hours and proceeded to make a peal to verify its minimum bactericidal concentration. The results show that the yield of oregano essential oil was 0.8 % and for Ruda 0.1 %. Chemical analysis of the oils revealed the major components of oregano such as β-mircene 1.6% ,∝ -Terpinene 15.7% , 1.8- Cineol 3.8%,γTerpineno 2.6%, Terpineno-4-ol 1.1%, Timol Methyl Ether 17.4%, Timol 30.6%,Carvacrol 8.1%,trans- β-Caryophyllene 6.3%,,∝ - Humulene 1%, Cariophylene Oxide 3.1% and Rue as Nonanone 37.1%, Undecanone 39.4% Nonanyl Acetate 2.2% , Decanone 2.8 . On the other hand, the essential oil of Ruta chalepensis needs concentrations of 500 mg/ml to stop the growth of E. coli and P. aeruginosa and 1000 mg/ml for S. aureus while the essential oil of Origanum vulgare was the most effective for the inhibition of all the microorganisms evaluated, requiring a concentration of 15.62 mg/ml for E.coli and S. aureus and for P. aeruginosa, a concentration of 125 mg/ml was necessary. It is concluded that, according to the chemical composition, materials of vegetable origin such as rue and oregano essential oils can be used for the elaboration of products with potential in artisanal cosmetics and even in pharmaceutical products.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
POTENTIAL BIOFERTILIZER OF A FERTILIZER BASED ON CIENEGO AND NATIVE MICROORGANISMS IN MAIZE SEEDS
DIAZ CLAUDIA ELIZABETH 1, ARAMBULA CLAUDIA IVONNE 2, DAZA DANIELA 3, BARCO DIANA 4,
1 Universidad de Santander, 2 Universidad de Santander, 3 Universidad de Santander, 4 Universidad de Santander,
Email: cl.diaz@mail.udes.edu.co
Abstract: In the development of the productive process of stone aggregates, during the washing and extraction stage of sludge from the decanter wells, a "ciénego" sand is produced in an approximate amount of 24.75 tons per day, which only 10% is sold per day, the remaining 90% should be discarded, causing financial detriment, impact on the environment in terms of pollution due to the handling of the product discarded, occupation of useful areas and landscape degradation, among other impacts negatively affecting the organization, stakeholders and their environment . The objective of this research was to evaluate a fertilizer based on marsh and native microorganisms (Azotobacter sp (AZT1), Azotobacter sp (AZT2) and Pseudomonas sp) on maize seeds. For this, 3 native strains of diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from soil samples of oil palm crops in the municipality of Tibú, Norte de Santander department; which were identified biochemically using traditional culture media. These isolates were subjected to a previous inoculation test in vivo ex-situ on maize seeds in trays with sterile soil more ciénego at different concentrations, registering every 4 days the effect of promoting plant growth, compared with a control and a chemical fertilization NPK , by measuring morphological variables such as; height, number of leaves, bulb, number of roots and length. The statistical analysis shows how treatments with the strain Azotobacter sp. 2 (AZT2) have a higher production of roots, reach greater height (cm), number of leaves and a wider measure of the bulb compared to their controls after 12 days of monitoring in addition to directly influencing the percentage of organic matter of the substrate and elements such as Calcium, potassium and phosphorus, allowing greater productivity and yield of the corn seed once they germinated.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
PREPARATION BY CHEMICAL METHOD OF CZO BUFFER LAYERS ON YSZ SUBSTRATES FOR GROWING YBCO SUPERCONDUCTING FILMS
GARCÉS CONSTAÍN PAULA ANDREA 1, CASTRO HÉCTOR 2,
1 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2 Universidad Nacional de Colombia,
Email: paug76@gmail.com
Abstract: Buffer layers of Ce1-xZrxO2 (CZO) were grown on YSZ substrates, by the Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) method. To optimize the properties of these layers the following fabrication parameters were changed: stoichiometry (x = 0.1 and 0.4), growth time (8 h and 1 h) and atmosphere (O2 and air). They were characterized by measuring rugosity and planarity by AFM. The best layers obtained were Ce0.9Zr0.1O2, grown during eight hours in oxygen atmosphere. They presented good epistaxis, less surface roughness and greater planarity. These layers were used for the deposition of YBCO films in a subsequent study, with good results.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
RELATION BETWEEN SYNTHESIS, PROCESSING AND PROPERTIES OF XBIFEO3-(1-X)BATIO3 NEAR MORPHOTROPIC PHASE BOUNDARY
SILVA DAVID 1, LONDOÑO FERNANDO ANDRÉS 2, ARNACHE OSCAR LUIS 3,
1 Universidad de Antioquia, 2 Universidad de Antioquia, 3 Universidad de Antioquia,
Email: david.silvas@udea.edu.co
Abstract: Currently, there is a great interest in improving memory devices, being BiFeO3 (BFO) an important material in the development of these due to the coexistence of ferroelectricity and antiferromagnetism at room temperature,nevertheless, a high associated leakage current (Jg) limits the ferroelectrics properties of BFO. In this line of thought, creating BFO solutions with BaTiO3 (BTO) allows improving the ferroelectric properties of BFO and optimizing the magnetoelectric coupling factor. In this work, the influence of synthesis and densification processes of xBFO- (1-x) BTO system is presented by the solid-state reaction for x = 0.66, 0.68 and 0.70 with the objective of improving the properties of the material. Particles of the calcined powder were observed using optical microscopy, the calcination temperature was determined from DTA / TG ​​curves. The ceramic bodies were densified conventionally, an increase in density, measured by the Archimedes method, was observed by increasing the concentration of BTO and the calcination temperature. The grain size was obtained from micrographs using the linear intercept method. Finally, we found structural and microstructural changes with the increase of BTO, said increase altered, besides, the material’s electric and magnetic properties.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
SUBSTITUTION OF CELLULOSE ACETATE IN FILTERS OF CIGARETTES FROM AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES
PACHÓN COLMENARES MARÍA ANGÉLICA 1, ROJAS SUÁREZ JHAN PIERO 2, ORJUELA ABRIL MARTHA SOFIA 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: mariaangelicapc@ufps.edu.co
Abstract: In recent years polymers have become one of the most renowned materials in the industry, for its low cost and efficiency in its production process, in addition to the versatility and breadth of its fields of application, as is the case of cellulose acetate, which is used in a wide variety of products for daily use, which turns it into a factor that negatively affects the environment, due to this the following bibliometric analysis was carried out, which presents the state of the research and trends of the substitution of cellulose acetate, having as support the information obtained from the Web Of Science (WoS) database in the period of time from 2002 to 2018The results obtained are quantitative and qualitative related to the type of document, language of publication, annual production, publications by journals, publications by countries and articles of greater impact and their most cited authors, publications by journals, which were tabulated by means of the HistCite software. The study of the trend shows a steady growth since 2012 in terms of the number of publications, with China and Carbohydrate Polymers as the country and magazine with the highest research output respectively. A classification related to the Total Local Citations Score (TLCS) shows the participation of three developed countries: Germany, China and Japan. Finally, the authors with the highest number of references were Wu J (15.4%), He JS (15.7%) and Heinze T (17.2%) of the total citations in five of the journals with the greatest impact on the subject with a high number of publications.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ORGANOMETALLIC PEROVSKITE OF TYPE [CH]_3NH_3SN[CL]_3 TO BE USED AS ABSORBENT LAYER IN SOLAR CELLS
SORACÁ PÉREZ GINA YASMIN 1, GÓMEZ REYES DIANA KATHERINE 2, GÓMEZ CUASPUD JAIRO ALBERTO 3, VERA LÓPEZ ENRIQUE 4, PINEDA TRIANA YANETH 5,
1 UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGÓGICA Y TECNOLÓGICA DE COLOMBIA, 2 UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGÓGICA Y TECNOLÓGICA DE COLOMBIA, 3 UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGÓGICA Y TECNOLÓGICA DE COLOMBIA, 4 UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGÓGICA Y TECNOLÓGICA DE COLOMBIA, 5 UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGÓGICA Y TECNOLÓGICA DE COLOMBIA,
Email: gina.soraca@uptc.edu.co
Abstract: The present work is based on the synthesis and characterization of an organometallic perovskite type [CH]_3NH_3Sn[Cl]_3 to be used as an absorbent layer in solar cells, for which it was based on precursors such as 40% methylamine, 37% hydrochloric acid, tin chloride, and methanol, which were mixed and kept in constant agitation for two hours at a temperature of 0 °C. The organometallic material was characterized by X-Ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Visible Ultraviolet, Scanning electron microscopy, and Solid state impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that the material presents adequate structural, morphological and optoelectric properties to be potentially applied in photovoltaic cells.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF INDIUM OXIDE (IN2O3) DOPED WITH TRANSITION METALS.
SÁNCHEZ PACHECO LUIS CARLOS 1, ARNACHE OSCAR 2, OSTOS CARLOS 3,
1 Universidad de Cordoba., 2 Universidad de Antioquia, 3 Universidad de Antioquia,
Email: lsanchezpacheco@gmail.com
Abstract: Indium oxide (In2O3) powders in bixbyite type cubic phase doped with transition metals (5% of Fe, Mn, Co, Cu and Ni) were synthesized by the solid state reaction method. Samples were structurally characterized by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and optical transmittance. The analsysis confirmed that all samples exhibit the corresponding bixbyite type cubic phase of In2O3, without evidence of impurities or presence of secondary phases in the compounds. Variations in structural properties of In2O3, such as, changes in the lattice constant, cell volume, crystallite size and microtensions, due to the inclusion of the ions of the different types of dopants. Finally, were estimated optical band gap for the each of the synthesized samples, indicating the contribution of each of the dopants.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
SYNTHESIS AND SIZE EVOLUTION OF 1D HYDROXYAPATITE CRYSTALS UNDER SURFACTANT-FREE HYDROTHERMAL CONDITIONS
GARCÍA-NEGRETE CARLOS 1, GOMÉZ RICARDO 2, BRÚN LORENA 3, BARRERA MARIO 4, ARTEAGA GEAN 5, BELTRÁN ANA 6, FERNÁNDEZ ASUNCIÓN 7,
1 Universidad del Sinú, 2 Universidad de Córdoba, 3 Universidad del Sinú, 4 Universidad de Córdoba, 5 Universidad del Sinú, 6 Universidad de Sevilla, 7 Universidad de Sevilla,
Email: carlosgarcian@unisinu.edu.co
Abstract: Abstract. The applications of hydroxyapatite nanoparticulate materials has gained space beyond the dental and orthopedic fields but it requires the ability to control particle characteristics (e.g., surface area, shape and size distribution). Among several hydroxyapatite structures, one-dimensional (1D) nanoscale materials such as nanowires, nanorods and nanobelts can be synthesized in the presence of suitable surfactants. This contribution will present a series of experiments focused in obtaining 1D hydroxyapatite crystals under surfactant-free hydrothermal conditions. Particularly, we study the effect of several variables such as Temperature, reaction time and pH on shape and size of 1D hydroxyapatite crystals. The results obtained show some interesting insights about how to control the particle characteristics from simple and not expensive experiments.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A COLOMBIAN CLAY DURING THE STAGES OF THE PRODUCTION PROCESS
GARCIA-LEON RICARDO ANDRES 1, FLÓREZ SOLANO EDER 2, DIAZ TORRES EDGAR JULIAN 3,
1 UFPSO-IPN, 2 UFPSO, 3 UFPSO,
Email: ragarcial@ufpso.edu.co
Abstract: Introduction: Clays are of great importance at the industrial level because they can be used to make masonry products such as blocks, tiles, bricks, tiles, among others; Currently, many companies in the ceramic sector are translated into many wastes due to the lack of technical analysis of the raw material to predict the behavior of ceramic mixtures and improve the quality of the final product. Objective: In the present work the physical and chemical characterization of clay was achieved in one of the companies dedicated to the manufacture of masonry products for construction in Ocaña, Norte de Santander (Colombia). Methodology: the development of the research is seen through the execution of the physical and chemical tests to the sample of the clay to the results of the productive process with the granulometry, the index of plasticity and the mineralogical composition. Results: The results show that the activities of the masonry for construction. The current principles. Conclusions: It is essential to technologically characterize the clays to optimize the mixture and thus avoid the defective products, which obviously can improve the environmental and economic resources of the company.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
THERMAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES IN POLYESTER RESIN-BASED COMPOUNDS FILLED WITH CERAMIC WASTE POWDERS FROM TRADITIONAL INDUSTRY
LAMUS SANGUINO JESSICA KATHERINE 1, PEÑA RODRÍGUEZ GABRIEL 2,
1 universidad francisco de paula santander, 2 universidad francisco de paula santander,
Email: jessicakatherinels@ufps.edu.co
Abstract: The thermophysical properties and the morphology of a composite material based on polyester resins and ceramic waste powders of the traditional ceramic industry (chamotte) are reported. The resin used was supplied resins industry S.A.S and is of the pre-accelerated orthophthalic unsaturated type reference P2000. Chamotte powders were obtained by grinding of tile breakage material and ceramic tiles of the traditional industry, which were screened through an ASTM No. 200 sieve. The composite material was made by casting for mixtures with weight percentage of 50-50, 60-40, 70-30, 80-20 and 90-10, where the majority phase belongs to the resin, and Meck-Peroxide catalyst in concentration of 20 g per 500 g of resin was used as a catalyst. The samples were prepared in a cylindrical shape with a diameter of 3 cm and a height of 6 cm. The thermo-physical properties were found using the SH: 1 dual sensor of the KD2Pro® system that works with the physical principle of linear heat flux, while the morphology was studied using the scanning electron microscope FEI model Quanta 650 FEG, and image analysis through the Image J software. Our results show that as the concentration of chamotte increases, the conductivity and thermal diffusivity increase, on the other hand the morphology evidences grain boundaries well defined and integrated to the resin matrix, with a heterogeneous granulometric distribution of particles, with average sizes between 13.21 and 8 μm. In general, the composite material can be used as plastic ceramics in technological applications.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
THIXOTROPIC BEHAVIOUR STUDY OF CLAYEY SOILS FROM LACUSTRINE DEPOSITS OF BOGOTA HIGH PLATEAU.
RUGE C. JUAN CARLOS 1, MOLINA GOMEZ FAUSTO ANDRÉS 2, ROJAS SUAREZ JHAN PIERO 3,
1 UMNG, 2 CONSTRUCT-GEO, 3 UFPS,
Email: jcruge@gmail.com
Abstract: Thixotropy is a distinctively rheological (time-dependent) phenomenon, which is found in many complex materials, especially colloidal systems as fine grained soils. Clays are materials that can recover the initial strength after remoulding. This paper presents the results of a study focused on the thixotropy characteristic of clayey soils. The work methodology involved an experimental plan composed of five phases: (i) extraction of samples; (ii) physical and mechanical characterization of the undisturbed samples; (iii) remoulding of samples after testing; (iv ) storage of remoulded samples; and (v) evaluation of undrained shear strength recovering 0, 15, 30, and 60 days after remoulding. Undisturbed samples were collected by means of Shelby tube from the municipality of Madrid, near Bogota. Results were analysed in terms sensitivity degree of clays. Findings show that clayey soils from lacustrine deposits of Bogota high plateau do not loss completely all of their original mechanical properties after remoulding and exhibit a medium sensitive behaviour. In addition, it was found that there is a recovering of undrained shear strength and the samples will recover their original state about one year.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
TIO2 IN A CO2 ENVIRONMENT: STUDY OF ANATASE AND RUTILE PHASES BY MEANS OF A HIGH ENERGY PLANETARY MILL
JAIMES OCHOA CARLOS JAVIER 1, QUINTERO OROZCO JORGE HERNAN 2, OSPINA OSPINA ROGELIO 3,
1 UPB, 2 UIS, 3 UIS,
Email: carlos.jaimes@upb.edu.co
Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an attractive compound in the chemical industry, since its stability at high temperatures (> 500 ° C), helps to respond to efficiently monitor the combustion processes based on hydrocarbons. On the other hand, it is of low cost with respect to other common metal oxides such as ZnO and SnO2. In the present work we study the synthesis of titanium dioxide with a high energy ball mill in the presence of CO2 gas, varying the parameters of speed and grinding time. The results of these processes were analyzed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) techniques, where the narrow spectra of Ti2p, O1s and C1s were observed; while in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), topographic images show the size of the particles obtained.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
USE OF MUSA PARADISIACA FIBERS FOR THE PREPARATION AND CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A BIODEGRADABLE COMPOSITE MATERIAL
LESMES-ALFONSO SERGIO 1, PERTUZ ALBERTO D. 2, MARTINEZ CARLOS 3, RUIZ WENDY 4, LAVERDE DIONISIO 5,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 5 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: sergio.lesmes@hotmail.com
Abstract: Composite materials with comparable properties and low environmental impact have been at the forefront of research. In the present work, the mechanical, physics and chemical properties that allow to know the potential applications of Musa Paradisiaca fibers are evaluated, through an experimental process that starts from the selection of the binder and its fiber / binder ratio through tensile tests. The finally formed material is composed of a matrix of gelatin type C and glycerin and a reinforcement of banana fibers. The compound obtained was characterized by infrared spectroscopy by the Fourier transform (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical tensile and hardness tests. The results obtained from this study allowed confirming the presence of lignin and hemicellulose and evidencing the presence of good mechanical properties with a modulus of elasticity equivalent to 0.57 MPa, a percentage of elongation of 56%, a ultimate tensile strength of 3,5 MPa and a hardness of 82 Shore A, which allows us to consider a new biodegradable composite material for applications in which soft gums and elastomers perform.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
USING FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY TO CHARACTERIZATION OF PLANTS EXPOSED TO SOUND AND ULTRASOUND.
CALDERÓN DUARTE JENIFFER YEISMAR 1, CALDERÓN ARENAS JOSE ANTONIO 2, PEÑA RODRÍGUEZ GABRIEL 3, GLORIEUX CHRIST 4,
1 Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada (CICATA - Legaria), del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), 2 Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada (CICATA - Legaria), del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander (UFPS), 4 Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KU Leuven),
Email: ing.jenimar@hotmail.es
Abstract: Fluorescence spectroscopy is a technique used to characterizer stress in plants. On the other hand, sound and ultrasound waves can have negative or positive effects on activity photosynthetic of the plants.The work focuses on the study of fluorescence on Kalanchöe Blossfeldiana, before and after of apply irradiation at specific frequencies of ultrasound and sound waves, using power intensities tolerable to human ear (<110 dB). The experiment was held 1) building natural environment to Kalanchöe, with temperature control; the samples (leafs) have an average thickness of 1 mm and all the plants size a maximum height of 15 cm (measuring from the root to the top of its leaves). 2) Measurement spectral fluorescence and visible reflectance for each plant before the interaction with sound and ultrasound waves, using a spectrometer reference USB4000 Ocean optics, the incident light in a area 2 cm x 2 cm. 3) irradiation in an anechoic chamber at frequencies: 1 KHz, 4 KHz, 10 KHz, 17 KHz, 20 KHz, 25 KHz and 30 KHz. 4) measurement at 12 days after of irradiation and analysis of fluorescence spectrum. 5) The data is processed to simulate excitation and fluorescence on the samples with Monte Carlo Method. The results show a different effect for the frequencies of ultrasound. Keywords Fluorescence, sound, ultrasound, spectrum.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
VITRIFICATION OF THE SOLID WASTES OBTAINED FROM THE VACUUM CRUSHING OF FLUORESCENT LAMPS: CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND DETERMINATION OF THE CHEMICAL STABILITY IN WATER OF THE VITRIFIED SOLIDS.
JIMENEZ MARTINEZ JOSE MIGUEL 1, AMAYA MANJARRÉS GUILLERMO ALFONSO 2, DELVASTO PEDRO 3,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: jose_m_jm@hotmail.com
Abstract: In the last decade, fluorescent lamps have become popular in developing countries as substitutes for incandescent bulbs for lighting. However, this technology has the drawback of generating mercury-containing solid wastes after fluorescents lamps end their life-span. For this reason, most countries in Latin America have introduced environmental regulations in this area and, nowadays, it is mandatory to send the fluorescent lamps and the energy-saving bulbs to special collection centers. These centers destroy the lamps in portable vacuum crushers. These crushers operate under negative pressure, with the intention of capturing part of the gasified mercury in special activated-carbon cartridges, preventing Hg dispersion around the operation site. In the process, two solid by-products are obtained, a glass-rich fraction which also contains plastics and metal parts and a filtered powdery-fraction, in which the phosphors of the lamps are concentrated. All these fractions, as well as the activated-carbon cartridges, are sent to controlled landfills. Due to the high content of glass in these solid wastes, a possible valorization/inertization procedure may be its re-melting to obtain novel ceramic raw materials. Nevertheless, due to their complexity, the chemical stability, i.e. leachability, of these vitrified wastes needs to be verified. Due to the above-mentioned situation, in the present work, we performed a characterization of the glass particles and the phosphor powder obtained from the vacuum crushing process of fluorescent lamps in a local waste-management plant. In addition, we performed the melting of different compositions of glass particles, phosphor powders, and fluxing agents, in order to obtain vitrified materials whose chemical stability was evaluated when in contact with water, by means of pH and electrical conductivity measurements. Samples of broken glass particles (10 kg) and phosphor powders (0.8 kg) arising from the vacuum crushing process of discarded fluorescent lamps were obtained from a local waste-management plant. The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDS) for chemical microanalysis, using a FEI Quanta 650 FEG microscope. The chemical composition of the raw materials and the obtained glasses (passing mesh 100) in a Bruker sequential x-ray fluorescence spectrometer of dispersive wavelength, model S8 Tiger of 4 kW. Four vitrified materials were prepared in 100 g batches in refractory clay crucibles and submitted to melting in a muffle at 1100 °C for 1 hour. For comparisons, one formulation included borax as a fluxing agent and crushed soda-lime glass (cullet), from beverage containers, as a vitrifying agent. The chemical stability of the vitrified materials in distilled water was determined by contacting tests. These contacting tests consisted in placing the crushed materials (passing mesh 100) in distilled water at a liquids-to-solids mass ratio of 1:10, under magnetic stirring (1000 rpm) for 1 hour. During this time, regular measurements of pH and electrical conductivity of the supernatant were performed, using a Thermo Scientific Orion Star A215 pH/Conductivity Benchtop multiparameter meter. Three replicas for each condition were tested and the results shown correspond to the average values for the tests. Phosphor powders are calcium phosphates or carbonates doped with rare earths (REE). When the lamps are broken under vacuum, a major part of these powders, which have particle sizes ranging from 2 µm to 15 µm, get trapped in the filters of the crusher and some part remains with the glass. They contain elements such as P, Ca, Ba, La, Ce, Tb, and Y. During the vitrification process, Hg is expected to volatilize during the melting of the raw materials at 1100 °C. In the vitrified products no traces of this element were detected. The main difference between the glasses from broken lamps and the reference molten of soda-lime glass and borax was the phosphorus content, which is higher in the first two batches. On the other hand, the incorporation of phosphor powder to the melt increased notably the presence of REE in the material, as well as the contents of Ca and P. The chemical stability of glassy materials was determined by placing the glass particles in contact with water. Then, if there is interaction between the water and the materials, some physicochemical parameters in the water may change, such as pH and electrical conductivity. All the vitrified materials produced increased the pH values of the water (a process called alkalinization) and, in the same time, increased the electrical conductivity of the water. Both processes are interconnected and, in general, if a glass releases ions to the water surrounding it, the glass is less chemically stable. Our results indicate that adding borax to the mixture increased their chemical stability, even over the conventional soda-lime glass.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
VOLUMETRIC AND ACOUSTIC PROPERTIES OF 2–AMINOBUTYRIC ACID IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF SODIUM SULPHATE AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES
VEGA VEGA YAIR ALFONSO 1, PÁEZ MEZA MANUEL SILVESTRE 2, PÉREZ SOTELO DAIRO ENRIQUE 3,
1 Universidad de Córdoba, Grupo de Investigación Fisicoquímica de Mezclas Líquidas, Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, 2 Universidad de Córdoba, 3 Universidad de Córdoba,
Email: yairve1994@gmail.com
Abstract: The study of the physicochemical properties of proteins in aqueous electrolytic solutions is interesting, since this type of solutions have an effect on the properties and structures of proteins, including their solubility, denaturation, dissociation into subunits and the activity of enzymes; The specific effects of ions on the aqueous solubility of biomolecules are relevant in many areas of biochemistry and life sciences. However, proteins are complex molecules and their interaction behavior in solutions is very difficult to understand due to their three-dimensional, conformational and configurational structures, as well as many specific interactions. Therefore, direct investigations on these biopolymers are very complicated, so that several low molecular weight model compounds, such as amino acids, peptides and their derivatives, have been studied extensively in order to obtain a better understanding of solute-solvent interactions and its role in the conformational stability of proteins. In this way, the physicochemical and thermodynamic properties of the amino acids are indispensable to understand the ionic, hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions in different solutions, since they provide important parameters for the elucidation of the solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions. These types of more complex interactions allow us to understand the stability of proteins since they are involved in several biochemical and physiological processes in a living cell. The aim of the present work is to investigate the effect caused by the addition of 2-aminobutyric acid on the structure of the mixed solvent (aqueous sodium sulphate solution) and to determine the dominant molecular interactions in the solution. In this work the volumetric and acoustic properties of the amino acid (2-aminobutyric acid) in five mixed solvents are reported at the concentrations of: (0.2001, 0.6000, 0.9000, 1.2002 and 1.5958) molal, varying the concentration of the amino acid in the range of 0.0000 up to 1.0001 molal, at the temperatures of (283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15) kelvin, at atmospheric pressure. It should be noted that the temperatures were selected by virtue of the fact that the temperature at which the biological processes occur is in this range. The densities and velocities of the sound of the aforementioned solutions were measured, for which vibratory tube digital densimeter brand Anton Paar DMA 5000 and multifrequency ultrasound interferometer brand M81F Mittal Enterprises, respectively, were used. From the density data, the corresponding calculations were made to determine volumetric properties such as: apparent molar volumes, apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution and molar volumes of transfer at infinite dilution. In addition, the dependence of the apparent molar volume at infinite dilution with the temperature was calculated by finding the second derivative of said volume with respect to the temperature at constant pressure. And from the speed of sound, the corresponding calculations were made to determine acoustic properties such as isentropic compressibility and adiabatic molar compressibility. It was found that dependence of the apparent molar volume at infinite dilution with the temperature are positive for all the concentrations of the pseudobinary systems, which suggests according to the criterion of Hepler, that 2-aminobutyric acid behaves as a hydrophobic solute or forming the structure of the mixed solvent.

Topic: CM - Characterization of Materials
COLOSSAL – A COMPONENT-BASED SOFTWARE REPOSITORY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF WEB APPLICATIONS.
VERA RIVERA FREDY HUMBERTO 1, SANDOVAL RAMIREZ JHON JAIRO 2, VARGAS FANDIÑO JHON CARLOS 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: fredyhumbertovera@ufps.edu.co
Abstract: Software development is characterized by being a complex process, since it requires investment of time for its preparation, debugging and deployment. However, over the years, technological and methodological advances have been developed that considerably reduce this complexity of the software development process, converting this activity into a more intuitive, controllable and fast process. The reuse of software appears as an alternative to develop applications and systems in a more efficient and faster way. The idea is to reuse elements and software units instead of having to develop from the scratch. These units are known as software components. The library of reusable software components is the heart of component-based software development, allowing cataloging, organizing, discovering and reusing these components. In this work a library of reusable software components was developed and implemented to support the formation processes in the Systems Engineering program of the Francisco de Paula Santander University, allowing students and teachers to search, share and reuse the available software components and use them in their projects.

Topic: ESET - Education on Science, Engineering and Technology
EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE FOR THE SUPPORT OF THE LEARNING OF THE SUBJECT PROGRAMMING FUNDAMENTALS OF THE PROGRAM SYSTEMS ENGINEERING OF THE UNIVERSITY FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER OCAÑA
CAMARGO PÉREZ JESÚS 1, AMAYA TORRADO YEGNY KARINA 2, MANCIPE GUTIERREZ MARIA CAROLAIN 3, VELÁSQUEZ PÉREZ TORCOROMA 4,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocña, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña, 4 Universidad Francisco De Paula Santander Ocaña,
Email: jacamargop@ufpso.edu.co
Abstract: The use of new technologies in the education sector has managed to renew in a positive way the traditional educational models complementing the pedagogical work in classrooms, which significantly facilitates access to educational resources of any subject with a click, within these computer resources we find the educational web platforms which are tools that allow the user to consolidate knowledge of different educational disciplines in an interactive and autonomous way, which facilitates the teaching-learning process. The web tool of educational support for Programming Fundamentals is born from the need to look for alternatives that allow to diminish the number of students who lose the subject, which is an important pillar in the programming line of the Systems Engineering career. The main objective of this research was based on Developing a web tool to support the learning of the subject Programming Fundamentals of the systems engineering program of the University Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña. The selected development methodology has been structured and defined from the combination of the following methodologies: Alvaro Galvis Panqueva Methodology, ISE_OO Methodology, Scripts Methodology, in addition to the inclusion of certain aspects of the methodologies mentioned above, takes into account the epistemological bases of pedagogy and the processes of analysis and design of software engineering. The pilot test showed that the Educational Web Tool had a positive impact on most of the students who used it, therefore, it can be deduced that the tool has managed to be an alternative support for learning the subject Programming Fundamentals.

Topic: ESET - Education on Science, Engineering and Technology
EVALUATION OF THE ONTOLOGY FOR THE SUPPORT IN THE APPROACH OF THE DEVELOPMENT AREA OF THE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING PROFESSIONAL CAREER
NUMA PICÓN VANESSA 1, ROSADO GÓMEZ ALVEIRO ALONSO 2, MACHADO LOBO ALEJANDRA 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña,
Email: vnumap@ufpso.edu.co
Abstract: Currently, ontologies are widely used in order to structure knowledge in a specific domain. Therefore, there are different methodologies and tools for its construction, being the evaluation of these, a work that was originated by the need to calculate the quality and precision of the ontologies. The purpose of this article is to make known the different evaluation procedures based on different approaches and authors in order to evaluate this specific domain. The evaluation method was applied in the Ontology for the support in the area of ​​development of the professional career Systems Engineering, in which it was possible to identify syntactic errors and inconsistencies and redundancies in some subclasses, and whose results do not affect the expected by the ontology.

Topic: ESET - Education on Science, Engineering and Technology
EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL CALCULATION OF GRAVITY AND MOMENT OF INERTIA USING A PHYSICAL PENDULUM
CRISTIANO RODRÍGUEZ KAREN LORENA 1, TRIANA CAMACHO DANIEL ANDRÉS 2, ESTUPIÑAN ALEX FRANSISCO 3, PICO LEAL MIGUEL ANGEL 4, ORTIZ ROJAS RAUL 5,
1 CIMBIOS, Escuela de Física, Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga, 4 Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga, 5 Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga,
Email: alex.estupinan@saber.uis.edu.co
Abstract: The vocation to study engineering and science grades in Colombia has been decreasing in young people. According to a study carried out at Universidad de Antioquía in 2010, there is a predisposition by the students else added shortcomings from middle school. Teachers have a great responsibility in the results thrown by these surveys since it is our responsibility to motivate students and encourage their desire to understand science as an important basis for the study of disciplinary subjects in engineering. Therefore, in this project it has been proposed to study the physical pendulum, combining a methodology that involves an experimental arrangement and the implementation of simulations developed in Python, with the aim objective of offering to students a visual and interactive experience, in such a way that is different from the typical physical-mathematical formalism. This work was developed in three phases: first, to measure the period of oscillation of a physical pendulum experimentally. Second, the approach of the analytical model to compare with the experimental results. Third, development of a dynamic simulator according to the predictions of the theoretical model. The students found a didactic and different way of studying the physical pendulum. Finally, it was possible to demonstrate a self-consistency between the experimental and numerical results of the system studied in this work.

Topic: ESET - Education on Science, Engineering and Technology
GOOD PRACTICES AROUND INTERNET SAFETY OF THINGS FOR SMART HOMES
CAMARGO PÉREZ JESÚS 1, VELASQUEZ PEREZ TORCOROMA 2, SANCHEZ PERILLA ALBA LUZ 3, GAONA DIAZ NELSON FERNANDO 4, PEREZ SANCHEZ LAURA MARCELA 5,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 4 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 5 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: jacamargop@ufpso.edu.co
Abstract: Security and privacy in Internet devices of things, has become one of the great challenges for those who design them, bearing in mind that this great line covers five fields such as: people, applications, data analysis, global infrastructure, and connectivity. However it becomes more complex to offer customers completely secure devices with a high degree of reliability by applying security standards, a low level of security can be reflected in attacks on home services in terms of operational security and health of people, where attackers can maliciously send from outside a home many false requests to a specific device or service in the cloud, so the threat would seriously affect the security of the home, therefore the main objective is to design a guide of good practices around the Internet security of things for intelligent houses. It is of vital importance to provide security guarantees in the smart homes sector, these can be done and implemented through well-defined security protocols that can counteract future infiltrations into the network by attackers, these measures or controls are based on the ISO/IEC 30141 Standard at the moment is the only standard that allows the standardization of things on the Internet, within the review was determined that it was important to choose one of the layers that handle the Internet of things, emphasizing that all layers were critical and important, but nevertheless it was considered that the network layer is crucial insofar as for the attackers this was a key access point to access the devices and the most relevant information of the end user.

Topic: ESET - Education on Science, Engineering and Technology
IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON THE EVOLUTION OF SPORTS TRAINING
VERA RIVERA JOSÉ LUIS 1, RAMÍREZ ORTÍZ YENER ADRIAN 2, ORTEGA PARRA ARLES J. 3,
1 Universidad del Valle, 2 Universidad de Pamplona, 3 Universidad de Pamplona,
Email: vera.jose@correounivalle.edu.co
Abstract: This research aimed to analyze how the use of technological tools help to improve training, performance, and evaluation of sporting results. A mixed research approach was used as experience research conducted with the application of different technological tools such as laboratory machines, pulsometers, software, and other devices that allow planning, control and evaluate sports training in a more accurate and reliable way. As results, 60% of the coaches have accessibility to the current technological aids for their sports training processes, only 40% a very elitist group uses laboratory implementation and state-of-the-art technology to guide their training processes. We point out the need to innovate in the training processes that allow improving sports performance in a newer way, using state-of-the-art technology and leading to reliable decision making.

Topic: ESET - Education on Science, Engineering and Technology
IMPLEMENTATION OF A SYSTEM OF AUTOMATED FERTILIZATION FOR THE CONTROL OF NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES IN YELLOW MAIZE CROPS IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ABREGO, NORTE DE SANTANDER - COLOMBIA.
GAONA PÁEZ LUIS ARMANDO 1, PLATA JÁCOME MARÍA JOSÉ 2, PUENTES VELASQUEZ ANDRÉS MAURICIO 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña,
Email: lagaonap@ufpso.edu.co
Abstract: In this paper, describes the way in which it has made the implementation of a system of automated fertilization for the control of nutritional deficiencies in maize yellow, where supported by the data captured unmanned aerial vehicles, were created maps of nutritional deficiency that are used by farmers to locate the sectors that have been affected by the lack of nutrients within the crop. The implementation of the system of automated fertilization for the control of nutritional deficiencies in crops of yellow maize has been carried out in the Municipality of Ábrego, Norte de Santander - Colombia, where agriculture is one of the most economic activities performed, its economy is based on this activity, which can be regarded as one of the largest agricultural producers in the country. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles, each time extends more quickly in different areas to the military, contributing to the solution of daily problems. In the year 2013, The International Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems (AUVSI), conducted a survey in order to know the "Economic Impact of the unmanned aerospace integration in the economy EEUU" and the multiple uses of UASS/RPAS in the civil field, points out that the most promising civil markets are precision agriculture and public security, representing the 90 between the two per cent of the potential markets known to the UAS/RPAS. It is also forecast to the implementation of unmanned aerial vehicles, precision agriculture will generate $82.1 billion for 2025 and will require approximately 100.000 pilots to perform these tasks. According to Fountas et al. (2004), precision agriculture is defined as the "operation of the spatial and temporal variability at the level of sub-plot of field, to improve the economic return and reduce the environmental impact" in this way, the precision agriculture contributes in decision-making and the improvement of the processes that are carried out in the field. To characterize this variability is used technological tools such as Global Positioning Systems, popularly known as GPS, plant-climate sensors-soil and multispectral images obtained from satellites, aircraft or UAS/RPA. Thanks to them, you can detect a plague on time, to know if there are leaks in irrigation, perform index of biomass of pastures or the level of stress in the fruit trees, to schedule the time of collection. You can also control of weeds and nutritional deficiencies in crops like corn. In our case, when those sectors affected by nutritional deficiency within the crop are located, is the fitting of the surge area near the affected area. The system provides nutrients to the plants and the Arduino controller with the sensors manages the fertilization program, in addition, the farmer has the ability to control the system via a mobile application. Currently, the mobile application of the system of fertilization, allows you to enable or disable the fertilization in the area indicated by the farmer, helped with the maps of nutritional deficiency that have been created, for the construction of these maps were used a Phantom Drone 3 Advanced, and the service Drone Deploy for processing the images. These maps are integrated into the application, where it provides information that helps the farmer in the subsequent decision-making.

Topic: ESET - Education on Science, Engineering and Technology
IMPLEMENTATION OF COLLABORATIVE WORK AS ONE OF THE LEARNING STRATEGIES INCORPORATING ROBOTICS (LEGO/FISCHER TECHNIK) IN THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS IN THE SEVENTH GRADE OF THE ISIDRO CABALLERO DELGADO SCHOOL IN FLORIDABLANCA, SANTANDER
RICO BAUTISTA NOLFER ALBERTO 1, RICO-BAUTISTA D. W. 2, MEDINA-CÁRDENAS Y. C. 3,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña,
Email: ing.industrial.31@hotmail.com
Abstract: This article explains particularities of collaborative work in mathematics teaching. Robotics was incorporated through LEGO and/or Fischer Technik in the seventh grade, impacting two groups, approximately 70 children from the educational institution Isidro Caballero Delgado. Its purpose was to achieve greater interaction and participation in the students. In an additional way, greater understanding, better analysis and a good argumentation in the solution of problems derived from daily situations and mathematics helping their integral formation. In the same way it was possible to count with positive results in front of the teaching of mathematics identifying in the children a positive interdependence, a responsibility as individual and part of the group, improves the interpersonal abilities, a motivation for the personal growth and an analysis as group in front of each activity in the solution of basic problems of geometry, mathematics and statistics of systematic form.

Topic: ESET - Education on Science, Engineering and Technology
IMPLEMENTATION OF EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE ON TEACHING OF VECTORS (ARROW REPRESENTATION AND VECTOR ADDITION)
OTERO OLARTE OSWALDO 1,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: oswaldoterolarte@gmail.com
Abstract: As a contribution to the teaching of physics and the implementation of new technologies in the classroom, this work is dedicated to the teaching of vectors by creating environments that stimulate the teaching and learning process using educational software. In physics, the understanding of the basic concepts related to this type of quantities are fundamental in the achievement of the learning goals for some courses of high-school and college education, because these play an important role in the different stages of the educational process, facilitating the study and understanding of a wide variety of phenomena, for example movement and fields. This paper analyses the effect of the application of a didactic sequence to solving problems about arrow representation and vector addition by graphical methods (in one and two dimensions), using a software of dynamic geometry, looking for the development of 21st century skills and collaborative work. The strategy was implemented in a public educational institution located in the state of Santander, Colombia, with tenth grade students. The results showed a better disposition to team work as well as a significant improvement in the individual performances of the students.

Topic: ESET - Education on Science, Engineering and Technology
IMPLEMENTATION OF RESEARCH AGENDAS IN THE TRAINING OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS: ACADEMIC TRAINING WITH A SOCIAL SENSE
BOHORQUEZ CHACÓN LESLEY FABIOLA 1, AVENDAÑO MARYORIE ANGELICA 2,
1 Universidad de Santander UDES Cúcuta, 2 Universidad de Santander,
Email: fabiolabo@gmail.com
Abstract: The concept of Research Agendas is polysemic; it is assumed for the development of experience as strategic tools of collective planning, based on contextual demands, institutional offers, dialogue of knowledge between the experiential knowledge and the academic of teachers, researchers and students in close contact with social actors to establish a roadmap of knowledge management in the training of professionals of any area [1]. Likewise, research agendas are interpreted as instruments to support with greater relevance the processes of teaching, formative research and knowledge transfer [2]; they elevate researchers and students to a high level of understanding of the immediate environment and the global trends of science and technology to produce sustainable and ethical actions at the frontier of knowledge [3]. Starting from this concept, the implementation of the Research Agenda of the Industrial Engineering Program is described from training scenarios such as: classroom work, training practices, business practices, classroom projects, classroom work, research seedbeds and the respective strategies of research intervention used[1], materialized in actions applied in three productive processes of interest to the Industrial Engineer in training, such as: (i) Productive Process of Object Systems, (ii) Primary productive Process of Biomass, (iii) Primary productive Processes of additives for Artisanal Cosmetics. Research intervention strategies are proposed in these scenarios, to satisfy quality aspects of the academic program such as: strategic training, strengthening the use of Tic´s, research in the strict sense and social appropriation of knowledge; evidencing the construction of knowledge as an exercise that corresponds to a Network between actors and between levels. The objective is to show the concrete results of the application of the Research Agendas; as a process of knowledge management of the formative process, which starts from the planning of the agenda, the area of research interest, the linkage of actors, the development of lines of research of the program, the didactics in the scenarios, the scopes of the intervention strategies, the training and research products. The experience is described on the basis of four successful cases that show the construction of knowledge and the traceability of the investigative intervention of the Industrial Engineer in an artisanal Cosmetic Industry, in a Hydrocarbons company, Health services sector, and construction sector. All the cases are centered around the optimization of the Supply Chain, as an area of investigative interest. [1] J Núñez et al 2018 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1126 012046, [2] Haloho E, Tawila L, Purba I and Rahim R 2018 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1019 012037 [3] Bahron H 2018 IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 117 012049

Topic: ESET - Education on Science, Engineering and Technology
MOBILE APPLICATION PROTOTYPE FOR GEOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL DESCRIPTION.
MERCHAN CHAPARRO ANDRES LEONARDO 1, CASTRO SILVA HUGO FERNANDO 2, PAREDES ROA RICARDO ALFONSO 3, ORTIZ DAZA JHUVER 4,
1 Universidad pedagogica y tecnológica de colombia, 2 Universidad pedagogica y tecnológica de Colombia , 3 Universidad pedagogica y tecnológica de Colombia , 4 Universidad pedagogica y tecnológica de Colombia ,
Email: ing.andres.merchan.ch@gmail.com
Abstract: The collection of geological and structural information is one of the most important tasks in the work of geological engineers and related professions, this task requires the use of tools such as the geological compass and GPS, which are not always available for their high costs, hence the idea of creating an application that takes advantage of the sensors that have the majority of mobile devices on the market. Taking advantage of the information provided by these sensors, an algorithm is created that with certain mathematical logic delivers information about the geological structures of interest and add a description and/or classification. Comparing the results of the measurements of the application with those of other tools previously mentioned, it is observed that the precision offered by the application is very accurate and can be used both for professional and didactic purposes. After reviewing the results it can be stated that the application offers a very efficient alternative and at much lower costs with a simpler execution. The development of the application was carried out in open source platforms such as kodular, mit appinventor, appybuilder and thunkable.

Topic: ESET - Education on Science, Engineering and Technology
MODEL OF GOVERNMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE PRODUCTIVE PROCESSES OF THE FARM OF THE UNIVERSITY FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER OCAÑA
SÁNCHEZ PERILLA ALBA LUZ 1, VELÁSQUEZ PÉREZ TORCOROMA 2, CAMARGO PÉREZ JESUS ALBERTO 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña,
Email: alsanchezp@ufpso.edu.co
Abstract: For an organization, it is important to understand in detail its business processes in order to know the way how the company is doing using different strategies or information technology government tools. As objective it is pretended to diagnose and determine the strategic indicators of the organization to evaluate the functioning of the processes, a control board is used as a tool for this, it allows us to know the key indicators for taking more precise decisions decreasing the probability of error. Supporting this process the Balanced Scorecard will be considered, which is a management tool based on indicators that facilitate the monitoring and achievement of the objectives of the company helping to the organization in the verification of its results. The Balanced Scorecard has 4 important approaches for the process: client, internal processes, innovation, and training. In Colombia, in the department of Norte de Santander in the province of Ocaña Colombia, the Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña University is located, which has an experimental farm attached to the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and the Environment. For the development of the research, a quantitative approach methodology will be used that will give us details of the production processes of the farm. It is intended to know the management of the same and government models of information technology that are implemented to design a control panel to improve the production processes of the farm of the Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña Colombia University that contributes to continuous improvement.

Topic: ESET - Education on Science, Engineering and Technology
QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF THE IMAGES USED IN A BIOMETRIC RECOGNITION SYSTEM
GARCÍA TORRES MARÍA FERNANDA 1, URIBE LOZANO JEIMMY CAROLINA 2, ROSADO GÓMEZ ALVEIRO ALONSO 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña,
Email: mfgarciat@ufpso.edu.co
Abstract: Currently in the context of biometrics, facial recognition is essential for the identification of people, so much so that the systems developed in this field simulate the natural functioning of the human brain, based on the physical characteristics of people, which are often extracted from images. These systems have different development methodologies, however, there are very few documented evaluation methodologies. This project carried out an evaluation of the images used for the identification by a Facial Recognition System Prototype, following the guidelines established by ISO / IEC 19794-5, to determine if the images have an identifying value and likewise, if they are suitable to use in the same system.

Topic: ESET - Education on Science, Engineering and Technology
SYSTEM FOR THE USE OF RAIN WATER IN THE SCHOOL ALBERTO SANTOS BUITRAGO HEADQUARTERS AND THE FOREST, OF THE SOCORRO, SANTANDER
TORRADO VERJEL KAREN ANDREA 1, DURAN GONZÁLEZ LUIS MARIO 2, CRISTANCHO CRUZ SANDRA LILIANA 3, QUINTANILLA PIÑA EDGAR 4, CÉSPEDES TORRES ELIZABETH 5, TIRIA SANDOVAL LUIS CARLOS 6,
1 Universidad de Santander , 2 Universidad de Santander, 3 Universidad Libre, 4 Universidad Libre, 5 Universidad Libre, 6 Universidad de Santander,
Email: ka.torrado@mail.udes.edu.co
Abstract: Rainwater is one of the natural resources, which over time has not been thoroughly explored, but due to the great climatic changes that are occurring in different regions of the country, it has been intensified by different sectors the implementation of reusing this resource and in one way or another contribute to the environment without generating alterations in the climate process. The Universidad de Santander and Universidad Libre, Socorro, have joined forces to promote projects in which the use of these resources is framed and can recover vulnerable areas and sectors in times of summer, where the green areas deteriorate and this preserves the imbalance of the environment natural; if you have a storage and distribution system which helps to mitigate this situation, in the same way, the system is not only proposed for green areas but also in sanitary facilities of institutions or for cleaning of public areas. To carry out these processes, areas where rainwater is captured must be identified, and this collection must be led to a storage where it can be stored for considerable periods of time and taking into account filters so that there are no suspended solids in this process, later by means of a system of sets of valves and sanitary points to draw a pipeline to distribute the water to each of these sites. Climate change leads to the existence of summer and winter times more severe than usual for recent years. This directly or indirectly impacts the normal functioning of the different economic sectors and of society in general. One of the resources affected is water, which is of great importance because it is part of the basic functions of human beings. The population can acquire it through public service companies or directly from natural sources when the homes or places of use are not in the coverage area. In Socorro, Santander, these two situations are of special interest, taking into account that due to climate change the summer condition has presented temperatures of approximately 35 °C and a decrease in water sources is very considerable. On the other hand, the coverage of this public service effectively covers the need of the entire population, however, this service is not continuous and the population is forced to enjoy the service for hours and days during the week, in other words, reasoning forced. Within the different places of water consumption in the municipality, parks and schools are of vital interest, because they are points of high convergence of older adults and children, who seek comfortable spaces for training and distraction. In addition, because there are 12 educational institutions of basic and secondary education and 3 parks, which by their uniformity can be treated in a similar way for any solution to this problem. However, taking into account that there are two universities that offer the possibility of higher education studies, and that is part of this population vulnerable to the problems of obtaining water for consumption. Awareness of the importance of the water resource and its limitations, lead to society actively participating in saving alternatives and appropriate use of this resource, which must be led and structured by government entities in support of the academy, in order to design impact strategies that tend to guarantee the minimum vital consumption of water. The design, implementation, and maintenance of a rainwater use system allow this resource to reach a population with or without public service coverage. Allowing to reduce the consumption of water treated for the first case or the direct capture of the water source in the second. Defining the scope of the rainwater system for schools and parks, will, directly and indirectly, reduce costs for drinking water consumption, improve green areas and create a culture of care for the environment in minors as a future of the municipality and of Colombia, and in adults as caregivers and replicators of experiences.

Topic: ESET - Education on Science, Engineering and Technology
UFPS TRAINING CENTER – TRAINING AND EDUCATION PLATFORM FOR COMPETITIVE PROGRAMMING CONTEST - ACM ICPC.
VERA RIVERA FREDY HUMBERTO 1, LÁZARO CARRILLO GERSON YESID 2, DELGADO LEÓN ANGIE MELISSA 3, VERA CONTRERAS MILTON JESÚS 4,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 4 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: fredyhumbertovera@ufps.edu.co
Abstract: The programming contest are competitions where the programming capacity and algorithm of the participants are measured. The most important is the ICPC (International Collegiate Programming Contest) competition sponsored by the Association ACM (Association for Computing Machinery). To improve the participation of the students of the Francisco de Paula Santander University (UFPS) in these marathons, the training platform "UFPS Training Center" was developed, which is part of the framework proposed by the SILUX research center and by the coach of the UFPS programming teams. The intention with this platform is to give the students all the tools they need to carry out their training in one place: from the platform the student can study, can practice, can compete, and can improve their skills both in competitive programming and in the very areas of programming and computer science. In this way, the student has everything they need to learn at their fingertips, and those who lead the group have all the competency and performance reports to make decisions in the group. In the same way, the professors of the UFPS who dictate subjects related to the programming can find in this platform an ally for their practical classes, tasks and evaluations. The results obtained in the national and international contest have improved considerably and the UFPS has stopped being a simple assistant, to be an institution to consider in the programming competitions.

Topic: ESET - Education on Science, Engineering and Technology
VIRTUAL LABORATORY FOR MEASURING OF YOUNG MODULUS WITH STRESS AND STRAIN FOR DIFFERENT METALS.
ACEVEDO MUÑOZ JENNYFER CAMILA 1, TREJOS FORERO JUAN GUILLERMO 2, CELIS MANTILLA DANIEL MAURICIO 3, HERRERA IBAGOS JOSÉ ROBERTO 4, CRISTIANO RODRÍGUEZ KAREN LORENA 5, TRIANA CAMACHO DANIEL ANDRÉS 6,
1 CIMBIOS,Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 CIMBIOS, Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 CIMBIOS, Universidad Industrial de Santander, 4 CIMBIOS, Universidad Industrial de Santander, 5 CIMBIOS, Universidad Industrial de Santander, 6 CIMBIOS, Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: jenniferacv99@hotmail.com
Abstract: The Colombian Ministry of Information and Communications Technologies (MinTIC) is leading a digital revolution to bring computer and internet equipment to rural areas, taking into account that in these areas there are educational establishments that do not have equipment and materials for the performance of laboratories or experimental demonstrations. Therefore, this project proposed the development of a virtual learning laboratory for the study of the elastic modulus, obtained from real tensile-compression tests, it is important to clarify that there is not theoretical procedure to obtain stress-strain curves out of their linear regime. The virtual laboratory was developed in Python language, this simulation allows the student to manipulate a tensile-compression test modelling for different materials, and thus obtain a visualization of the procedure,the stress-strain curve and the Young modulus,with the expectation of transferring the conceptual and procedural knowledge of the physical phenomenon to the student.

Topic: ESET - Education on Science, Engineering and Technology
A MATLAB & RSTUDIO-BASED MODELING PROGRAM FOR DISPERSION OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM 10) EMISSIONS FROM A STEEL INDUSTRY USING GAUSSIAN PLUME EQUATION
GUIMARÃES CLAUDINEI DE SOUZA 1, DE SOUZA MAUÉS CAROLINA 2, MARTINEZ AMARIZ ALEJANDRO 3,
1 Universidade Federal do Río de Janeiro, 2 Universidad de Rio de Janeiro, 3 Universidad de Santander,
Email: claudinei@eq.ufrj.br
Abstract: The dispersion of air pollution emissions can be estimated through mathematical or air quality models. These models allow evaluating the air pollutants effects to the environment under several conditions, becoming a relevant and low-cost tool for planning and regulatory purposes. Recent studies have shown the effects of particulate matter on the environment and human health, especially cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. This study aims to assess the effect on air quality of particulate matter (PM 10) emissions from stationary sources of a steel industry located in the city of Volta Redonda, Brazil, with the aid of meteorological data (wind speed, wind direction, cloud covering and insolation) from monitoring stations set at the complex nearby. A mathematical model was developed linking MATLAB® and RSTUDIO® platforms, using the Gaussian Dispersion equation to perform the simulations and Google Maps API to visualize the results. Observed data revealed SE, NW and N prevailing winds of 1.0 m/s and 2.5 m/s average speed that were used to simulate stable and unstable atmospheric conditions according to Pasquill-Guifford classification. The results have exposed elevated concentrations of PM 10 at the complex surrounding area using different input wind data, showing the high contribution of steel industry emissions to the air quality of Volta Redonda city. The national air quality standards recently updated were partially met however numerous violations were indicated, particularly in Santa Cecilia proximity. Further work is required to adjust the dispersion coefficients of the Gaussian equation, evaluate the model using monitoring data, and apply for other pollutants also related to steel processes emissions.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
ANALYSIS OF STRESSES IN THE DISCONTINUITIES OF PRESSURE VESSELS USING THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
CABRERA MONTAÑA INGRID JULIETH 1, GALVIS MANTILLA D F 2, MARTÍNEZ M J 3,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: juliethcm18@gmail.com
Abstract: The use of pressure vessels, horizontal and vertical, is very common in processing plants, refineries and compressor plants, fulfilling functions such as separation of fluids or phases and heat exchange among others. One of the most critical areas that make up the vessels are the discontinuities that occur in the different unions. In this research work the analysis of stresses and strain in discontinuities of pressure vessel joints is proposed, such as the unions of the vessels body with its respective head, the joints of the skirts support with the lower part of the head or body and the unions of nozzles and tubes to the body of the recipient, by means of the method of finite elements. To achieve this objective, different configurations of horizontal and vertical vessels with their respective discontinuities are modelled by the use of a package CAD, after that these models will be analyzed by a commercial program of finite elements in order to perform the discretization and represent the values of the most convenient border conditions for this kind of problems.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
A NON LINEAR RESISTIVE NETWORK AS A MODEL TO ANALYZE FRACTURE PROCESSES IN MASONRY STRUCTURES UNDER DIAGONAL STRESSES.
CLAVIJO JORGE 1, TORRES NANCY 2, SALAS YECID 3, SÁNCHEZ SANDRA 4,
1 Escuela Colombiana de Ingeniería, 2 Escuela Colombiana de Ingeniería, 3 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 4 Univesidad de Nariño,
Email: jorge.clavijo@escuelaing.edu.co
Abstract: Study of fracture processes in civil structures are key to estimate the risk of collapse which can derive in economic and social damages. However, theoretical analyzes of these systems are cumbersome because of the highly non linear problem associated with the fracture process. In this paper we propose a non linear resistive network as a model to analyze the collapse of a masonry wall under diagonal compression. In this model bricks are seen as the nodes of the network and the joining material is modeled as resistive elements which resistances increases abruptly when electric current reaches a critical threshold. The diagonal stress is modeled as a voltage source which magnitude depends on time. The definitive collapse occurs when the current of the source drops to zero. With this model it is possible to predict the form of the fracture and the critical behavior in the current-voltage relation just before the collapse. The model is evaluated through comparison with experimental data obtained from real walls using the acoustic emission technique.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
ARTIFICIAL MODELLING OF TRIAXIAL TESTS IN UNSATURATED CONDITIONS CONSIDERING THE SUCTION CONTROL ON POROUS COLLAPSIBLE CLAYS
RUGE C. JUAN CARLOS 1,
1 UMNG,
Email: jcruge@gmail.com
Abstract: Soils with a tendency to show phenomena of collapsibility generally have a susceptibility to be controlled by partial saturation due to its structural configuration, where it is possible to find some cementation due to its lateritic genesis, as well as a microporal predominance. Laboratory tests that intend to reproduce the unsaturated condition need a suction control to simulate properly the levels of stress required in the sample. However, these tests are difficult to have access to given that they have a complicated assembly and can last several days (even months). For this reason, it is extremely important to validate numerically by means of an appropriate constitutive law, at least at the laboratory level, the unsaturated response of a material, in this case a collapsible porous clay of lateritic origin. In this research, an emphasis is placed on the numerical simulation of partially saturated tests through a hypoplastic constitutive model that involves suction in its mathematical formulation. The results are oriented to show the dependence of the suction with the shear strength of the material.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
AUTOMATIC SEGMENTATION OF THE LEFT ATRIAL APPENDAGE, IN COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IMAGES
VERA MIGUEL 1, HUÉRFANO YOLEIDY 2, GELVEZ-ALMEIDA ELKIN 3, VERA M I 4, SALAZAR JUAN 5, VALBUENA OSCAR 6, MOLINA V 7,
1 Universidad Simón Bolívar, 2 Universidad de los Andes, 3 Universidad Simón Bolívar, 4 Universidad de los Andes, 5 Universidad Simón Bolívar, 6 Universidad de Pamplona, 7 Universidad ECCI,
Email: m.avera@unisimonbolivar.edu.co
Abstract: The atrial appendage of the left atrium is one of the anatomical places where blood thrombi occur most frequently. These thrombi, when migrating from the appendage, become blood emboli that can, potentially, compromise the physiology and / or anatomy of cardiac or cerebral blood vessels, being able to generate cerebrovascular events. The segmentation of the aforementioned appendage is highly complex due, mainly, to its location and the identical tomographic densities that are evident in both the left atrial appendage and the left atrium. In the present work, a computational technique is proposed to segment the appendage with the purpose of generating important information to the procedure called surgical closure of the aforementioned anatomical structure. This information is linked to the volume and diameter of the aforementioned appendage. The technique consists, first of all, of a digital preprocessing stage based on filtering processes and definition of a region of interest; and second, from a segmentation stage that considers a grouping method. The results are promising and allow us to calculate useful quantitative variables when characterizing the most lethal appendix of the human body, that is, the left appendage.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
COMPARATIVE THERMAL ANALYSIS OF EXTRUDED CERAMIC PRODUCTS: THE MULTI-PERFORATED BRICK VS. MODIFIED BRICKS IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF CELLS
COLMENARES URIBE ANDREA PAOLA 1, SÁNCHEZ MOLINA JORGE 2, DÍAZ FUENTES CARMEN XIOMARA 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: auribe3094@hotmail.com
Abstract: The cooling and heating systems demand to adapt spaces is a critical environmental problem. Due to the supply of products for facades presents many limitations when selecting the best option, such as price, maintenance or mistrust. Bearing in mind that the behavior of construction materials is an elementary factor in the energy consumption of buildings, three types of extruded face brick were designed, alternating the distribution of internal perforations and partially eliminating the thermal bridge. Subsequently, the thermal comparative analysis of ceramic products between the multi-perforated brick (LM) and the 3 brick options modified in the distribution of cells LMDC1, LMDC2 and LMDC3 was developed, from simulations in the software ANSYS R16 using the method of finite elements (FEM) configured in extreme conditions of solar radiation in Cúcuta, Colombia, from which the temperature distribution -exterior and interior- and the heat fluxes of each design were obtained. The data obtained from the simulation allow to identify the energetic behavior of a traditional construction element (LM). This information is a starting point to compare and sustain the insulation produced by LMDC1 and LMDC2, through the reduction of interior temperature. However, LMDC3 is negatively highlighted by the considerable increase in interior temperature. The results show that the modification of the distribution of the cells and the elimination of thermal bridges are strategies for the reduction of heat transfer in the design of ceramic product for masonry. This study is a justification for the development of innovative sustainable building units that strive to achieve energy efficiency from thermal insulation and the use of resources and technologies of a region, as is the case of the arcillera industry of Norte de Santander in Colombia .

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
COMPARISON OF SEGMENTATION TOOLS FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF BONE TISSUES BY FINITE ELEMENTS
ARGUELLO DUVAN 1, GONZÁLEZ-ESTRADA OCTAVIO ANDRÉS 2, SÁNCHEZ ACEVEDO HELLER GUILLERMO 3,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: daaa_36@hotmail.com
Abstract: The segmentation of medical images is fundamental in the development of personalized medicine. These image-processing mechanisms have been adapted as complex recognition tools for control and intervention of diseases, in addition to the live monitoring of surgical procedures and rehabilitation. The present work is a comparative study of reconstruction processes applied to medical images with open source software for bone structure analysis using the finite element method. According to this approach, the aim is to generate a sequential process considering all the implications in the choice and evaluation of the software, and associated with the morphological examination of the human body. The methodology focuses on the software that has been documented for the anatomical reconstruction of organs and tissues, accounting for algorithms of manual, semi-automatic and automatic handling. Three segmentation packages are analysed. 3D Slicer with a semi-automatic process called Region Growing and its wide variety of hand tools distinguished by its precision, easy handling, and export quality. ITK-Snap through the interactive mechanism called active contour segmentation mode. Finally, InVesalius and its automatic segmentation technique by identifying classes of tissues and simplified user-machine interface. A comparison is proposed based on the ease of workflow, time for completion, the robustness of the tools, and precision of the semiautomatic and automatic methods, as opposed to the manual process. The segmentation of a vertebra obtained from a DICOM file in a computerized axial tomography was completed, and performance indicators were evaluated.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
COMPUTATIONAL MODELLING AND VALIDATION OF GUIDED WAVE'S DISPERSION CURVES IN AN ALUMINIUM FLAT PLATE BY EMPLOYING ANSYS SOFTWARE.
GALVIS CANDELARIO LEONARDO DAVID 1, QUIROGA MENDEZ JABID EDUARDO 2,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Escuela de ingeniería mecánica, Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: galvis18@icloud.com
Abstract: This paper presents a practical approach to obtain the dispersion curves for a plate via numerical modelling using the commercial software ANSYS. The method is based on the dynamic analysis of the waveguide to extract the mode shapes (eigenvectors) for each resonant frequency (eigenvalues) from the unforced motion equation. Each eigenvalue provides a frequency and the dimensions of the model (wavelength), which are the base of the dispersion curves. Afterwards, an algorithm it’s developed in MATLAB to stack the different mode solutions with its respective frequencies using the Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC). The obtained data is compared with the dispersion curves provided by the GUIGW software.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF A GLOW DISCHARGE DEVICE
QUINTERO PACHECO YHONATAN 1, PARADA BECERRA FREDY FABIAN 2, OROZCO OSPINO EDUARDO ALBERTO 3, TSYGANKOV PETR 4, BARRAGAN JIMENEZ YERSON FABIAN 5,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander , 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander , 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander , 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander , 5 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: yersonfabian16@gmail.com
Abstract: Currently the bright discharge or glow plasma is the basis of conventional techniques used for the treatment of materials, such as the generation of thin films, essential sputtering process, surface treatment for cleaning and substrate activation, among others. This work focuses on the numerical study of the main characteristics of bright discharge originated in a system composed of a cylindrical quartz chamber of length 20 [cm] and radius 2.5 [cm], limited by two copper electrodes connected to a electric potential values between 200-500 [V]. The simulations are carried out on the software "COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS", resulting in the distribution of the electronic and ionic charge density, as well as their respective current densities, electrical potential profile, electric field and electronic temperature in the plasma of the longitudinal distance of the system; thus achieving, identify the characteristic regions of this download.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF THE AUTORESONANCE ACCELERATION OF ELECTRONS IN MAGNETIC FIELDS VARYING ON TIME
HERNÁNDEZ QUINTERO JOSÉ ALEJANDRO 1, OROZCO EDUARDO ALBERTO 2, DUGAR-ZHABON VALERIY 3,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: alejandroher07@hotmail.com
Abstract: The gyroresonant acceleration mechanism consists of the 2D acceleration of electrons by a circular polarized standing transversal electric wave and a homogeneous magnetic field, which change on time to compensate the increase of relativistic factor during the acceleration regime. In this acceleration scheme, a mechanism capable of maintaining the phase stability of the acceleration regime is present. K. Golovanivsky, who proposed said acceleration mechanism; by using an analytical model deduced a set of differential equations describing both the evolution of the electron energy and the phase shift between the velocity of the particle and the electric field. In the present work, the results of the 3D numerical simulation of an electrons bunch acceleration by the TE111 cylindrical mode of 2.45 GHz in frequency and the strength of 100 kV/m through the gyroresonant acceleration mechanism is presented. In our numerical scheme, the inhomogeneous magnetic field is produced by a set of 4 current coils whose currents change linearly on time. In the transversal midplane, the initial magnetic field is fitted to the classical resonance value. The concentration of the electron bunch is ne= 154.4 cm^(-2), so the simple particle approximation is used. The electron trajectories, its velocities, and energies are obtained from the numerical solution of the relativistic Newton-Lorentz equation. Finally, the number of accelerated electrons was determined, identifying the favorable regions for the acceleration regime.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
EMBEDDED QUANTUM DOTS IN (GA, AL)AS SEMICONDUCTOR NANOSTRUCTURE: STRUCTURAL STUDY OF CURRENT TUNNELING
PAREDES GUTIÉRREZ HAROLD 1, PÉREZ MERCHANCANO SERVIO TULIO 2,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad del Cauca,
Email: haroldpared@gmail.com
Abstract: We report the the tunneling current behavior in a nano-semiconductor structure of GaAs/(Ga,Al)As which contains the Rashba spin orbital interaction in the presence of embedded InAs quantum dots of different geometries (lens, pyramid and ring) depending on the voltage, magnetic field, and different spin-orbit interaction values. First of all we report the behavior of the current as a function of voltage taking into account different geometries, and fixed values of spin orbit considering the spin effect up and spin down, which provides information about the Zemman effect and at the same time a degeneration of the energy levels. These results show that the intensity of the current presents appreciable changes when the morphology of the quantum dot changes when the intensity of the bias voltage increase. Here are two cases: for voltages less than or equal to 0.2 V and for voltages greater than 0.2 V. In the first case and considering spin up, the appearance of the first peaks of current intensity according to the morphology of the following way: Pyramid, lens and ring. However, when the voltage is greater than 0.2 V a change in the current occurs due to the morphology of the quantum dots changing in its order: Ring, lens pyramid. This phenomenon also occurs when the spin orbit coupling is changed, showing that as the value of the phase increases, a change in the domain of the morphology for similar voltages also occurs. Likewise, when the spin polarization of our quantum device changes, a domain also occurs in the intensity of the current showing that these changes are affected by the morphology of the quantum dots. In general, it is observed that the current intensity is lower when the polarization spin down of our quantum mechanical model, inducing less information transport through the carriers. Similarly, there is less current intensity here for all voltage values. In the case of spin down and voltage values greater than 0.2 V, there is a greater number of peaks in the current intensity, showing a greater number of resonant states when the voltage and magnetic field are increased.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
EXTENDED HUBBARD MODEL FOR THREE-COLOR FERMIONS
SILVA VALENCIA JERESON 1, PEREZ ROMERO ARTURO 2, FRANCO ROBERTO 3,
1 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 3 Universidad Nacional de Colombia,
Email: jsilvav@unal.edu.co
Abstract: The well-known Hubbard model considers a local interaction between electrons and their kinetic energy. This model is useful to describe VO2 material and its two-dimensional version could describe the normal state of High-Tc superconductors. Ultracold atom setups have become a laboratory for the condensed matter field. With them, several ideas and concepts have been tested and extended, in an environment that is clean and free of impurities and defects, with complete control over the parameters. Alkaline-earth-metal atoms have several hyperfine states, which can be manipulated, leading to SU(N ) Hubbard chains. For 6Li atoms N=3, and we study three-color fermions confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice with next-neighbors interactions. We used the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method and the von Neumann entropy to determine the phase diagram. We obtained a charge-density wave (CDW), phase separation (PS), spin-density-wave (SDW) and Bond-order wave phases.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
FRACTAL ANALYSIS IN RURAL DOMESTIC WASTEWATER QUALITY UNDER DISSOLVED OXYGEN STABILITY IN WETLANDS PLANTED WITH CHRYSOPOGON ZIZANIOIDES.
PRADA MARÍN DUWAMG ALEXIS 1, REÁTIGA VILLAMIZAR ALEXANDER 2, CORREA SANDRA NATALIA 3, MANTILLA MANCILLA JOHAN SEBASTIAN 4, GALVIS DORIAN 5, HERNÁNDEZ MARÍA CAMILA 6,
1 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 2 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 3 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 4 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 5 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 6 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana,
Email: duwamg.prada@upb.edu.co
Abstract: The Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) is a plant that has characteristics of adaptability to any type of soil and to any type of climatic conditions. It has been observed that this plant helps to improve the quality of wastewater and industrial, because it has a root system of great development which allows the consumption of organic matter and capture of contaminants present in the water. One of the indicators of good water quality is the amount of dissolved oxygen present in it and vetiver is a plant that helps increase the presence of dissolved oxygen. For this work, a sample of 30 vetiver plants arranged in a tank of one cubic meter with residential rural residual water from the municipality of Floridablanca Santander was taken for 5 weeks, in which the oxygen present in said water and with the collected data was analyzed. A fractality study was carried out to determine the volatility of the data series provided in order to observe persistence in water quality. This study showed volatilities of 46.70%, 39.25%, 50%, 27.79% and 48.76% corresponding to each week.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
FRACTAL ANALYSIS OF THE PRESENCE OF PARTICULATE MATERIAL OF 2.5 AND 10 MICRONS IN THE AIR OF THE CITY OF MEDELLIN, COLOMBIA
PRADA MARÍN DUWAMG ALEXIS 1, TARAZONA JUAN DAVID 2, SILVA MARÍA FERNANDA 3, VERA BAUTISTA PEDRO ELÍAS 4, MONTOYA TORRES SERGIO ANDRÉS 5, ACEVEDO AMOROCHO ALEJANDRO 6, GÓMEZ CORTES JENNY MAYERLY 7,
1 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 2 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 3 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 4 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 5 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 6 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 7 Centro de Gestión de Mercados, Logística y Tecnología de la Información, Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje SENA,
Email: duwamg.prada@upb.edu.co
Abstract: The population increase has a direct impact on the urban and road growth of the place where it is inhabited. With continuous technological development, the materials used for construction in buildings and road mesh for all types of transport have been improved. In addition, it is possible to observe, in the same way, the increase in pollution of said place. Regarding air pollution, in the city of Medellin, Colombia, classified as one of the most polluted cities in this country, activities have been initiated to reduce the emission of particulate material 2.5 and 10 microns, cataloged highly harmful to health. In order to determine if the amount of the particles present in the city of Medellín, have a persistent behavior or not, we analyze a series of data provided by the Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies, between the first of July to December 31, using the calculation of the Hurst coefficient and the fractal dimension.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
INSULATOR PHASES OF A MIXTURE OF SPINOR FERMIONS AND HARD-CORE BOSONS
AVELLA SARMIENTO RICHARD GIOVANNI 1, SILVA VALENCIA JERESON 2,
1 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2 Universidad Nacional de Colombia,
Email: rgavellas@unal.edu.co
Abstract: The ground state of a mixture of hard- core bosons and Spin 1/2 fermions confined in one dimensional optical lattice were studied using the density matrix renormalization group technique sweeping a wide range of values of the fermionic and bosonic densities considering repulsive fermion-fermion and boson-fermion interactions, we found diverse superfluid and insulator states and the transitions between then were explored, leading to interesting phase diagrams. Given a fermionic density \Rho_F, the insulator states are located at the bosonic densities \Rho_B = 1-\Rho_F and \Rho_B = abs(1-2 \Rho_F)

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
INTERTYPE SUPERCONDUCTIVITY: ON THE COMPLETENESS OF THE CLASSIFICATION OF A SUPERCONDUCTOR MATERIAL
OLIVEIRA DE AGUIAR JOSÉ ALBINO 1,
1 Universidade Federal de Pernambuco,
Email: albino@df.ufpe.br
Abstract: Based in the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory superconductors are classified as Type-I, ideal diamagnetic materials, or Type-II, materials for which the magnetic field penetrates the sample as single-quantum vortices (Abrikosov vortices) forming a regular lattice (Abrikosov lattice). This classification depends on the GL parameter GL , where  is the penetration depth and  is the coherence length. At T=Tc, the superconducting critical temperature, this two types interchange at  = (1/2)1/2. For  < , the material is said Type-I, whereas , it is classified as Type-II. At temperatures below Tc the GL classification does not hold anymore. Indeed, it has been demonstrated by several authors, both experimentally [2,3] and theoretically [4] that for T < Tc, there exists in the (; T) plane, a temperature-dependent  interval that forms an intertype (IT) domain between the Type-I and Type-II where inside it the magnetic response of a superconducting material presents quite peculiar behavior. For example, the magnetic field dependence of the magnetization shows a first order transition as one goes from the Meissner to the mixed state, which is manifested experimentally as a steep change in the magnetization, as observed in metallic Nb, Ta, V, Pb, and in LaAl2 [2,3]. The physics of the IT domain results from the infinite degeneracy of the mixed state at the Bogomolnyi point (; Tc) [5], which is closely related to the Bogomolnyi self-duality [6]. This degeneracy implies that the mixed state has an infinite number of possible configurations for the magnetic flux. By lifting this degeneracy, for example by doping or by decreasing the temperature, one is able to reveal new flux configurations, with properties that cannot be reduced to those in Type-I or Type-II superconductors [7]. The IT domain is small in single-band materials but tends to increase in multi-band ones. Recently we have shown [8] that, within the IT regime, a thin single-band superconductor made of a Type-I material, can present unusual flux configurations such as lattices of superconducting islands separated by vortex chains; stripes and labyrinths of vortices; and mixtures of giant vortices and vortex clusters. We also showed [9] that a two-band superconductor can present a giant paramagnetic Meissner effect which is connected to the IT domain, and that, contrary to common expectations, the many-body interaction plays a crucial role in the formation of the IT vortex matter [10-11]. These results indicate that an IT superconductor develops a peculiar unconventional type of the vortex matter governed by the many-body interactions of vortices. To finalize we conclude that our findings shed new light on the completeness of the superconductivity types. This work was supported by the Brazilian agencies CAPES (Grants No. 223038.003145/2011-00 and 400510/2014-6), CNPq (Grants No. 400510/2014-6 and 309374/2016-2), and FACEPE (APQ-0936-1.05/15). * In Collaboration with W. Y. Córdoba-Camacho, R.M. da Silva, A. Vagov, and A. A. Shanenko. References [1] A. A. Abrikosov 1957 Sov. Phys. JEPT. 5 1175 [2] J. Auer and H. Ullmaier 1973 Phys. Rev. B 7 136 [3] H. W. Weber, E. Seidl, M. Botlo, C.Laa, E. Mayerhofer, F.M. Sauerzopf, R. M. Schalk, and H. P. Wiesingerh 1989 Physica C 161 272 [4] A. E. Jacobs 1971 Phys. Rev. Lett. 26 629; A. E. Jacobs 1971 Phys. Rev. B 4 3016 [5] E. B. Bogomolnyi 1976 Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 24 449 [6] E. B. Bogomolnyi and A. I. Vainstein 1976 Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 23 588 [7] A. Vagov, A. A. Shanenko, M. V. Milosevic, V. M. Axt, V. M. Vinokur, J. Albino Aguiar, and F. M. Peeters 2016 Phys. Rev. B 93 174503 [8] W. Y. Córdoba-Camacho, R.M. da Silva, A. Vagov, A. A. Shanenko, and J. Albino Aguiar 2016 Phys. Rev. B 94 054511 [9] R. M. da Silva, M. V. Milosevic, A. A. Shanenko, F.M. Peeters, and J. Albino Aguiar 2015 Sci. Rep. 5 16515 [10] S. Wolf, A. Vagov, A. A. Shanenko, V. M. Axt, and J. Albino Aguiar 2017 Phys. Rev. B 96 144515 [11] W. Y. Córdoba-Camacho, R. M. da Silva, A. Vagov, A. A. Shanenko, and J. Albino Aguiar 2018 Phys. Rev. B 98 174511

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
MODELING OF ELECTRON RESONANT INTERACTION BY CYLINDRICAL MODES TE011
OTERO OLARTE OSWALDO 1, OROZCO OSPINO EDUARDO ALBERTO 2,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: oswaldoterolarte@gmail.com
Abstract: As a contribution to the study of the resonant interaction between the movement of an electron and the transversal electric field of a stationary electromagnetic wave in the presence of a static homogeneous magnetic field, this work is dedicated to the analysis of electrons acceleration using a microwave mode cylindrical TE011. To get a better understanding of the particle-wave interaction, the electric field of the microwave mode is decomposed as the superposition of two circular polarized standing wave (right one and left one). This decomposition can be done without use any approximation. The trajectory, energy and phase difference of the electron are determined by the numerical solution of the Newton-Lorentz relativistic equation using a finite difference scheme. For an electron injected longitudinally with an energy of 6 keV and that starts at the radial midpoint of the cavity, it is accelerated until an energy close to 90 keV using an electric field amplitude of 14 kV/cm and a frequency of 2.45 GHz. These results are contrasted with those obtained for two other injection points located in different radial positions. This energy can be used to produce X-ray for medical imaging. The results suggest that the particle-wave interaction using the cylindrical mode TE011 could be optimized through the implementation of external mechanism to preserve the resonance condition along time (GYRAC).

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
MODELING OF HELIUM ATOM (HE) FROM A COLLISION OF AN ELECTRON (E-) WITH AN IONIZED HELIUM ATOM (HE+)
ALCALÁ VARILLA LUIS ARTURO 1, PEREZ PITALUA DANIS LAI 2, TORRES HOYOS FRANCISCO 3,
1 Universidad de Córdoba, 2 Universidad del Sinu, 3 Universidad del Cordoba,
Email: lalcala@correo.unicordoba.edu.co
Abstract: The helium atom was theoretically modeled from a collision of an electron with a ionized helium atom. Therefore, the scattering theory and in particular the theoretical properties of the Jost functions were used; these last functions were calculated and from them it was possible to study the bound states problem. Using this approach, the energy of the ground state and the energies of the first 3 excited states of the helium atom were calculated finding errors with respect to the experimental values of 0.039%, -0.541%, -0.077% and 0.713%, respectively. Which are significantly in agreement with those reported in other common theoretical works.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
MODELING OF N POLYSTYRENE SPHERES COLLIDING ON AN ENCLOSED VESSEL, THROUGH MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN DISTRIBUTION
ALZATE CARDENAS JULIAN ALBERTO 1, LANDINEZ RANGEL GABRIELA 2, ARIZA SERRANO GERALDINE ANDREA 3, TRIANA CAMACHO DANIEL ANDRÉS 4, CRISTIANO RODRÍGUEZ KAREN LORENA 5,
1 Universidad industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad industrial de santander, 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 5 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: julijijiji@gmail.com
Abstract: The shaping of sciences thru interactive simulations has strengthened in the last decade. This research describes the active learning experience, thru the experimentation and simulation of a problem, used on mechanics II course oriented to physics students. The proposed problem was to model the movement of polystyrene spheres on an enclosed vessel under constant air pressure. To achieve this, the spheres speed was measured when they were leaving thru an opening on the enclosed vessel after collisions among them as well as the vessel walls. The physical principle applied to the model and the simulation was the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of speeds used on an ideal gas. The experimental data of velocity were adjusted to the distribution model and their parameters were determined thru the inverse modelling of basin-hopping algorithm.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
MODELING THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF AL2O3/SIO2 CERAMIC COMPOSITES
ROA BOHÓRQUEZ KAROL LIZETH 1, PAREDES ROA RICARDO ALFONSO 2, VERA LÓPEZ ENRIQUE 3, PEÑA RODRÍGUEZ GABRIEL 4, TREJO ZÁRRA FERNANDO 5, CASTRO SILVA HUGO FERNANDO 6,
1 1. Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CICATA-IPN) 2. Grupo de Integridad y Evaluación de Materiales (GIEM), Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (UPTC), 2 Grupo Observatorio, Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (UPTC), 3 Grupo de Integridad y Evaluación de Materiales (GIEM), Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (UPTC), 4 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander (UFPS), 5 Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CICATA-IPN), 6 Grupo Observatorio, Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (UPTC),
Email: karol.roa@uptc.edu.co
Abstract: The aim of this research is to develop models that describe the temperature effect on the physical and mechanical properties of ceramic composites produced by mixing clay and additions of 20 wt%, 30 wt% and 40 wt% of micro-casting ceramic shell waste. Previous studies showed that chemical composition of ceramic shell waste has a high content of SiO2 and therefore is proposed as an alternative raw material to replace silica source in the composite. Prototypes were shaped by a uniaxial pressing method and fired at temperatures between 850 °C and 1050 °C. Temperature-dependent models showed good agreement between the predicted results and the experimental data. As temperature increases, properties such as mechanical strength and linear shrinkage reach its maximum values. The water absorption content and apparent density did not show correlations with temperature, however, these properties were strongly affected by ceramic shell waste content. The main merit of the models obtained is to offer a valuable tool to set up a proper thermal process in order to obtain eco-friendly ceramic samples with physical and mechanical properties at its optimum values.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS OF METHANE MITIGATION OPTIONS ON MARINE OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION PLATFORMS
BELLON MONSALVE DANIELA 1, SUZART BARBOSA RODRIGO 2, MARTÍNEZ AMARIZ ALEJANDRO DAVID 3, DE SOUZA GUIMARÃES CLAUDINEI 4, GONÇALVES SERRA EDUARDO 5,
1 Universidad de Santander, 2 Federal University of Rio de Janeiro , 3 Universidad de Santander UDES, 4 Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 5 Federal University of Rio de Janeiro,
Email: dan.bellon@mail.udes.edu.co
Abstract: The oil and gas exploration and production sector is one of the most significant methane emitters through sources of fossil fuel combustion and fugitive emissions. There is a growing increase in the interest of the industry in mitigating methane emissions, mainly due to its impact on global warming and its association with the natural gas production chain. In Brazil, there are few studies focused on the mitigation of methane in the oil sector. The objective of the present work is to use a multicriteria analysis methodology to compare different methane mitigation technologies applicable to offshore oil and gas platforms. In the study, six different mitigation options were compared through the Analytic Hierarchy Process methodology, considering environmental, financial and operational criteria. Environmental and financial indicators were calculated based on actual data from three oil and gas offshore platforms and the operational indicators were evaluated through interviews with experts. The final results were calculated for each mitigation option considering the scores of each criteria and their respective relative weights, obtained in the prioritization of the elements. This unique score obtained through the Analytic Hierarchy Process made it possible to compare the mitigation alternatives. The alternative that received the best score considering the evaluated criteria was the recovery of vapor from cargo tanks with methane energy reuse, being highlighted mainly due to its high potential for mitigation. The alternative to the Gas-to-liquid (GTL) process received the lowest score due to its high implementation cost and low operating performance.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
NUMERICAL MODEL OF THE BEHAVIOR OF THE RESISTANCE TO COMPRESSION IN PRISMS OF SOLID MASONRY FOR THE MUNICIPALITY OF OCAÑA, COLOMBIA
AFANADOR GARCÍA NELSON 1, CALDERON FAUSTO 2, ALVAREZ FARELO KARINA ANDREA 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 UNIV. FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER OCAÑA, 3 UNIV. FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER OCAÑA,
Email: nafanadorg@ufpso.edu.co
Abstract: This work presents an experimental and numerical analysis of three-dimensional behavior to the compression of masonry prisms with solid brick, in pieces built in artisanal ovens used in the municipality of Ocaña, Colombia. The experimental methodology consisted of statistically determining the mechanical properties of solid brick pieces together with the resistance to the compression of masonry prisms. The observed behavior is implemented, via constitutional laws adopted in a commercial finite element modeling code, ANSYS. The numerical and experimental results are compared and discussed. The efficiency of the model allows predicting the compressive strength of masonry prisms in solid brick built in artisanal ovens.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FAST IONS GUIDING-CENTER ORBITS IN MAST-REACTOR CONFIGURATION
CÁRDENAS AYALA PAULA ANDREA 1, LÓPEZ DURÁN JESÚS EDUARDO 2, OROZCO OSPINO EDUARDO ALBERTO 3, DUGAR-ZHABON VALERIY 4,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: paucardenas3@gmail.com
Abstract: Calculation of the trajectories of individual charged particles affected by both external electric and magnetic fields is one of the most common problems in plasma physics. In the case of a tokamak plasma, the orbits of fast ions are mainly affected by both the curvature and the non-homogeneity of the magnetic field. From a numerical code developed by us, the results of the fast ions trajectories and its guiding-center orbits in a Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) reactor are presented. In the present work, the magnetic field is calculated by solving the Grad-Shafranov equation with a fixed boundary in a no homogeneous mesh grid. Full trajectories and its guiding-center orbits are calculated employing leap-frog and RK4 schemes. The results show that the ions injected with energies in the range 20-80 keV describe the typical banana orbits in the poloidal plane for trapped ions as well as the orbits of passing particles. Finally, the fulfillment of conservation of both toroidal angular momentum and the total energy is showed.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
NUMERICAL STUDY OF LINEAR PLASMA DYNAMICS IN A SPHERICAL TOKAMAK
LÓPEZ DURÁN JESÚS EDUARDO 1, OROZCO OSPINO EDUARDO ALBERTO 2, DUGAR-ZHABON VALERIY D. 3,
1 Universidad industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: jesus2198136@correo.uis.edu.co
Abstract: The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium is the starting point to study macro-instabilities in plasmas, which is obtained from the solution of the force balance equation under the assumption of static and stationary plasma. In axially symmetric systems, this condition leads to the Grad-Shafranov equation. In this work, we present the results of the numerical study of the MHD equilibrium in a spherical Tokamak with aspect ratio A~1.6, total plasma current 1.3MA and beta parameter ~ 0.35. The Grad-Shafranov equation is solved numerically in a rectangular region of the poloidal plane, using the finite differences method under a successive over-relaxation scheme (SOR). Profiles of poloidal magnetic flux, pressure, safety factor and magnetic field are presented. Subsequently, by using a resistive MHD model, said equilibrium is subjected to perturbations in the velocity to study the dynamics of the plasma in the linear regime. The plasma dynamics simulation is carried out under a fourth order finite difference scheme for the spatial derivatives and implementing the Runge-Kutta algorithm as a temporal integrator. The results show that the perturbations are located in the plasma outer edge; however, some poloidal modes move toward the central zone around the magnetic axis. Said modes can either grow or be dampened according to the numerical value of viscosity.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
OPTIMIZATION OF THE CONNECTING ROD OF A TWO-STROKE ENGINE USING FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
GONZÁLEZ-ESTRADA OCTAVIO ANDRÉS 1, VALERO-PÁEZ LAURA BIBIANA 2, CHACÓN-VELASCO JORGE LUIS 3,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: agonzale@uis.edu.co
Abstract: In this work, the mechanical behavior of a connecting rod of a two-stroke single-cylinder engine is studied by means of finite element analysis (FEA) in order to reduce its weight. We investigated the static and dynamic stresses on the parts of the connecting rod, considering the boundary conditions of the Jovaj theory for the design of automotive conrods. Then, the maximum stresses of the models were compared to perform the optimization of the weight of the connecting rod, evaluating the sensitivity of the prototype, geometry restrictions, and fatigue strength. For the study using FEA, a connecting rod prototype designed at Universidad Industrial de Santander was used, within the project of reengineering the connecting rod of a two-stroke engine of small displacement for agricultural applications. The mechanical response of the designed conrod was evaluated, taking into account the mechanical stresses to which it is subjected during the operation of the engine. Finally, the design was revised to propose improvements in the geometry.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
PROSPECTIVE MODEL OF QUALITY ECOSYSTEM AS A BUSINESS MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR THE STRENGTHENING OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN THE METALMECHANICAL SECTOR IN THE SANTANDER DEPARTMENT COLOMBIA
REINA LUIS 1, MARTINEZ ALEJANDRO 2, GUERRERO MARLENE 3,
1 Universidad de Santander , 2 Universidad de Santander, 3 Universidad de Santander,
Email: astridrn18@gmail.com
Abstract: On the global scale, prospective management models are increasingly generating a greater impact at the corporate level, since, beyond strategically forecasting and predicting scenarios of action, they identify, analyze and allow statistically and managerially to develop quantitative and qualitative variables that generate significant effects, not only in an organization, but also in a business environment such as the metalworking sector of the Santander department, where standardization has allowed the ecosystem to be structured for the implementation, validation, verification, and optimization of processes within the quality management system for small and medium-sized enterprises in a fundamental context such as Corporate Social Responsibility. It is important to bear in mind that in this ecosystem model, companies that through processes of productive linkage developed in the region through the "Cámara de Comercio" of Bucaramanga, associations, and of higher education institutions, technical and technological training and national government have achieved In a strategic way to reach standards of continuous improvement of high level in the integration of the links that form their respective chains of supply; a process in which quality certification under the ISO 9001: 2005 standard, nowadays ISO 9001: 2015, plays a fundamental role in increasing productivity and competitiveness in the regional and national environment and with a positive prospect in the international arena in a context such as corporate social responsibility. Under this strategic framework of growth and continuous improvement of the metalworking sector in the Santander department, Universidad de Santander, through the Industrial engineering program specifically from the seminar of research in management of entrepreneurial knowledge. To the new technologies group, has developed a quality ecosystem model, such as a strategy for technical and business management, in which the university-company-state relationship is emphasized, directing a series of logistical activities, classified within a set of Stages that are oriented to reinforce the productive and competitive apparatus of small and medium-sized enterprises, around quality; measured from management indicators in terms of processes and product, including corporate social responsibility as a transversal axis.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
SEMI-AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF THE EVOLUTIONARY FORMS OF VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN BLOOD SMEARS OBSERVED IN LIGHT MICROSCOPY
SALAZAR TORRES JUAN PABLO 1, VERA MIGUEL 2, HUÉRFANO YOLEIDY 3, VERA M I 4, GELVEZ-ALMEIDA ELKIN 5, VALBUENA OSCAR 6, MOLINA V 7,
1 Universidad Simón Bolívar, 2 Universidad Simón Bolívar, 3 Universidad de los Andes, 4 Universidad de los Andes, 5 Universidad Simón Bolívar, 6 Universidad de Pamplona, 7 Universidad ECCI,
Email: j.salazar@unisimonbolivar.edu.co
Abstract: Leishmaniasis is a complex group of diseases caused by obligate unicellular and intracellular eukaryotic protozoa of the leishmania genus. Leishmania species generate diverse syndromes ranging from skin ulcers of spontaneous resolution to fatal visceral disease. These syndromes belong to three categories: visceral leishmaniasis (VL), cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML). The VL is based on the reticuloendothelial system producing hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. In the present article, a semi-automatic segmentation strategy is proposed to obtain the segmentations of the evolutionary forms of visceral leishmaniasis, called amastigote and promastigote. For this purpose, the optical microscopy images containing said forms, which are generated from a blood smear, are subjected to a process of transformation of the color intensity space into a space of intensity in gray levels that facilitate their subsequent preprocessing and adaptation. In the preprocessing stage, smoothing filters and edge detectors are used to enhance the information contained in the mentioned images. In a complementary way, a segmentation technique that groups the pixels corresponding to each of the mentioned evolutionary forms is applied. The results reveal a high correspondence between the available manual segmentations and the semi-automatic segmentations which in turn are useful for the characterization of the evolutionary forms linked to visceral leishmaniasis.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
SIMULATION OF STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF HYDROGEN STORAGE ALLOYS BY THERMOCALC SOFTWARE
BELLON MONSALVE DANIELA 1, MARTÍNEZ AMARIZ ALEJANDRO DAVID 2,
1 Universidad de Santander, 2 Universidad de Santander UDES,
Email: dan.bellon@mail.udes.edu.co
Abstract: The interest in developing experiments and processes in general through mathematical modeling or simulation, has been growing considerably in recent decades; the previous, insofar as it offers highly reliable results that have an impact on advantages such as reduction of the risk associated with the execution of costly or difficult to reproduce experiments since they handle many variables or even the elimination of times associated with the execution of said experiments . For its part, the study of hydrogen storage alloys represents a fundamental element in the so-called hydrogen economy, which seeks the integration of hydrogen as an alternative solution to dependence on fossil fuels. Thus, in this study a simulation of the evolution of the microstructure of hydrogen storage alloys based on TiCrV is developed, through the use of ternary systems at different temperatures; Likewise, the solidification process of the components present in the alloy is studied to corroborate the final structure with experimental data. In preliminary results, it is observed that the simulation throws a structure centered in the body, and in the solidification process, a remnant of a compact hexagonal structure is observed.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
SIMULATION OF THE ELECTRON DYNAMICS IN A MAGNETRON SPUTTERING WITH EQUIPOTENTIAL AND NON EQUIPOTENTIAL CATHODE
CÁRDENAS AYALA PAULA ANDREA 1, LÓPEZ DURÁN JESÚS EDUARDO 2, OROZCO OSPINO EDUARDO ALBERTO 3, DUGAR-ZHABON VALERIY 4, TSYGANKOV PIOTR 5,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 5 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: paucardenas3@gmail.com
Abstract: One of the most popular mechanisms used in the deposition of thin films for the treatment of surfaces is the conventional magnetron sputtering. Recently, the idea of a magnetron with a non-equipotential cathode was developed experimentally, which consists of a segmented cathode at different electric potentials in each segment. It allows increasing the productivity over the limitation of the volt-ampere current. The physical processes associated with the generation and sustaining of the discharge in this system are complex and have not yet been explained from a theoretical point of view. In this work, we present the computational study of the discharge in an non-equipotential cathode magnetron sputtering from the numerical simulation of the electron dynamics in the simple particle approximation, under the influence of both the magnetic and the electrostatic field produced by the segmented cathode subjected to different voltages (-850V and -500V respectively) of the magnetron. These fields are obtained by using the software COMSOL Multiphysics®. The dynamics of the particles is obtained through the numerical solution of the Newton-Lorentz equation and the results show that the Hall current is produced from the simulation parameters used. To check our results, the limit case of the equipotential cathode magnetron is also calculated.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
SOFTWARE TO DETERMINE THE VISCOSITY AND HONEY´S PURITY USING A BALL VISCOMETER.
GONZÁLEZ NICOLÁS 1, ANGELONE YEPES JUAN PABLO 2, RUEDA BAUTISTA SANTIAGO 3, ADARME RODRÍGUEZ JULIAN GUILLERMO 4, CRISTIANO RODRÍGUEZ KAREN LORENA 5, TRIANA CAMACHO DANIEL ANDRÉS 6, HERRERA IBAGOS JOSÉ ROBERTO 7,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander , 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 5 CIMBIOS, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia, 6 CIMBIOS, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia, 7 CIMBIOS, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia,
Email: nicolasogliastri@gmail.com
Abstract: Physics is a science that studies the laws and properties of the universe and everything in it; however, it is more interesting when it is applied to the solution of problems that influence economic and social development. In our case, applied to beekeeping to ensure the purity of honey. Some producers or intermediaries add sugar or water to honey to reduce costs and improve their income affecting the final consumer. Therefore, in this research work an experimental methodology was proposed combined with the development of a software to determine viscosity of different types of honey, considering that the experimental methodology used here, does not alter the chemical composition of honey. With a ball viscometer and using honey as a viscous medium, times that took metal spheres pass through the sample tube with different densities were measured. The times were analyzed and synthesized with the application to obtain the viscosities in real time of the different types of honey, allowing to discern which ones were pure and which had water or sugar aggregates.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
SPATIAL AUTORESONANCE ACCELERATION PHYSICAL SCHEME BASED ON MAGNETIC RINGS SYSTEM
LÓPEZ DURÁN JESÚS EDUARDO 1, OROZCO OSPINO EDUARDO ALBERTO 2, DUGAR-ZHABON VALERIY D. 3, LÓPEZ DURÁN JHON EDINSON 4,
1 Universidad industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: jesus2198136@correo.uis.edu.co
Abstract: The Spatial Auto-Resonant Acceleration scheme, known as SARA, consists in the acceleration of an electrons beam by the transversal electric field (TE) component of a standing microwave field affected by an external inhomogeneous magnetostatic field, whose longitudinal profile is fitted to maintain the electron cyclotron resonance condition along of its helicoidal trajectories. This acceleration mechanism has been the basis for the design of X-ray sources. In practice, this profile can be generated by a system of current coils. In order to reduce space and save energy, a better option is to replace it by a magnetic rings system of uniform axial magnetization. In this work, we present both the results of the magnetostatic field calculation using three magnetic rings with 4.3-5.3-6.3*E-5 A/m its magnetization values, which is calculated from the magnetic scalar potential, and the acceleration of an electrons beam in the SARA regime by using said magnetostatic field and a cylindrical TE112 mode of 2.45 GHz. The Laplace equation for the magnetic scalar potential is solved in a centered finite differences scheme by using the successive relaxation method. The electron trajectory, its velocity and energy are obtained from the numerical solution of the relativistic Newton-Lorentz equation.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
TECHNOLOGICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL INDICATORS TO GUIDE AND SELECT SOCCER PLAYERS IN THE FORWARDS POSITION OF YOUTH CATEGORY
VERA RIVERA JOSÉ LUIS 1, ORTEGA PARRA ARLES 2, RAMIREZ ORTIZ YENER ADRIAN 3,
1 Universidad del Valle, 2 Universidad de Pamplona, 3 Universidad de Pamplona,
Email: vera.jose@correounivalle.edu.co
Abstract: The evolution of modern soccer as one of the professions that transforms the social reality of many young people, who see in training and sports preparation an opportunity to meet certain indicators, that allow them to be professional players and thus become part of one of the most desired professions worldwide. Soccer as a sport is one of the great social phenomena that motivates to be studied in a transdisciplinary way with a view to evolve in different aspects. This research work present basic characteristics that must be considered to guide and select strikers of the youth category of Deportivo Cali a professional sports club. For which an exploratory type study was used, focused on a mixed type with phenomenological and positivist tasks with a cross-sectional descriptive design, 8 strikers participated who met the inclusion criteria. The model conformed by anthropometric measures, functional physical tests and technical - tactical actions tests were applied to them, through the use of software that allows the reliability and validity of the data and a training program was applied to them based on planning by specific micro-cycles to methods and means with completion. The average reference indicators are the following age: 16.95 years, height of foot: 173.2 cm, Squat Jump: 36.6 cm, countermovement jump: 43.6 cm, relay test of balls time 46.8 seconds, estimation of VO2 in Leger test 53.6 ml / kg / min, driving test and 58.3 seconds finishing to goal demonstrating a level of excellent technical efficiency, scored 67 goals. They were the champions of national tournament in Colombia 2016. With the application of the model and its significance of P-value (0.019) and the application of specific loads as well as the results of the different tests and in competition, it allowed to propose the orientation profile and sports selection of the youth strikers of Deportivo Cali.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
THERMAL AND FLUID-DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF AN AUTOMOTIVE DISC BRAKE WITH VENTILATION PILLARS TYPE NACA 66-209
GARCIA-LEON RICARDO ANDRES 1, FLOREZ SOLANO EDER 2, GUTIERREZ PAREDEZ JULIANA 3,
1 UFPSO-IPN, 2 UFPSO, 3 IPN,
Email: ragarcial@ufpso.edu.co
Abstract: Introducción: El sistema de frenado de un automóvil debe trabajar en forma segura y predecible en cualquier circunstancia, lo cual implica disponer de un nivel estable de fricción, en cualquier condición de temperatura, humedad y salinidad del medio ambiente. Para un correcto diseño y operación de los discos de freno, es necesario considerar diferentes aspectos, tales como la geometría, el tipo de material, la resistencia mecánica, la temperatura máxima, la deformación térmica, la resistencia al agrietamiento, entre otros. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el comportamiento de la temperatura, velocidad y flujo de calor en el conducto de ventilación de un freno de disco automotriz con pilares de ventilación tipo NACA 66-29 utilizando la dinámica de fluidos computacional (CFD). Metodología: The SolidWorks Simulations design software was used to analyze the behavior of the fluid (air) in terms of speed and heat dissipation capacity. Resultados: Los resultados numéricos para el flujo de calor a través de los canales de ventilación se compararon con los resultados obtenidos matemáticamente. Los resultados numéricos mostraron que los discos se desempeñaron bien bajo condiciones de operación severas (80 Km/h y una temperatura ambiente de 12°C). Es muy importante en el diseño del disco de freno seleccionar la geometría apropiada, particularmente el número y la sección transversal de los conductos, y el tipo de material. Conclusiones: Los métodos numéricos ofrecen ventajas para seleccionar la geometría y el material y para modelar el flujo de fluido para optimizar la disipación de calor para proporcionar el máximo rendimiento para componentes adecuadamente mantenidos.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
TOPOLOGICAL SUPERCONDUCTORS: A BRIEF DESCRIPTION
BARBA ORTEGA JOSE JOSE 1, RINCON JOYA MIRYAM 2, CARDENAS LEIDY JULIETA 3,
1 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 3 Universidad Nacional de Colombia,
Email: josejbarba@gmail.com
Abstract: Classifying certain phases of the matter according to its topology is a very active research field today. The topology mathematically studies the properties of objects that are invariant under soft deformations. Within these topological phases are insulators and topological superconductors. For example, an insulating material and its surrounding material have different topological invariants, which are not continuous at the border, so that their surface can not remain insulating and becomes metallic. Superconductors have an energy gap that can present non-trivial topological indices, and there are multiple mechanisms capable of linking the Cooper pair and that different mechanisms act on different superconductors of high critical temperature, giving rise to very exotic physics and constitute a current field of research with enormous scientific activity. In this work we will show some microscopic mechanisms of Cooper pairs formation in nonconventional superconductors, taking into account that the detailed study with topological superconductors is very promising.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
USEFULNESS OF DIGITAL SEGMENTATION OF IMAGES IN LUNG TRANSPLANTS
GELVEZ-ALMEIDA ELKIN 1, VERA MIGUEL 2, HUERFANO YOLEIDY 3, VERA M I 4, SALAZAR JUAN 5, VALBUENA OSCAR 6, MOLINA V 7,
1 Universidad Simón Bolívar, 2 Universidad Simón Bolívar, 3 Universidad de los Andes, 4 Universidad de los Andes, 5 Universidad Simón Bolívar, 6 Universidad de Pamplona, 7 Universidad ECCI,
Email: e.gelvez@unisimonbolivar.edu.co
Abstract: In the presence of pulmonary pathologies such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis, among others, it is common to require the removal or replacement of a portion of a lung, a whole lung or both. There are several requirements for both donors and organ receiver established in the literature, being one of the most interesting the volume that the donor's lungs occupy in the thoracic cavity. This parameter is vital because if the volume of the lungs exceeds the thoracic cavity of the organ receiver, the transplant, logically, is unfeasible for physical reasons. The present investigation proposes the creation of a hybrid technique, based on the use of digital image processing techniques to, on the one hand, raise the quality of the information related to lungs captured in three-dimensional sequences of computed tomography and, on the other, generate the morphology of the lungs, belonging to a patient. During the filtering a set of computational algorithms are applied with the purpose of addressing the noise and artifact problems that the images possess; while during the segmentation, methods based on variational processes are used to extract the lungs from the images. The values obtained for the metric that assesses the quality of the hybrid computational technique reflect its good performance.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
USE OF AN SMART OPERATOR FOR THE HUMAN LIVER AUTOMATIC SEGMENTATION, PRESENT IN MEDICAL IMAGES
VERA MIGUEL 1, SÁENZ F 2, HUÉRFANO YOLEIDY 3, GELVEZ-ALMEIDA ELKIN 4, VERA M I 5, SALAZAR JUAN 6, VALBUENA OSCAR 7, MOLINA V 8,
1 Universidad Simón Bolívar, 2 Universidad Simón Bolívar, 3 Universidad de los Andes, 4 Universidad Simón Bolívar, 5 Universidad de los Andes, 6 Universidad Simón Bolívar, 7 Universidad de Pamplona, 8 Universidad ECCI,
Email: m.avera@unisimonbolivar.edu.co
Abstract: The segmentation of the human body organ called liver is a highly challenging problem due to the low contrast exhibited by the anatomical structures located around the liver and that are present in digital images, generated by any modality of medical images. To address this problem, in the present work, an automatic computational strategy is proposed that foresees a phase of digital filtering and another phase of detection of the liver. During detection, it is considered an smart operator, based on least-squares vector support machines. The usefulness of this type of results is appreciated in clinical-surgical processes where both the shape and volume of mentioned organ are vital. The application of this strategy allows generating the morphology of the liver in a precise and efficient manner as it was demonstrated by the metrics used to assess its quality.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
USING SCATTERING THEORY TO CALCULATE THE ENERGIES OF THE GROUND STATE AND OF THE FIRST EXCITED STATES OF A LITHIUM ATOM
ALCALÁ VARILLA LUIS ARTURO 1, PÉREZ PITALUA DANIS LAI 2, ALVARINO BETTIN GUSTAVO 3,
1 Universidad de Córdoba, 2 Universidad del Sinú, 3 Universidad de Córdoba,
Email: lalcala@correo.unicordoba.edu.co
Abstract: The bound states problem of the atoms is usually solved using standard methods, among them, the variational method, the perturbations method and the Hartree Fock method. In this work the Hamiltonian of lithium atom was interpreted in a simple way in order to use the quantum theory of collisions under the focus of the Jost functions to model this atom from a collision of an ionized helium atom with an electron. Using this approach, the Jost functions were calculated and from them the energy of the ground state of lithium atom was found with an error with respect to the experimental value of 0.3% which is significantly in agreement than those reported in other theoretical works.

Topic: MSD - Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics
OBSERVATION OF SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ELECTROMAGNETIC AND ACOUSTIC EMISSIONS DURING FRACTURE PROCESSES: A STUDY ON ROCKS UNDER COMPRESSION LOADING.
CLAVIJO JORGE 1, WANG HONGQIANG 2, SÁNCHEZ SANDRA 3,
1 Escuela Colombiana de Ingeniería, 2 Institute of Geophysics. China Earthquake Administration., 3 Universidad de Nariño,
Email: jorge.clavijo@escuelaing.edu.co
Abstract: The presence of electromagnetic radiation (known as electromagnetic emissions, EME) related to loading and fracture process in different kind of materials has been widely reported. Although the precise physical mechanisms behind these emissions are still matter of discussion, it is commonly accepted that the electromagnetic disturbance is created by some of the micro cracks that appear in the sample in the process of loading and rupture.  During its growth micro-cracks generate mechanical waves (acoustic emissions, AE), therefore, it is expected that every EME should be time-coincident with some AE. Even more, it is expected that electromagnetic activity should have the same general characteristics of acoustic activity. In this work we report the existence of significant differences between EME an AE in loading processes on rocks. These differences were detected during compression of small cylindrical samples of granite (diameter 3 cm, height 6 cm approx.) compressed at a rate of around 20 kPa/s. We found two important discrepancies: i) There are at least 20 EME (out of 130) that do not coincide in time with any acoustic event. ii) The electromagnetic activity in general shows its maximum value when acoustic activity is very low. Both emission just coincide at the moment of the final collapse. These results strongly suggest the existence of non-fracture mechanisms related to the origin of EME. This could get important consequences in the field of non-destructive assessment of materials and even in the study of earthquake precursors and forecasting.

Topic: NDE - Non Destructive Evaluation
PIPELINES INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT BASED ON GUIDED WAVE BASED: OPPORTUNITIES AND PERSPECTIVES IN COLOMBIA
CORREDOR ALVAREZ ANDRES FELIPE 1, QUIROGA JABID 2, BOHORQUEZ OSCAR 3,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander , 2 universidad industrial de santander, 3 universidad industrial de santander,
Email: andresfcoal@gmail.com
Abstract: Right now, guided waves technique has been extensively utilized as a Non-Destructive Technique (NDT) to assess the integrity of several specimens such as pipes and tanks in the oil-gas industries and wings in the aerospatial industry. Guided wave techniques allow the inspection by using a single probe position of hidden structures, structures under water, coated structures, structures running under soil, and structures encapsulated in insulation and concrete to find tiny discontinuities over large distances keeping high sensitivity to defects. So, guided wave inspection is a beneficial technique to monitor long pipelines installations under adverse conditions as explained above. However, there are few financial and research works on the implementation of this technique for pipelines integrity evaluation in Colombia. In this work, it is described the technique, required equipment, types of analysis and finally, some challenges, opportunities, and perspectives of the use of guided waves are provided as an NDT technique in Colombia.

Topic: NDE - Non Destructive Evaluation
PROTOTYPES OF MECHANO-LUMINESCENT SENSORS FROM STRONTIUM ALUMINATES AND COMMERCIAL POLYMER RESINS WITH STRUCTURAL STEEL SUBSTRATE.
PAREDES ROA RICARDO ALFONSO 1, PEÑA RODRIGUEZ GABRIEL 2, PINEDA TRIANA YANETH 3, CASTRO SILVA HUGO FERNANDO 4,
1 UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGÓGICA Y TECNOLÓGICA DE COLOMBIA , 2 universidad Francisco de Paula Santander , 3 UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGÓGICA Y TECNOLÓGICA DE COLOMBIA , 4 UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGÓGICA Y TECNOLÓGICA DE COLOMBIA ,
Email: ricardo.paredes@uptc.edu.co
Abstract: The study of photo-luminescent and mechano-luminescent materials has had great significance in recent years since Xu in 1999 used ZnS doped with Mn as a light-emitting core material. Strontium aluminates doped with rare earths were reported by Matsuzawa in 1996 and since then became persistent luminescence powders with better yields. Prototypes of common polymer resin and crystal type reinforced with commercial strontium aluminate at 15% and 30% content by weight respectively were elaborated. These compounds were deposited by deep coating on structural steel substrate. The strontium aluminate powders were morphologically characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), the chemical and structural characterization was carried out with X-ray energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS), x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, with which some dopings and the crystalline structure of the strontium aluminate were detected. The vibrational states of the europium and dysprosium were detected with raman spectroscopy and the resins were characterized with Fourier transform infrared transmission spectroscopy (FTIR). Light emission and colour variations produced by light excitation were measured with a mobile colourimeter app for colour systems (RGB) and a luxmeter for light intensity. Tension mechanoluminescence tests were performed, measuring color and light intensity variations in the same way. Mechanical-luminescence and photo-luminescence emission comparisons were made.

Topic: NDE - Non Destructive Evaluation
AB-INITIO STUDY OF FERROMAGNETIC BEHAVIOR OF TI-DOPED ALN AND GAN IN THE ZINCBLENDE STRUCTURE
ESPITIA RICO MIGUEL JOSÉ 1, ORTEGA LÓPEZ CÉSAR 2, SÁNCHEZ P. LUIS C. 3,
1 Gurpo GEFEM. Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, 2 Grupo Avanzado de Materiales y Sistemas Complejos GAMASCO. Universidad de Córdoba, 3 Grupo Avanzado de Materiales y Sistemas Complejos GAMASCO. Universidad de Córdoba,
Email: mjespitiar@gmail.com
Abstract: In this work we report the result of study on AlN and GaN in the zincblende structure doped with Ti, the calculations were performed making use of pseudopotential method within density functional theory and employing computational Quantum ESPRESO package. for study the magnetic behavior of Al0.9375Ti0.0625N and Ga0.9375Ti0.0625N compounds in zincblende phase we calculated the total and partial density of states (DOS). The DOS show that the two compounds have a ferromagnetic behavior, being the Al0.9375Ti0.0625N metallic with a magnetic moment of 0.85 µβ/cell, while the Ga0.9375Ti0.0625N is half-metallic with a magnetic moment of 1.0 µβ/cell. The magnetic properties come from of the hybridization between 3d-Ti and 2p-N orbitals. Being of main contribution of 3d-Ti states. Due to magnetic behavior of Ga0.9375Ti0.0625N, this compound is a good candidate for potential applications in diluted magnetic semiconductor, in spintronic and as spin injectors

Topic: NM - New Materials
ADSORBENT MATERIALS OBTAINED FROM PALM INDUSTRY WASTE FOR DYES REMOVAL FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
RAMIREZ MUÑOZ ANYI PAOLA 1, GIRALDO ARDILA STEPHANIE 2, FLOREZ YEPES ELIZABETH 3, ACELAS SOTO NANCY 4,
1 Universidad de Medellín, 2 Universidad de Medellín, 3 Universidad de Medellín, 4 Universidad de Medellín,
Email: anyipao0804@hotmail.com
Abstract: Continuous discharges of dyes from different industrial sectors (textiles, paper, plastic, wood and food) have generated contamination in water bodies which is the main cause of the micro-toxicity in aquatic ecosystems. This effect slow down the auto-purification of water currents by reducing the light penetration. Due to above mentioned, it is necessary to look for efficient procedures for dyes removal from wastewater. Currently, adsorption is considered one of the most promising techniques in contaminant removal. It is a cost-effective and easy to operate in wastewater treatment plants, and renewable and economical adsorbents can be used. Most materials are being obtained from agroindustrial waste to produce biochar or activated carbons. In Colombian palm industry, an estimated of 400 t/year of tussa and between 200-300 t/year of cuesco is generated. This is problematic, since a large amount of waste is obtained, which does not have any type of exploitation. In the present study, the production of adsorbent materials from oil palm residues (tussa and cuesco) by chemical activation and, its potential use to dyes removal from aqueous solutions was investigated. The results showed percentages of removal greater than 60% for the studied dye. The adsorbent materials were characterize by SEM, TGA and, BET analysis. It was found that these materials have areas of 14.82 and 310.89 m² / g. FTIR analysis showed the formation of functional groups such as OH (alcohols and carboxylic acids), aromatic rings, COC (ethers) and NH (amines), which are important groups for adsorption of dyes.

Topic: NM - New Materials
ADSORPTION OF AS, CR, CU AND MN ATOMS ON THE G-ZNO / GRAPHENE INTERFACE
BERRIO CORDERO GUSTAVO ADOLFO 1, ORTEGA LOPEZ CESAR 2, MURILLO GARCIA JEAN FRED 3,
1 Universidad de Córdoba, 2 Universidad de Córdoba, 3 Universidad de Córdoba,
Email: gberrioc@gmail.com
Abstract: In this work, we make a study of the adsorption of As, Cr, Cu and Mn atoms on the interface g-ZnO 2x2 / graphene √7 x√7. The calculations are carry out, using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (GGA-PBE) with ultrasoft pseudopotentials and a plane waves base as implemented in the Quantum-ESPRESSO package. The interface is modeled using the supercell or periodic slab scheme, for which we use a monolayer of g-ZnO 2x2 coupled to a monolayer of graphene √7 x√7 with a mismatch between the lattice constants of less than 1%. To avoid the interaction between repeating unit cells a vacuum space of 20 Ǻ thickness is maintained. To study the adsorption of the atoms of As, Cr, Cu and Mn on the interface, some special or high symmetry sites are chosen: over an O atom located at the origin with a C atom just below of it (TO-site), over a Zn atom with a C atom just below of it (TZn-site) and on the common center of a hexagon of g-ZnO and a hexagon of graphene ( H-site). We found that the most favorable sites for the adsorption of the As, Cr and Cu atoms on the interface correspond to the atom adsorbed just above the TO-site (with adsorption energies -2.023266365 eV, -0.866696178 eV, -1.277318322 eV, respectively); while, for the Mn atom, the most favorable site is just above the TZn-site (with adsorption energy -1.340103177 eV). From the DOS and the band structure, it is established that the clean interface presents a metallic and non-magnetic behavior. By absorbing the atoms of As, Cr, Cu and Mn, at the most favorable energy sites, the interface acquires a magnetic behavior with total magnetic moment values of 1.03 μo Bohr / cell, 5.22 μo Bohr / cell, 0.81 μo Bohr / cell and 5.48 μo Bohr / cell, respectively. Finally, the charge transfers of the M / g-ZnO2x2 / graphene √7 x√7 systems (with M = As, Cr, Cu and Mn) are studied for the most favorable energy configurations, in each of the cases considered

Topic: NM - New Materials
ADSORPTION OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY ON THE INTERFACE T-MNO2/GRAPHENE
MORINSON NEGRETE JUAN DAVID 1, ORTEGA LÓPEZ CESAR 2, MURILLO GARCÍA JEAN FRED 3,
1 Universidad de Córdoba and Institución Educativa José María Córdoba, 2 Universidad de Córdoba, 3 Universidad de Córdoba,
Email: jdmorinson1984@hotmail.com
Abstract: In this work, the adsorption elemental mercury on T-MnO2/Graphene were studied. The calculations are made within the framework of the density functional theory (DFT), using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) in the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) parameterization, implemented in the Quantum ESPRESSO computational package. The interface is modeled using the supercell or periodic slab scheme, for which we use a monolayer √3×√3T-MnO2 coupled to a monolayer 2×2 graphene with a mismatch between lattice parameters of 1.18 %. To guarantee the periodicity of the system, a vacuum region of 26 Å is used. To study the adsorption of elemental mercury on the interface, some special or high symmetry sites are chosen: on top of an O atom of the upper plane (point A), on top of an Mn atom of the middle plane (point B), above of an atom of O from the lower plane (point C) and above an atom of Mn from the middle plane of the monolayer of T.MnO2, which is just above a carbon atom (Point D) of the graphene monolayer. We found that the most favorable energetic site, for the interface √3 × √3T-MnO2 / graphene 2x2, corresponds to an Hg atom adsorbed just above point C with an adsorption energy of -46.66 kJ / mol. From the DOS and band structure, it is established that the interface presents a semimetallic and magnetic behavior, with a total magnetization of 8.88 μo Bohr / cell, mainly due to the hybridization of the p-O and d-Mn orbitals. Finally, the charge transfer of the Hg-√3 × √3T-MnO2 / 2x2Grafeno system is studied.

Topic: NM - New Materials
A REVIEW ABOUT OF THE USE OF THERMALLY EXPANDED CLAY IN LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE MIXTURES.
PALACIOS PABÓN JOSÉ DANIEL 1, CÁCERES RUBIO JOSÉ RAFAEL 2, ROJAS SUAREZ JHAN PIERO 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander,
Email: palacios.daniel_8@hotmail.com
Abstract: This article provides a review about the use of thermally expanded clay in the production of low density concrete. The bibliographic search was used as a methodology through the consultation of specialized databases such as Web of Science, ScienceDirect® and other documentary sources of open access scientific journals in other countries. Although there is variety in the lightweight aggregates used to lower the density of the concrete, the search was limited specifically to the use of aggregates from thermally expanded clay. In conclusion, the analysis of the mechanical behavior of low density concrete mixtures with lightweight thermally expanded clay aggregates, produced from raw materials from the metropolitan area of Cúcuta, is proposed as a research topic.

Topic: NM - New Materials
BIOPLASTIC FROM STARCH EXTRACTED FROM BANANA SHELLS AND AQUATIC PLANTS OF LAKE TOTA
PAREDES ROA RICARDO ALFONSO 1, ABRIL OCHOA INGRID VANESSA 2, FARFÁN BENAVIDEZ HARIANA ISABEL 3, CASTRO SILVA HUGO FERNANDO 4,
1 UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGÓGICA Y TECNOLÓGICA DE COLOMBIA , 2 UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGÓGICA Y TECNOLÓGICA DE COLOMBIA , 3 UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGÓGICA Y TECNOLÓGICA DE COLOMBIA , 4 UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGÓGICA Y TECNOLÓGICA DE COLOMBIA ,
Email: ricardo.paredes@uptc.edu.co
Abstract: Due to the components contained in fertilizers used in the crops adjacent to the Tota lake, the endemic growth of aquatic plants has been unleashed, reducing the extension of the lake body, which generates decomposition, causing deterioration in the quality of water for human consumption, intoxication of species and affecting the ecological balance. Biopolymers are a sustainable alternative to the use of hydrocarbon-based plastics, which generate a negative environmental impact, generating a shortage of energy resources and polluting the atmosphere due to the carbon footprint. Species found in this environment were used, which have starch contents that will be extracted. This carbohydrate can be used in the manufacture of biodegradable polymers. It is known that films made from pure starch present conditions regarding mechanical resistance, high rigidity and fragility. Therefore, an experimental design was made to test combinations with a banana starch base and reinforcement of the aquatic plant, adding urea and glycerin as plasticizers to avoid the disadvantages indicated, through the acetylation polymerization process in order to conform specimens to perform flexure tests under the NTC 595 standard (test method to determine the properties of tension in plastics) and hardness. Finally, characterization tests were performed on the resulting bioplastic using FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry in order to verify this alternative use of the biopolymer obtained.

Topic: NM - New Materials
BLAST FURNACE DUST: AN ALTERNATIVE FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF GRANULAR MATERIALS FOR PAVEMENTS.
OCHOA DÍAZ RICARDO 1, ROMERO FARFÁN MIGUEL ÁNGEL 2,
1 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 2 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia,
Email: ricardo.ochoa@uptc.edu.co
Abstract: . The boom in the construction of large engineering works has boosted the demand for materials such as steel and natural aggregates, which has generated an increase in the exploitation of materials and the generation of iron and steel waste, a situation that causes double environmental impact. to the accumulation of these residues and the indiscriminate exploitation of non-renewable natural resources. This work was developed with the objective of analyzing the possibility of using blast furnace dust (BFD) to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the granular materials used in road construction as an alternative to mitigate the environmental problems described above. To achieve the objective, the physical and chemical properties of blast furnace dust were determined and mixtures of granular subbase type material with different percentages of BFD, determined resistance properties and susceptibility to degradation damage in the presence of water were analyzed. The results of this study indicate that it is feasible to use BFD as a material to improve the properties of natural aggregates for use in road construction.

Topic: NM - New Materials
BLAST FURNACE DUST AS A NEW MATERIAL FOR PAVEMENTS
ROMERO FARFÁN MIGUEL ÁNGEL 1, OCHOA DÍAZ RICARDO 2,
1 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, UPTC, 2 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, UPTC,
Email: miguel.romero@uptc.edu.co
Abstract: The objective of this work is to analyze the behavior of an asphalt mix using blast furnace dust as a fine aggregate, portland hydraulic cement as a mineral filler and asphalt binder 60-70 in a dense hot mix type MDC-19, for use in pavements, according to the General Road Construction Specifications INVIAS-2013, with the use of the RAMCODES methodology for its design Thus, the mechanical properties of the materials to be used in three asphalt mixtures were evaluated: mixture 1 (M1), manufactured with conventional stone aggregates (gravel, sand), mineral filler and asphalt, used as a reference to study the behavior of the modified mixtures with non-conventional aggregates; mixture 2 (M2), composed of 50% of conventional aggregates and 50% by blast furnace dust as fine aggregate, and mixture 3 (M3), composed 100% by blast furnace dust as fine aggregate. The RAMCODES methodology was used, with which the preliminary design was made for each of the mixtures, then the specimens were elaborated to continue with the verification of the design of each of them. Laboratory tests were carried out, such as resistance to plastic deformation, adhesion, resilient modules and fatigue laws, in order to determine the physical and mechanical behavior of each mixture. Likewise, to know the behavior of the mixtures manufactured with non-conventional aggregate in their gradation, during the time, tests were carried out to determine the variability of stability and flow in the mixtures at different curing times According to the analyzed parameters, it was observed that in the tests of resilient modulus, resistance to rutting, stability and flow, mixture 2 (M2) had better behavior with respect to mixture 1 (M1), in spite of decreasing its value in terms of adhesion, so the blast furnace dust can be used in the manufacture of asphalt mixtures for pavements.

Topic: NM - New Materials
COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF THE STRUCTURAL, ELECTRONIC AND THERMOPHYSIC PROPERTIES OF THE DY2BI2FE4O12 DOUBLE PEROVSKITE
DELUQUE TORO CRISPULO ENRIQUE 1, GARRIDO LUIS C 2, DÍAZ IDANIS 3, LANDÍNEZ TÉLLEZ DAVID L. 4, ROA ROJAS JAIRO 5,
1 Grupo de Nuevos Materiales, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad del Magdalena, Santa Marta, Colombia, 2 Grupo de Nuevos Materiales, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad del Magdalena, Santa Marta, Colombia, 3 Grupo de Investigación y Desarrollo en Sistemas y Computación, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad del Magdalena, Santa Marta, Colombia, 4 Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, DC AA 5997, Colombia, 5 Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, DC AA 5997, Colombia,
Email: deluquetoro@gmail.com
Abstract: Perovskite-like structure materials have been widely studied because the changes in their composition allow obtaining new behaviors and structural, chemical and physical properties that open new fields of technological application in electrochemical, magnetoelectric and spintronic devices. In the present work, we will show a detailed study of the structural, electronic, thermodynamic properties of the perovskite Dy2Bi2Fe4O12 oxide compound. Ab-initio calculations were carried within the formalism of the Functional Density Theory (DFT) and the Flat and Pseudopotential Wave (VASP) method. The exchange-correlation part will be described using the Generalized Gradient Approach (GGA and GGA+U). Different magnetic configurations were explored in order to describe the fundamental state of both electronic and magnetic structures. The dependence of the pressure and temperature of the specific heat, the coefficient of thermal expansion, the Debye temperature and the Grüneisen as parameter a function of temperature and pressure were calculated by means of DFT from the state equation using the quasi-harmonic model of Debye. The theoretical results obtained are comparable with experimental values obtained from the literature. This work was partially supported by the Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia y Tecnología Francisco José de Caldas – COLCIENCIAS, on the project CD 80740-243-2019; y de la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad del Magdalena.

Topic: NM - New Materials
DEVELOPMENT OF NANOMATERIALS FOR AGRIBUSINESS APPLICATIONS
PARIS ELAINE CRISTINA 1,
1 Embrapa Instrumentação,
Email: elaine.paris@embrapa.br
Abstract: Nanocomposites have been molded for a variety of applications in agribusiness, aimed at improving agricultural productivity, animal health, and the environmental remediation, in order to minimize costs and ecological impact. Biopolymers matrixes in films and fibers forms reinforced with different nanoparticles can promote better soil fertility with a prolonged nutrient release control, minimizing fertilizer application, reducing leach losses and contributing to the least environmental contamination. In the livestock sector, membranes systems have been developed to act as drug delivery bandages, being a noninvasive method and promoting the effectiveness of the applied dosage. Nanocomposites can act as agents for contaminants remediation and detection in the water reserves and atmosphere, being the immobilized nanostructures in polymer or ceramic supports a way to improve the performance, support the recovery and reuse of these systems. In this way, nanocomposite materials applied in the agribusiness sector can be considerate important agents for improving the production and reducing environmental impacts.

Topic: NM - New Materials
ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, STRUCTURAL, MAGNETIC AND FERROELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF THE BI2EU2FE4O12 BIFERROIC PEROVSKITE
DELUQUE TORO CRISPULO ENRIQUE 1, GIL REBAZA ARLES V. 2, LANDÍNEZ TÉLLEZ DAVID A. 3, CUERVO FARFÁN JAVIER A. 4, ROA ROJAS JAIRO 5,
1 Grupo de Nuevos Materiales, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad del Magdalena, Santa Marta, Colombia, 2 Instituto de Física La Plata (IFLP), CONICET CCT La Plata, Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), 1900 La Plata, Argentina., 3 Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, DC, Colombia, 4 Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, DC, Colombia, 5 Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, DC, Colombia,
Email: deluquetoro@gmail.com
Abstract: In the last years, the interest for the study of magnetic and ferroelectric properties of the new perovskite-like oxides have been very exhaustive due to the results related to the exotic behaviors of their magnetic response, such as half-metallicity and multiferroicity, properties that they favor the perspectives of technological applicability in the industry of spintronics and magnetic storage. In the present work, we will show a detailed study of the structural, electronic, ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the Bi2Eu2Fe4O12 complex perovskite material. Electronic structure is analyzed from ab initio calculations following formalism of the Functional Density Theory (DFT) and the Pseudopotential Plane Wave method (Quantum Espresso). The exchange and correlation part is described by using the Generalized Gradient Approach (GGA and GGA+U). Different magnetic configurations are explored in order to describe the fundamental state, both structural and magnetic. The ferroelectricity is studied by determining the ferroelectric polarization, and will be based on the calculations of the Berry phase. The theoretical results are comparable with the experimental values of the literature. This work was partially supported by the Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia y Tecnología Francisco José de Caldas – COLCIENCIAS, on the project CD 110180862940.

Topic: NM - New Materials
ENERGETIC STABILITY, ELECTRONIC AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF THE ALLOYS NB1-XCRXN
ORTEGA LÓPEZ CÉSAR 1, MURILLO G JEAN F 2, ESPITIA R. MIGUEL J. 3,
1 Universidad de Córdoba, 2 Universidad de Córdoba, 3 Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas,
Email: cesarorlo@gmail.com
Abstract: Computational calculations based on density functional theory were used to study the energetic stability, structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the Nb0,50Cr0.50N, Nb0,75Cr0.25N, and Nb0.875Cr0.125N in the NiAs structure. The calculations were carried out by means of the pseudopotential method, employing computational Quantum ESPRESSO package. We found large deviation from the red constants of the alloys in relation to Vegard's law. The formation and cohesion energy calculation show that most stable compound is Nb0.875Cr0.125N with values of -1.34 eV and -7.78 eV, respectively. In addition, the density states reveal that three alloys have a metallic magnetic behavior, with a total magnetic moment of 3.24 µβ/cell, 2.98 µβ/cell, and 2.95 µβ/cell, respectively. These electronic and magnetic character is mainly dominated by 3d- Cr orbital with a minor contribution of 2p-N orbitals

Topic: NM - New Materials
ESTIMATION OF INJECTION PARAMETERS OF A BIO-BASED COMPOSITE MATERIAL FROM THE RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION
FAJARDO JORGE ISAAC 1, PALTÁN CÉSAR 2, LÓPEZ LUIS MARCELO 3,
1 Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, 2 Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, 3 Universidad Politécnica Salesiana,
Email: jfajardo@ups.edu.ec
Abstract: In this research work an analysis of the injection molding process of a natural fiber reinforced composite was carried out, from the characterization of its rheological properties. Two of the main parameters of injection molding were estimated: the injection pressure and the clamping force. The rheological coefficients obtained by capillary rheometry according to ASTM D3835-16 standard were used as inputs in analytical and finite element models (FEM) for the prediction of the injection parameters of specimens ASTM D6318-14 obtained according to ATSM D3641-12. The results were compared, it was observed there is good agreement between them. The percentage errors between two estimation methods were less than 5% for the injection pressure and less than 10% for the clamping force. In addition, the behavior of the material using different natural reinforcing contents (compositions of 20%, 30% and 40% fiber with a coupling agent at 4% and 8%) and the effect of its rheological properties on both the injection pressure and clamping force were evaluated. The study is of particular interest given that from the rheological characterization, the experimental values were adjusted to the Cross-WLF viscosity model and the adjustment coefficients, which contain both the reinforcing and coupling agent effects, were fed into the two methods of estimation of the injection parameters. The methodology used and the results obtained allow the prediction of the main parameters of injection molding of new bio-based composites, facilitating their use on an industrial scale.

Topic: NM - New Materials
FABRICATION, CHARACTERIZATION, TESTING AND MODELLING OF NEW ADVANCED MATERIALS FOR INERTIAL FUSION REACTORS
GONZÁLEZ ARRABAL RAQUEL 1, RIVERA A 2, PEÑA-RODRIGUEZ O 3, PANIZO-LAIZ M 4, DIAZ-RODRIGUEZ P 5, PERLADO J M 6,
1 Universidad Politécnica de Madrid , 2 Universidad Politécnica de Madrid , 3 Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 4 Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 5 Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 6 Universidad Politécnica de Madrid,
Email: raquel.gonzalez.arrabal@upm.es
Abstract: The satisfaction of the growing energy demand worldwide needs pioneering solutions that allow an adequate energy supply taking into account environmental considerations. In this context, fusion energy could become a real alternative to fossil fuel, with the pluses of being maintainable and environmentally friendly. Currently, two main approaches for nuclear fusion energy production are being studied: magnetic confinement (MC) and inertial confinement (IC). The largest project for MC studies is the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). Concerning IC, the largest projects are the laser fusion engine (LIFE) in the USA and the high-power laser energy research (HiPER) in the EU. However, one of the main problems for nuclear fusion to become a reality is the lack of materials able to withstand the harsh conditions (large thermal loads and radiation environments) taken place in nuclear fusion reactors. In this talk we are going to show the ongoing activities that the instituto de fusion nuclear “Guillermo Velarde” is carrying out to contribute to predicting, to understand and to solve some of the bottlenecks for fusion to become a reality. First, we are going to analyze the capabilities and limitations of currently proposed materials to be located at the first wall and final lenses in HiPER. Then, we are going to show the activities in the fabrication, characterization, and testing of more radiation resistant materials. Finally, we are going to focus on reactor technology, presenting a novel conceptual design for the HiPER final lenses. Therefore, a large part of the research for the impulse of these reactors is oriented to the development of more resistant materials.

Topic: NM - New Materials
FERRIMAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC FEATURES OF THE ND2.68SR1.32MN1.2TI1.32FE1.48O12 ORTHORHOMBIC MATERIAL
CUERVO-FARFÁN JAVIER A. 1, BENAVIDES LARA JULIANA P. 2, CARDONA VASQUEZ JORGE A. 3, PARRA VARGAS CARLOS A. 4, SUPELANO G. IVÁN 5, LANDÍNEZ TÉLLEZ DAVID A. 6, ROA-ROJAS JAIRO 7,
1 Universidad Nacional de Colombia-Bogotá, 2 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 3 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 4 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 5 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 6 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 7 Universidad Nacional de Colombia,
Email: javieracuervof@gmail.com
Abstract: Physical properties of perovskite-like ceramics are particularly sensible to inhomogeneities like distortions from the ideal cubic structure of the ABO3 formula, as well as vacancies and chemical substitutions. The inclusion of several cations in the A and B crystallographic sites of the ideal perovskite gives rise to a group of ceramics known as complex perovskites, in which it is possible to generate diverse physical properties, depending on the constituent elements of the material. This is the case of the group identified by the A4-xA’xB4-y-zB’yB’’zO12 generic formula, where sites A and B are partially replaced. In this work, structural, morphological, compositional, magnetic and electric characterization of Nd2.68Sr1.32Mn1.2Ti1.32Fe1.48O12 compound is reported. Material was synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction experiments following the Bragg-Brentano configuration were carried out from 10o to 90o 2 angle. Rietveld refinement of the experimental pattern was performed by means the GSAS code with the EXPGUI interface. The analysis revealed that this material crystallizes in an orthorhombic structure (Pnma #62, Space group), with atomic distribution belonging to the perovskite type family. The obtained lattice parameters were a = 5.5007 Å, b = 7.7735 Å and c = 5.5059 Å. The surface morphologic study was carried out through images obtained from a VEGA3 TESCAN scanning electron microscope, which showed the formation of polycrystalline material, where grains are strongly coupled, adopting the shape of polyhedrons with round edges, which have 1.50 μm mean size. Compositional characterization through the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy technique suggests that there are no other elements in the material besides the expected Nd, Sr, Mn, Ti, Fe and O, which are present in percentage proportions very close to the expected values from the stoichiometry of the material. The dielectric results indicated a non-linear behavior in the relative dielectric constant as a function of frequency, with a maximum obtained value εr=879.56 for f=100 Hz. Characteristics I-V curves exhibit hysteretic features which are typical of the thermistor-like materials. Magnetic susceptibility measurements as a function of temperature evidenced a ferrimagnetic response, with Néel temperature expected for TN<50 K, that has place due to the presence of Fe+3 cations in the B site of the A4-xA’xB4-y-zB’yB’’zO12 generic structure. Hysteretic curves of magnetization as a function of applied fields at T=50 K, 200 K and 300 K corroborated the occurrence of magnetic ordering of the ferrimagnetic type. These results suggest the possible applicability of this magnetodielectric thermistor in devices for storage of information in magnetic media with thermal self-control. This work was partially supported by the Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia y Tecnología Francisco José de Caldas – COLCIENCIAS, on the Contract FP80740-243-2019.

Topic: NM - New Materials
FIRST-PRINCIPLES STUDY OF THE STRUCTURAL AND ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF Y1-XINXN ALLOY
ABDEL RAHIM G. GLADYS PATRICIA 1, RODRÍGUEZ MARTÍNEZ JAIRO ARBEY 2, MORENO ARMENTA MARÍA GUADALUPE 3, JOSÉ ESPITIA RICO MIGUEL 4,
1 Universidad Distrital Francisco Jose de Caldas , 2 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 3 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 4 Universidad Distrital Francisco Jose de Caldas ,
Email: ggabdelr@unal.edu.co
Abstract: In the last year, the new experimental technology has been presented to the development of new materiality which presents synchronize electronic and optical properties. In this context, the YInN alloy is a possible attractive material because it is formed by two materials: InN and YN. These materials have an opposite behavior is a function of pressure: increasing the pressure on InN crystals, rise it is an electronic gap, however, the gap of YN is reduced. It would be expected that for certain concentration the gap stays constant with the pressure giving a great advantage for the devices based on YInN when they work under high variables pressures. In this work, we present a detailed study of Y1-xInxN about structural and electronic properties in the NaCl, CsCl, NiAs, ZnS and WZ phases. The calculations were carried out in the density functional theory framework. We have used the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method, as is implemented in the WIEN 97 code. The exchange and correlation effects are treated using the generalized gradient into approximation. The Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof method. We have calculated the lattice parameter, bulk modulus, volume of the unitary cell and cohesive energies, at zero pressure and T=0K and band structure, to each phase. We studied, from the function of enthalpy versus pressure applied, a possible transition between phases and we present, the band structure at one point before phase transition and in one point after the transition.

Topic: NM - New Materials
HEXAGONAL ALN MONOLAYER WITH VACANCIES: A FIRST PRINCIPLE STUDY
MURILLO GARCÍA JEAN FRED 1, ORTEGA LÓPEZ CÉSAR 2, ESPITÍA RICO MIGUEL 3,
1 Universidad de Córdoba, 2 Universidad de Córdoba, 3 Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas,
Email: juanfmg1973@gmail.com
Abstract: In this work, a study of vacancies of aluminum and nitrogen atoms in a monolayer of graphene-type hexagonal aluminum nitride (g-AlN) is made. The calculations are made within the framework of the density functional theory (DFT), using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) in the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) parameterization, implemented in the Quantum ESPRESSO computational package. The monolayer is modeled using the supercell or periodic slab scheme, for which we use a monolayer of AlN 3x3 hexagonal pristine, which contains 18 atoms. The vacuum used was 20 A and the cutting energy was 60 Ry. The results show that the vacancies do not significantly affect the hexagonal structure of the AlN monolayer, there is only a small deviation in the xy plane. From the analysis of the density of states, of the g-AlN monolayer with vacancies of Al and N, a shift is observed at the Fermi level, which causes a metallic behavior in the material, while the pristine AlN monolayer presents a semiconductor behavior. In addition, the aluminum vacancy induces a total magnetization of 3.03 Bohr mag / cell, while the total magnetization of the Nitrogen vacancy is 1.05 Bohr mag / cell, so in both cases the material showed a magnetic behavior. Finally, the formation energies were calculated for both vacancies, being Eform (Al) = - 3.08194311 Ry and Eform (N) = 4.015560738 Ry.

Topic: NM - New Materials
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE INFLUENCE ON THE ELECTRONIC BEHAVIOR OF 1X1-GAN/MNN MULTILAYER
ESPITIA RICO MIGUEL JOSÉ 1, DÍAZ FORERO JOHN H 2, SALCEDO PARRA OCTAVIO 3,
1 Gurpo GEFEM. Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, 2 Grupo GEFEM, Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, 3 Grupo GEFEM, Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas,
Email: mjespitiar@gmail.com
Abstract: In this work, computational calculations were performed to investigate the hydrostatic pressure effects on the electronic and magnetic properties of 1x1-GaN/MnN multilayer in the wurtzite phase. The wien2K code was used for carry out the calculations, employing the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method within the density functional theory. We found that the hydrostatic pressure affects the electronic and magnetic properties of multilayer because, when the pressure decreases the magnetic moment change from 0 to 2.85 µB at a transition pressure PT ~ 24.45 GPa (or a lattice constant of a = 3.156 Å). The value of the magnetic moment increases until reach a constant value of 4.0 µB when the pressure decreases towards its equilibrium value (P = 0). Additionally, the density states study shows that for equilibrium pressure the multilayer have a half-metallic behavior, but for a pressure greater than the transition pressure (P > PT) the electronic character of the 1x1-GaN/MnN change, because the allow acquire the metallic ferromagnetic behavior

Topic: NM - New Materials
INFLUENCE OF FE3+ DOPANT ON THE STRUCTURE AND MICROSTRUCTURE PROPERTIES OF POTASSIUM SODIUM NIOBATE
SÁNCHEZ SANTIAGO 1, LONDOÑO FERNANDO 2, BARRERO CESAR 3, ECHAVARRIA ADRIANA 4, AMAYA ZABALA SEBASTIAN 5,
1 Universidad de Antioquia, 2 Universidad de Antioquia, 3 Universidad de Antioquia, 4 Universidad de Antioquia, 5 Universidad de Antioquia,
Email: santiago.sanchez9@udea.edu.co
Abstract: Piezoelectrics are materials that can create electricity when subjected to mechanical stress. These piezoelectric materials are very important in engineering application and industry. Lead-based materials are the most used owing to its high piezoelectric capacity. However, lead and its compounds are generally toxic. Sodium potassium niobate, a lead-free system, in addition of its ferroelectric, piezoelectric an electromechanical properties, it can be modified with impurities by a doping process to improve its properties and to promotes others new properties. Solid state reaction is the conventional method to obtain sodium potassium niobate, however, this method has a lot of problems due to the very high calcination and densification temperatures, as well larges times of reaction, resulting in an inhomogeneous composition and secondary phases problems of the final material by volatilization of alkaline metals at highs temperatures. The use of dopant agents to sodium potassium niobate systems, it improves densification. An improve in piezoelectric coefficient has been found in Er and Eu doped systems. The goal of this work is the study of Fe+3 in the structural and microstructural properties of sodium potassium niobate. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry prove were realized and be found a crystalline phase stabilization and homogeneous particle size distribution at a determined calcination temperature of the doped Sodium potassium niobate system.

Topic: NM - New Materials
INFLUENCE OF IRON SLAG AND NANOSILICA PARTICLES IN SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE MIXTURES
RUIZ SERGIO 1, ZAPATA LUIS 2, MANTILLA MARIA 3, VILLAMIZAR JHON 4,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: sergio.ruiz1@correo.uis.edu.co
Abstract: A study of the mechanical behavior of self-compacting concrete mixtures under sand replacement (as fine aggregate) by iron slag (residue from industrial machining) from 0.0% to 50.0% of weight, variations of water/cementitious material ratio between 0.3 and 0.5 and nano SiO2 incorporation between 0.0% and 2.0% by weight of cementitious materials is presented. Fresh state tests of slump flow were performed, and the main rheological parameters: static yield stress and plastic viscosity were determined from a rheometer. For the hardened state, compressive strength tests were performed. The study of these variables was developed based on a statistical methodology of central composite design from axial points based on a 2k factorial with central points, besides a posterior ANOVA analysis of variance and Tukey’s multiple comparisons tests. Optimization using response surface methodology was performed on 7 days compressive strength results besides the determination of nano SiO2 effect on the optimization results. Among the most relevant results regarding the presence of iron slag, an increase in the early age compressive strength was found, with the optimized mixture strength being more than 100% higher than mixtures without iron slag at 7 days of curing. Regarding the effect of the addition of nano SiO2 to the mixtures, an increase of the rheological parameters and a reduction of the workability were the most remarkable findings. With the obtained results, iron slag proves to be a feasible sand replacement in self-compacting concrete mixtures.

Topic: NM - New Materials
INFLUENCE OF POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE ACTIVATION OF GRAPHENE OXIDE ON ELECTROCHEMICAL PERFORMANCE OF ELECTRODES FOR SUPERCAPACITORS
QUINTERO MARTÍNEZ YEIXON 1, ZAPATA ZULAMITA 2, HERRERA SARA N. 3, ARANGO DANIEL I. 4, BLANCO PATRICIA 5, CRUZ LUIS 6,
1 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana , 2 Grupo de Energía y Termodinámica, Facultad de Ingeniería Química. Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 3 Grupo de Investigación sobre Nuevos Materiales, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 4 Grupo de Investigación sobre Nuevos Materiales, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 5 Departamento de Química de Materiales, Área de Materiales Compuestos Instituto Nacional del Carbón, 6 Grupo de Investigación sobre Nuevos Materiales, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana,
Email: yeixon.quintero@upb.edu.co
Abstract: The influence of chemical activation of graphene oxides using potassium hydroxide as an activating agent, on the electrochemical performance of electrodes for supercapacitors, was evaluated. The impregnation ratio and activation temperature were considered as the process variables, while the heating rate was set up to 10 °C/min. Graphene oxides were obtained by oxidation of synthetic graphite through the modified Hummers method. Results showed that the higher the impregnation ratio for each temperature level, the higher the values for specific surface area, micropore percentage and gravimetric capacities obtained by Spectroscopy Impedance Electrochemical of activated materials. From these magnitudes, the electrochemical performance was not significantly influenced by specific surface area and micropore percentage. It is concluded that the highest interstitial capacities, around 30.43 μF/cm2 and 17.16 μF/cm2, were due to additions of functional groups, remaining after oxidation and activation-reduction in the material, which foster charge accumulation and, therefore, energy storage.

Topic: NM - New Materials
LOCALIZATION OF CHARGE IN MONOLAYER GRAPHENE : EFFECTS OF VACANCIES, SUBLATTICE POLARIZATION AND DISORDER
ESPITIA MANTILLA JUAN SEBASTIAN 1, PAEZ GONZALEZ CARLOS JOSE 2, GUTIERREZ NIÑO WILLIAM 3,
1 Univesidad insdutrial de Santander - UIS, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS),
Email: juanes.017@hotmail.com
Abstract: We investigate the effects of vacancies, disorder and sublattice polarization on the density of states of a graphene single-layer sheet in the quantum Hall regime. Here we use a tight-binding approach to investigate the localization properties of quantum Hall edge states of graphene flakes with sharp edges. In order to identify which wave function is concentrated in the edges, or distributed in the bulk, we used a quantity named participation ration (PR), indicating the fraction of electronic probability densities over the atomic sites. We show that vacancies introduce extra levels (or well-defined bands) between consecutive Landau levels (LLs). we have found an increasing wave functions delocalization in zig-zag nanoribbons(instead of inducing localization) when disorder is enhanceing . This unexpected effect is shown to be directly related to the way disorder increasingly destroys the sublattice (valley) polarization of the states.

Topic: NM - New Materials
LOW COST ADSORBENT PRODUCTION FROM COFFEE WASTE FOR DYES REMOVAL FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
RAMIREZ MUÑOZ ANYI PAOLA 1, LÓPEZ JARAMILLO LAURA 2, GIRALDO ARDILA STEPHANIE 3, FLOREZ YEPES ELIZABETH 4, ACELAS SOTO NANCY 5,
1 Universidad de Medellín, 2 Universidad de Medellín, 3 Universidad de Medellín, 4 Universidad de Medellín, 5 Universidad de Medellín,
Email: anyipao0804@hotmail.com
Abstract: The coffee waste is the main residue generated in the Colombian coffee industry. It represents 10% of the total weight of the fresh fruit (approximately 84 tons / year). In this work, the coffee waste (biomass) was modified by thermochemical processes and the obtained adsorbent materials were used for dyes removal from aqueous solutions. The materials were characterized with thermogravimetric (TGA) and elemental analysis. The surface area was determined following the BET method (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller), the pore volume and pore size were determined by nitrogen adsorption, the morphology was determined by scanning electronic micrography (SEM) analysis, and the active functional groups were determined Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Since methylene blue (MB) is a widely dye used in industry, it is a very common contaminant, which is find in high concentrations in water. In this work, methylene blue (MB) adsorption experiments were carried out at different concentrations using the adsorbent materials. The BET surface area results showed values between 3.81 and 176.27 m2g-1, FTIR analysis showed the formation of oxygenated functional groups, such as alcohols, carboxylic acids, esters, amines and aromatic rings. These groups have been reported as active for MB adsorption process. The materials showed good fit to the Langmuir isotherms with removal capacities greater than 11.2 mg. g-1.

Topic: NM - New Materials
NEW 2D TERNARY ALLOYS BASED ON TRANSITION METAL DIOXIDES
HUMANEZ TOBAR ÁNGEL 1, ORTEGA LÓPEZ CÉSAR 2, MURILLO GARCIA JEAN FRED 3,
1 Universidad de Córdoba, 2 Universidad de Córdoba, 3 Universidad de Cordoba,
Email: angelhumaneztobar@gmail.com
Abstract: The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of the ternary monolayers based on transition metal dioxides MTxV1-xO2 (MT = Cr, Mo and W, x = 0, 0.25, 0.50) have been investigated, using the Density Functional Theory in the framework of the pseudopotential approach, implemented in the Quantum ESPRESSO computational package. For the treatment of the electron-electron interaction the Generalized Gradient Approach (GGA) was used in the parametrization of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE). The monolayers are modeled in the hexagonal phase, spatial group P6 ̅m2 (# 187), using the supercell or periodic slab scheme. To ensure the periodicity of the system, a vacuum region of 20 Å is used. In effect, it is found that the alloys Cr0.5V0.5O2, Mo0.5V0.5O2 y W0.5V0.5O2 are energetically stable with formation energies ∆H_Cr^0.5=-0.093 eV, ∆H_Mo^0.5=-0.009 eV y ∆H_W^0.5=-0.208 eV. Furthermore, through the density of states and the band diagram, it is established that the alloys have a metallic character due, mainly, to the p orbitals of the Oxygen, and the d orbitals of Vanadium, Chromium, Molybdenum and Tungsten. Finally, it is found that, alloys with concentrations of 0.50 of MT, show null magnetization, but concentrations of 0.25 of MT exhibit significant values for the total magnetization of 0.96μB / cell and 0.40 μB / cell, for the Cr0.25V0.75O2 and W0.25V0.75O2, respectively.

Topic: NM - New Materials
NEW 2D TERNARY HYBRIDS BASED ON TRANSITION METAL DISELENIDES.
DAGUER CUADRADO SILVIO AUGUSTO 1, MURILLO GARCÍA JEAN FRED 2,
1 UNIVERSIDAD DE CÓRDOBA , 2 UNIVERSIDAD DE CÓRDOBA ,
Email: daguerfisico1@gmail.com
Abstract: In this work, a study of first principles on the structural and electronic properties of the ternary alloys 2D of new diselenuros of hexagonal transition metals TM1-xVxSe2 is made (with TM = Cr, Mo and W, and x = 0, 0.5, 1). The calculations are made within the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) within the framework of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) parameterized by Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) together with the pseudopotential method as implemented in the Quantum-ESPRESSO package. The monolayers are modeled in the hexagonal phase, space group P6 ̅m2 (# 187), using the supercell or periodic slab scheme. To guarantee the periodicity of the system, a vacuum region of 20 Å is used. It is found that the lattice constants, of the new hybrids, comply with the Begard's law. Through the density of states and the band diagrams, it is found that the alloys have a metallic and magnetic behavior. In particular, alloys with concentrations of 0.50% of MT, exhibit significant values for the total magnetization of 2.05, 0.97 and 1.26 μB / cell, of the hybrid Cr0.5V0.5Se2, Mo0.5V0.5Se2 and W0.5V0.5Se2, respectively.

Topic: NM - New Materials
NUMERICAL MODEL OF THE MECHANICAL RESPONSE TO TENSILE STRESS OF A COMPOSITE MATERIAL REINFORCED WITH SUGAR CANE FIBERS
VEGA VERGARA HEINER FABIAN 1, GONZÁLEZ ESTRADA OCTAVIO ANDRÉS 2, PERTUZ ALBERTO 3, BOHÓRQUEZ OSCAR 4, SÁNCHEZ ACEVEDO HELLER GUILLERMO 5,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 4 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 5 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: nitovega182@gmail.com
Abstract: Composite materials reinforced with organic fibers have attracted great interest in the area of mechanical engineering in recent decades due to the wide variety of industrial applications where these materials can be used, and the low impact on the environment, compared with traditional materials. In this work, a numerical analysis of the mechanical response to tensile stress of a composite material with an epoxy matrix, reinforced with sugar cane fibers, was developed. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the composite is done with the help of the TexGen software. Results show that this composite material has good performance under axial loading conditions, and can be used for structural applications.

Topic: NM - New Materials
PHYSICS OF THE T-MNO2/GRAPHENE INTERFACE
MORINSON NEGRETE JUAN DAVID 1, ORTEGA LÓPEZ CESAR 2, MURILLO GARCÍA JEAN FRED 3,
1 Universidad de Córdoba and Institución Educativa José María Córdoba, 2 Universidad de Córdoba, 3 Universidad de Córdoba,
Email: jdmorinson1984@hotmail.com
Abstract: In this work, we study the energetic stability, structural, electronic and magnetic properties of the T-MnO2 / graphene interface. The calculations are made within the framework of the density functional theory (DFT), using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) in the parametrization of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE), implemented in the Quantum ESPRESSO computational package. The interface is modeled using the supercell or periodic slab scheme, for which we use a monolayer √3×√3T-MnO2 coupled to a monolayer 2×2 graphene with a mismatch between lattice parameters of 1.18 %. To ensure the periodicity of the system, a vacuum region of 26 Å is used. We find that the optimized interfacial distance and the lattice parameter are 3.01 Å y 2.47 Å, respectively. The interface presents a semimetallic and magnetic behavior with a total magnetization of 8.88 μo Bohr / cell, due mainly to the hybridization of the d-Mn orbitals. To analyze the stability of the binding energy (E_b = -21.95 meV/Å^2), the adhesion energy (E_adh= 19.90 meV/Å^2 ), the separation work (W_sep=-9.95 meV/Å^2) and the formation energy (E_for=-19.90 meV/Å^2) were calculated.

Topic: NM - New Materials
REMOVAL OF CADMIUM IN WASTEWATER THROUGH GEOPOLIMERIC MATERIALS BASED ON PUMICE
GONZÁLEZ CUERVO CLAUDIA PAULINA 1, MONTAÑO ANGARITA ANGELA MARCELA 2, GRILLO JAZNEMILETH 3,
1 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: claudia.gonzalez@upb.edu.co
Abstract: In Colombia there is an evident increase in the rate of contamination of water sources, and today, there are no updated datas that provide real information on the amount of waste that ends up in lakes and rivers. In most of the country's industries, highlighting tanning of skins, pollutant residues are generated that are carried to seas and rivers, causing high costs environmental and economic, within these residues are commonly found high concentrations of Cd which seriously affect human health. Due to this, the implementation of geopolymers based on pumice is proposed as an alternative for the removal of metals in wastewater that allows to reduce the environmental impact produced by the tanning industry. For the synthesis of geopolymers, established variables were used such as sodium silicate concentration, the sand: pumice ratio and the geopolimerization time, then the morphological and crystallographic characterization was performed by SEM and XRD. The removal process was carried out by making a study of the kinetics of sorption in solutions of Cadmium salts, varying the contact times between the geopolymer and the solution, these results were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy.

Topic: NM - New Materials
REMOVAL OF RHODAMINE B IN WASTEWATER FROM THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY USING A GEOPOLYMERIC MATERIAL
GONZÁLEZ CUERVO CLAUDIA PAULINA 1, MONTAÑO ANGARITA ANGELA MARCELA 2, PINTO SILVA LAURA 3,
1 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: claudia.gonzalez@upb.edu.co
Abstract: The textile industry is not exempt at all from being a source of pollution; it is one of the industries with the highest consumption and pollution of water worldwide, generating discharges that contain, among others, synthetic dyes. Rhodamine B is a complex organic molecule with characteristic chromophore groups in its chemical structure; these groups attribute carcinogenic and toxic properties to both aquatic organisms and human beings, additionally can affect the photosynthetic activity in aquatic life due to the decrease in light penetration. The geopolymers, inorganic polymers based on aluminosilicates, represent an alternative of low cost and high efficiency for the removal of dyes, with a benefit that is the positive impact of these with the environment, using industrial waste as raw material for its manufacture. In this work, a geopolymer was synthesized using coal gangue to remove Rhodamine B in aqueous solutions. The structural characterization of the geopolymer was performed through infrared analysis X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. To study the efficiency of the dye removal process in aqueous solutions, UV-Visible spectrophotometry was used, varying the dose of geopolymer used and the geopolymer-solution contact time.

Topic: NM - New Materials
RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF THE EUCALYPTUS FIBERS MODIFIED WITH COBALT FERRITE NANOPARTICLES
PINEDA SERRANO XIOMARA 1, SÁNCHEZ TORO JORGE HERNAN 2, QUINTANA MARÍN GERMAN CAMILO 3, HERRERA BARROS ADRIANA PATRICIA 4,
1 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 2 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 3 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 4 Universidad de Cartagena,
Email: xiomara.pineda@upb.edu.co
Abstract: The flow of fiber suspensions is a key factor in the manufacture of fiber reinforced composites, food products, paper, carpets, and textiles. Papermaking is responsible for the manufacture of vital products for education, communication, packaging, and hygiene. Most of the operations in this industry use flow of pulp suspensions with different mass concentrations and thus the flow properties (rheology) of pulp suspensions have great importance for the optimal operation of the most unit operations in the paper industry. Cellulose pulp is the material more important source sustainable and abundant in the paper industry. Furthermore, the eucalyptus fiber is the fiber most used in paper industrial applications because it is one of the most cultivated wood species owing to its rapid growth and high adaptability to unfavorable conditions related to low nutrient soils and contaminated sites. The cellulose fibers in suspension exhibit a complex rheological behavior due to the presence of flexible and fine fibers. These fibers form networks that can flocculate and help transmit stress, resulting in non-Newtonian behavior. The incorporation of magnetic particles in eucalyptus fibers shown as an alternative for the rheological control of pulp suspensions because allows alter some properties of the material in a controlled way. This alternative produces a new material with high technological impact. The aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of the temperature (25 °C and 50 °C) and the mass consistency (1.0%, 2.5%, and 4.0%) on the rheological properties for a modified eucalyptus fiber with cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. The magnetic particles with an average diameter of 9 nm were synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation method and were incorporated into eucalyptus fibers by the lumen loading method. Synthesized nanoparticles and modified fibers were characterized by different techniques such as XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, TGA, and VSM in order to verify incorporation of particles on fibers and their magnetic response. Through a design of experiments the best condition of the modification process, to obtain fibers with higher nanoparticle load and higher magnetic response were determined. The rheological tests showed that the suspensions of magnetic pulp present yield stress and a shear thinning behavior. The apparent viscosity of the modified pulp suspension was only affected by the increase in consistency, and the experimental results were well fitted by the Carreau-Yasuda model. On the other hand, it was found that the yield stress is affected by consistency, temperature and the percentage of modified fibers in the suspension. The effect of consistency is in agreement with a power law model. The modified eucalyptus fibers will be also used to study the effect of an external magnetic field on the rheology of the suspension, as well as on the elaboration of paper sheets and its influence on the mechanical properties of these.

Topic: NM - New Materials
SPINTRONICS APPLICABLE MAGNETIC AND ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF THE SM2BI2FE4O12 PEROVSKITE-LIKE MATERIAL
ROA-ROJAS JAIRO 1, CUERVO FARFÁN JAVIER ALONSO 2, DELUQUE TORO CRÍSPULO ENRIQUE 3, LANDÍNEZ TÉLLEZ DAVID A. 4, CARDONA VASQUEZ JORGE ANDRES 5,
1 Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2 Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 3 Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad del Magdalena, 4 Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 5 Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia,
Email: jroar@unal.edu.co
Abstract: The relevance in materials science and engineering of the oxides belonging to the perovskite family, ideally recognized in its more simples form by the ABO3 formula, has produced intense research in recent decades. In complex perovskites there are greater possibilities than in simple ones to include elements in their structure, whose interactions give rise to novel and exotic physical properties. Among the complex perovskites, the most studied one is perhaps the double perovskite of type A2BB'O6, where A represents an alkaline earth or rare earth and B, B' are transition metals or rare earths. Depending on the cations A, B and B' that constitute the material, the physical properties can be from paramagnetic insulators, ferromagnetic insulators, magnetic metals, ferroelectric insulators, magnetoresistive and half-metallic materials up to multiferroics, among many others. Another interesting family of complex perovskites, less studied than those of type A2BB'O6, because they are more difficult to synthesize, are those of type AA'B2O6, which because of its structural atomic occupation is more appropriate to describe by means of the generic formula A2A'2B4O12. One of the important characteristics of this family of materials is its difficulty in ordering itself into a superstructure in which cations A and A' remain interspersed along the crystallographic axes, which can easily be achieved in perovskites of type A2BB'O6 and it can even be predicted from the ion radii and the oxidation states of the B and B' cations, where an ordering in the salt-rock form is possible, while in the A2A'2B4O12 complex perovskite the preferential ordering of A and A' has place conforming layers. These structural characteristics limit the crystalline symmetries for this family of complex perovskites, suggesting the occurrence of structural distortions that, likewise, correspond to inclinations and octahedral rotations that influence the physical properties that can originate from the constituent elements of the material. In order to study the structural, electrical, magnetic and electronic properties of this family of perovskites, in the present work we propose the new material Sm2Bi2Fe4O12, which is the supercell coming from the SmBiFe2O6 double perovskite. Considered from simple perovskites, this compound could be seen as a combination in identical proportions of the rare earth orthoferrite SmFeO3 and the bismuth ferrite BiFeO3. The first, which is classified in the family of lanthanide ferrites, also known as orthoferrites that tend to crystallize in distorted orthorhombic perovskite structures, belonging to the spatial group Pbnm, and have been extensively studied due to their interesting electrical, magnetic and optical properties. On the other hand, BiFeO3 is recognized by its rhombohedral structure, space group R3c, and by its multiferroic properties. It is for this last reason that this bismuth ferrite has been so studied in recent years. In particular, this work aims to carefully analyze the crystalline structure, as well as the morphological, magnetic, electrical and optical properties of the Sm2Bi2Fe4O12 complex perovskite. Finally, taking advantage of the fact that calculations performed from the Density Functional Theory (DFT) have proven to be potentially powerful tools for predicting physical properties in perovskite type materials. Results of ab-initio calculations of band and electronic structure are reported, which are analyzed and correlated with the experimental data with the objective to propose this material as a candidate to be applied in the spintronics industry. This work was partially supported by the Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia y Tecnología Francisco José de Caldas – COLCIENCIAS, on the Contract FP80740-243-2019.

Topic: NM - New Materials
SUBSTITUTION OF ZN ATOMS BY MN AND CR IN THE G-ZNO / GRAPHENE INTERFACE
BERRIO CORDERO GUSTAVO ADOLFO 1, MURILLO GARCIA JEAN FRED 2, ORTEGA LOPEZ CESAR 3,
1 Universidad de Córdoba, 2 Universidad de Córdoba, 3 Universidad de Córdoba,
Email: gberrioc@gmail.com
Abstract: In the present investigation, we make a study of the substitution of Zn atoms by Mn and Cr atoms in the interface g-ZnO 3x3 / graphene 4x4. The calculations are carry out, using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (GGA-PBE) with ultrasoft pseudopotentials and a plane waves base as implemented in the Quantum-ESPRESSO package. The interface is modeled using the supercell or periodic slab scheme, with a mismatch between the lattice constants of less than 1%. To avoid the interaction between repeating unit cells a vacuum space of 18 Ǻ thickness is maintained. The effects of the substitution of Zn atoms by Mn and Cr atoms in the interface are studied in sites of high symmetry: the origin of the system of coordinates (I), a point centered in a hexagon of graphene (II) and on top of a C atom (III). We found that the energetically more stable model for the impurities of Mn and Cr was obtained by substituting in point III of the interface g-ZnO 3x3 / graphene 4x4. The clean interface presents a non-magnetic behavior, which is modified by introducing the impurities in the system. For the substitution of Zn by Cr in sites I, II and III, the interface acquires a magnetic behavior with total magnetic moment values of 3.51 μo Bohr/cell, 3.50 μo Bohr/cell and 3.50 μo Bohr/cell, respectively. For the substitution of Zn by Mn in sites I, II and III, the interface acquires a magnetic behavior with total magnetic moment values of -0.5 μo Bohr/cell, 0.14 μo Bohr/cell and 0.24 μo Bohr/cell, respectively.

Topic: NM - New Materials
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A DERIVATIVE OF CABAZOLE OBTAINED FROM BROMOBENZYL ALCOHOL
MURILLO EDWIN A. 1, PERCINO JUDITH 2, CANTILLO ROSA 3,
1 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER, 2 Universidad Benemerita de Puebla, 3 UNIVERSIDAD FRANCISCO DE PAULA SANTANDER,
Email: edwinalbertomr@ufps.edu.co
Abstract: Carbazole (Cbz) and their derivatives are compounds that actually have a great importance in the field of the material science, since they have photorefractive and photoconductive properties, it is charge transporter (hole) and it is employed in organic light emission diodes (OLEDs) [1]. Therefore, with the aim of to contribute in the art state of this type of materials was done the synthesis of 2-(9H-Cbz-9-y) benzyl alcohol (CbzA), from Cbz and bromobenzyl alcohol (ABrB), employing as catalyzer sodium hydroxide and as solvent sulfoxide dimethyl (DMSO). The material obtained was characterized by hydroxyl value (VOH), infrared analysis (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric (TGA), X ray diffraction (DRX) and ultraviolet-visible analyses (UV-Vis). CbzA presented fluorescent properties, since when was taken to UV lamp this material emitted light of different colors. By IR and NMR analyses was evidenced the formation of CbzA. This material presented a glass transition temperature (Tg) at 21.08 °C, a melting temperature (Tf) at 130.5 °C and a melting enthalpy ((Hf) of 7.09 J/g. The lowest value of Hf of this sample indicates that this exhibited a low crystallinity, which allows inferring that the CbzA is a material mainly amorphous. The presence of these thermal transitions in this sample and the absence of the Tf of the Cbz (220 °C) and the ABrB (75-77 °C), is a proof of the formation of CbzA. The thermal stability of the Cbz was higher than that of the ABrB and CbzA. Furthermore, CBzA presented an intermediate thermal stability between the ABrB and CBz. By DRX analysis was determined that the sample CbzA is mainly amorphous and the Cbz is crystalline. By UV-VIS spectroscopy was evidenced an absorption of the sample CbzA between 300 and 350 nm.

Topic: NM - New Materials
TENSILE PROPERTIES MODELLING OF A PREPREG EPOXY/CARBON LAMINATED COMPOSITE USED FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF A SINGLE-SEATER FORMULA SAE TYPE
FAJARDO JORGE ISAAC 1, VILLA MICAELA 2, URGILÉS DIEGO 3, FAREZ MARCO VINICIO 4, PALTÁN CÉSAR 5,
1 Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, 2 Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, 3 Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, 4 Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, 5 Universidad de Girona,
Email: jfajardo@ups.edu.ec
Abstract: This research work presents the prediction of the unidirectional tensile behavior of a carbon-fiber/polymer-matrix composite used in the manufacture of a single-seater Formula SAE type (F-SAE). The tensile properties were estimated through the application of the Classical Laminate Theory (CLT) and their results were compared through the use of specialized finite element software (FEM). The fiber orientation effects on the strength and stiffness of prepreg Epoxy/Carbon laminated composite (2x2 3K biaxial tissue) were evaluated. Four study cases were modeled with bidirectional carbon reinforcements with the following configurations: [(0/90) 11] T, [(± 45) 11] T, [(30 / -60) 11] T and [(0 / 90) 2, (± 45), (0/90), (± 45), (0/90)] S. To validate the results, an experimental stage of destructive tests was performed on specimens instrumented with biaxial extensometers according to ASTM D3039. For modeling, we started with a mesh convergence analysis in order to define the appropriate elements number. The stacks were modeled according to the configuration of the laminates used in the manufacture of the single-seater Formula SAE type. The results shown good agreement between the prediction models and the experimental results. The percentage error between the prediction models and the experimental values were, in general, less than 10%. From the results obtained, it was observed that the configuration [(± 45) 11] T presents the greatest deformation due to the fact that the loads do not coincide with the direction of the reinforcing fibers, which produces a matrix dominated failure mode. The quai-isotropic configuration [(0/90) 2, (± 45), (0/90), (± 45), (0/90)] S showed a combination of high strength and rigidity ideal for application in the manufacture of the components of the F-SAE bodywork. The work developed provides a modeling methodology and a set of information that allows us to understand the effect of anisotropy on Epoxy-Carbon composite materials used in the development of the F-SAE project in order to optimize its design.

Topic: NM - New Materials
ACETYLENE POLYMERIZATION IN PLASMA OF DIRECT CURRENT
SARMIENTO ARMANDO 1, ÁLVAREZ BRENDA 2,
1 UPTC, 2 UPTC,
Email: asarmiento.santos@uptc.edu.co
Abstract: Plasma polymerization is a technique that allows obtaining polymer of any type of hydrocarbon, including the non-polymerizable by conventional methods. This because of in the plasma state the activation energy can be reduced for the realization of reactions difficult to be presented under standard experimental conditions. For plasma polymerization only the implementation of different types of discharges in the radio frequency regime has been reported, leaving aside the application of direct current discharges for this process. The acetylene polymer consists of carbon chains with alternation of single and double covalent bonds. The formation of this polymer has been reported using radio frequency discharges in the abnormal regime. The paper reports the formation of polymer from acetylene using the abnormal glow discharge in the DC regime, a novel process not yet reported in the literature. The deposition of the polymer is carried out at different times on a polycrystalline copper substrate previously treated in a glow discharge of argon and hydrogen. For the generation of this polymer an atmosphere of 70% Ar + 25% H2 + 5% C2H2 at 2 torr pressure and a temperature of 600°C is used. The structural and morphological analysis of the deposits is carried out by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively.

Topic: PAT - Plasma Applications and Technologies
APPLICATIONS OF PLASMAS IN ADDITIVE AND SUBTRACTIVE SURFACE MANUFACTURING
ENDRINO ARMENTEROS JOSE LUIS 1, BENNETT A 2, BRZEZINKA T 3,
1 Cranfield University, 2 Cranfield University, 3 Cranfield University,
Email: j.l.endrino@cranfield.ac.uk
Abstract: Subtractive and additive manufacturing methods are at the heart of 21st-century manufacturing. Nowadays, there is a wide variety of surface process techniques based on these two methods which are being used in the fabrication at micro, meso and macro level. Among them, plasma-based processes bring the possibility of manufacturing precision surfaces using novel chemistries and simple In-process metrology technologies. This contribution will present two different case studies for additive and subtractive manufacturing using plasmas. The first case study will deal with the deposition of hard TiB2 coating surfaces by cathodic vacuum arcing specialized ceramic cathodes. The subtractive manufacturing case study is an example of the use of reactive plasma jets capable of removing material from optical surfaces.

Topic: PAT - Plasma Applications and Technologies
CARBON STRUCTURES OBTAINED FROM ACETYLENE IN AN ABNORMAL GLOW DISCHARGE IN DIRECT CURRENT
ALVAREZ LUNA BRENDA 1, HERNÁNDEZ PICO YENNY 2, SARMIENTO SANTOS ARMANDO 3,
1 universidad pedagógica y tecnológica de Colombia , 2 Universidad de los Andes , 3 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia,
Email: milbrenda95@gmail.com
Abstract: Carbon is the great constituent of all organic matter and a key element of the compounds that make up the enormous and very complex discipline of organic chemistry. It was already known in antiquity to be obtained as a by-product of the incomplete combustion of organic materials. At present the unique properties of this atom constitutes a potential source for the investigation of new materials. Carbon has several structural configurations that are known as allotropes, these allotropes have the same basic component, but its molecular conformation is different. Other elements of the fourth column of the periodic table such as silicon, germanium and tin have characteristics similar to those of carbon, however, this is unique in the variety of its allotropes. The different allotropes of carbon can be produced by the chemical vapor deposition or CVD method, however, the energy cost of this type of growth is relatively high. Another technique that would allow to obtain deposits of carbon in the laboratory is the plasma of the glow discharge of direct current in abnormal regime, which also offers a wide range of applications in plasmo-chemistry and in the thermochemical treatment of materials. The application of the abnormal glow discharge in the deposition of synthetic materials is a recent technique that represents a decrease in the time and in the energy consumption of the process, because the heating is carried out directly by the bombardment of the ions and neutral atoms on the surface of the cathode where the sample is usually located. The technique of abnormal glow discharge was used in this work with the objective of studying the possibility of formation of carbon deposits, in a copper substrate, from an atmosphere of argon, hydrogen and acetylene. Thus, in the temperature range of 400°C to 900°C, deposits of graphite, graphene and an acetylene polymer compound were obtained. These were identified by infra-red spectrometry and Raman spectrometry.

Topic: PAT - Plasma Applications and Technologies
COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF THE WAKEFIELD GENERATION BY A MICROWAVE PULSE IN A RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE
CAMACHO HERNÁNDEZ YENSUR HARVEY 1, OROZCO OSPINO EDUARDO ALBERTO 2, HERRERA RODRÍGUEZ ANA MARÍA 3,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Heildelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies,
Email: yensur0213@gmail.com
Abstract: The feasibility of using microwaves pulses to excite large amplitude plasma waves in a plasma filling a rectangular metallic waveguide has been proposed in the last decade. The ponderomotive force exerted by the microwave pulse push outward the electrons creating a longitudinal electrostatic field, which accelerated the charged particles up to high energies over short distances. Said acceleration scheme, known as wakefield acceleration, was originally proposed by using high-intensity lasers in high-density plasmas. In the present work, the feasibility of the rectangular TEmn and TMmn microwave pulses for plasma wave excitation and the effect of the waveguide dimension on the pulse group velocity are analyzed, being the TE10 mode the most efficient to excite the plasma wave. Using the non-relativistic and “weakly nonlinear” analytical model proposed by Aria and Malik in 2008, the influence of the frequency, plasma density, waveguide width, pulse duration and microwave intensity on the amplitude on the Wakefield is studied numerically. A discussion of the limitations of said model is also presented. The results show that a Wakefield of 2.13 MV/m amplitude is generated by a 0.5 GW/m^2 intensity, 0.8 ns duration, and 12 GHz frequency microwave pulse. A peak energy gain of 4.3 MeV at the distance of 2.03 m can be obtained for an electron accelerated by the excited Wakefield.

Topic: PAT - Plasma Applications and Technologies
GRAPHITE FORMATION IN ABNORMAL GLOW DISCHARGE.
ALVAREZ LUNA BRENDA 1, SARMIENTO SANTOS ARMANDO 2, HERNÁNDEZ PICO YENNY 3,
1 universidad pedagógica y tecnológica de Colombia , 2 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia , 3 Universidad de los Andes ,
Email: milbrenda95@gmail.com
Abstract: Graphite is made up of flat sheets of carbon atoms that form a periodic system of hexagonal rings of six atoms. It can be considered as overlapping graphene layers. Along the perpendicular direction of the layers it has a low electrical conductivity, whereas this is greater along the layers. The possibility of separating the constituent layers of the graphite and obtaining individual layers of it has led to the current scientific and technological revolution. Graphite can be produced synthetically in the laboratory, with low energy consumption, through the plasma of the abnormal glow discharge in direct current. In this work, graphite formation is reported in an abnormal glow discharge of direct current in a gaseous atmosphere containing acetylene. In the plasma generated in this type of discharge the secondary electrons, coming from the cathode, transfer their kinetic energy to the neutral molecules of the hydrocarbon causing dissociation, ionization and excitation of them. These processes generate active species that react with each other and with the substrate, producing carbon deposits on it. Under controlled conditions of abnormal glow discharge, carbon deposits can be obtained with the characteristic structure of graphite. For this purpose the abnormal glow discharge was established in an atmosphere composed of a mixture of 20% acetylene, 60% argon and 20% hydrogen at low pressure, in a temperature range from 400°C to 700°C. Under these conditions, on a copper substrate, a time of 15 minutes was used to obtain the carbon deposits. These deposits were analyzed by infra-red spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, identifying the structure of the graphite and observing the morphology of the deposits on the copper substrate. It is noteworthy that, despite the absence of oxygen in the composition of the discharge atmosphere, oxygen is present in the graphite structure, which could be due to the reaction of the material with the oxygen in the environment when it is removed from the vacuum chamber.

Topic: PAT - Plasma Applications and Technologies
SINTERING OF A MMC CU-TI-TIC ASSISTED BY ABNORMAL GLOW DISCHARGE
BOHORQUEZ MORENO CRISTIAN DANIEL 1, SARMIENTO SANTOS ARMANDO 2, PÉREZ VELÁSQUEZ SANDRA PATRICIA 3, MENDOZA OLIVEROS MARTIN EMILIO 4,
1 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 2 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia , 3 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia , 4 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia ,
Email: cristiandaniel.bohorquez@uptc.edu.co
Abstract: A metal matrix composite (Cu-MMC) with ceramic reinforcement at 1% w/w TiC, has been studied under variable titanium fractions of mass at 10%, 15% and 20%, in order to evaluate the porosity and tribological properties in the composite material after abnormal glow discharge sintering. MMC was manufactured by powder metallurgy process that included: mechanical and ultrasonic mixing in 2-propanol liquid suspension, cold uniaxial compaction at 200 MPa and sintering by abnormal glow discharge in atmosphere of 10% nitrogen and 90% argon. The glow was established in direct current regime and voltage values were adjusted to set sintering temperatures of 750°C and 850°C. Sintering process was carried out during 30 minutes and the samples were cooling in the same sintering atmosphere. The sintered samples were characterized by: scanning electron microscopy, X-ray scattered energy spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction and tribological properties were determined by pin on disk test. As a result, a differentiation in the morphology and properties has been found due to the temperature of synthesis. It has been found that the final porosity of the MMC composite, sintered at 750°C, decreases as the titanium content increases in the composite, obtaining 2.6% of porosity in Ti concentrations of 20%. Additionally, in the grain limits of the titanium particles, due to intermetallic precipitation processes, presence of the CuTi and CuTi2 phases is observed. On the other hand, at 850°C of temperatures an increase in porosity has been detected as titanium contents increased. A porosity of 16.8% is observed at Ti content of 20%. It has been observed by EDS mappings that Ti has diffused toward the copper matrix. Furthermore, intermetallic phases have been identified as: Cu3Ti, Cu4Ti CuTi2. The diffusive phenomena have contributed to macroporosities formation. For 20%Ti an average pore size of 84.5 μm2 has been measured. The intermetallic diffusion could be enhanced by the extra energy offered by plasma particles during the sintering process. It has been evidenced an improvement in the properties against wear, being a strong influence of the sintering temperature. Thus, samples at 750°C with Ti contents of 20% presented a wear coefficient value of 7.2x10-8 mm3.N-1.m-1, while, despite the porous morphology of the compound at 850°C, there are no degradation of the tribological properties at 20%Ti which was estimated in 2x10-8 mm3.N-1.m-1.

Topic: PAT - Plasma Applications and Technologies
SYNTHESIS OF OXYGENATED COMPOUNDS FROM METHANE, CARBON DIOXIDE AND WATER IN LIQUID PHASE USING A PLASMA-CATALYST SYSTEM
GELVES DÍAZ JOHN FREDDY 1, DORKIS LUDOVIC 2, MARQUEZ MARCO ANTONIO 3, FOURRÉ ELODIE 4, BATIOT-DUPEYRAT CATHERINE 5,
1 Universidad Libre Cúcuta, 2 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 3 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 4 Université de Poitiers-Institut de Chimie des Milieux et Matériaux-Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique, 5 Université de Poitiers,Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique, Institut de Chimie des Milieux et Matériaux de Poitiers,
Email: johnf.gelvesd@unilibre.edu.co
Abstract: Direct synthesis of methanol and other oxygenated compounds was carried out through the process of partial oxidation of methane (CH4) with carbon dioxide (CO2) and water in liquid phase. The activation process was carried out with dielectric barrier discharge plasma (sinusoidal power) and in the presence of a catalyst. A Colombian natural zeolite, glass wool and a material composed of magnesium oxide and alumina (7% MgO/Al2O3) were used in this work as catalysts. Tests in the absence of catalyst in the reactor, in the absence of liquid water and combinations of the previous tests were carried out in order to establish which conditions allow to obtain the highest conversion of reagents and selectivity to oxygenated compounds. Gas chromatography, liquid chromatography and total organic carbon analysis were used to monitor the reaction. Once the reaction was finished, the catalysts were subjected to thermal analysis tests in order to infer the amount of solid phases deposited on it. From the different treatments it was evidenced that the glass wool allows to obtain the highest levels of reagent conversion, followed by the MgO / Al2O3 catalyst and finally the natural zeolite. It was also established that the presence of liquid water in the reactor decreases the conversion of the reactants, but favors the formation of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and oxygenated compounds such as methanol, ethanol, formic acid, acetic acid and acetaldehyde. Finally, it could be established that from the synthesis process used glass wool allows to obtain the highest amount of oxygenated compounds, followed by the natural zeolite and finally the MgO/ Al2O3 catalyst. The results of the thermogravimetric analysis along with the carbon balance revealed that the magnesium catalyst is the one that presents the highest quantity of solid phases deposited because of the reaction.

Topic: PAT - Plasma Applications and Technologies
USING HIGH ELECTRONIC EXCITATION TO MODIFY PLASMONIC NANOSTRUCTURES
PEÑA RODRÍGUEZ OVIDIO YORDANIS 1, GONZÁLEZ-RUBIO G 2, P DÍAZ-NÚÑEZ P 3, PRADA A 4, GUERRERO-MARTÍNEZ A 5, BAÑARES L 6, L LIZ-MARZÁN L 7, R GONZALEZ-ARRABAL R 8, RIVERA A 9,
1 Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 2 Departamento de Química Física I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 3 Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 4 Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 5 Departamento de Química Física I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 6 Departamento de Química Física I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 7 Bionanoplasmonics Laboratory, CIC biomaGUNE, 8 Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 9 Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid,
Email: ovidio.pena@upm.es
Abstract: The optical response of plasmonic nanoparticles can be engineered for an incredibly large number of useful applications but it requires a complex balance between the competing requirements of the application, optics, and fabrication. Hence, a compromise must be reached in most cases, which implies using nanoparticles with a suboptimal optical response for the specific application. This highlights the need to develop new manufacturing or modification strategies to have better control over the nanoparticles’ optical response. Femtosecond laser irradiation can provide the required flexibility to attain extreme control over the modification of various types of plasmonic nanoparticles, producing structures with a greatly improved optical response. For example, we have devised a light-controlled synthetic procedure that allows the fabrication of selected plasmonic oligomers [1]. This process can be tuned to increase the temperature at the interparticle gaps to melt tips and weld the particles together, offering a new pathway toward fabrication of novel complex nanoparticles with a plasmonic response not attainable by other methods. Finally, we have also shown that irradiation of nanorod colloids with a femtosecond laser can be tuned to induce controlled reshaping, yielding colloids with unprecedentedly narrow localized surface plasmon resonance bands [2]. The process is characterized by a gentle multi-shot reduction of the aspect ratio, responsible for the widening of the plasmon band, whereas the rod shape and volume are barely affected. This perfection process provides a simple, fast, reproducible and scalable route toward nanorods with an optical response of exceptional quality, near the theoretical limit. [1] González-Rubio, G.; González-Izquierdo, J.; Bañares, L.; Tardajos, G.; Rivera, A.; Altantzis, T.; Bals, S.; Peña-Rodríguez, O.; Guerrero-Martínez, A.; Liz-Marzan, L. M. 2015 Femtosecond Laser-Controlled Tip-to-Tip Assembly and Welding of Gold Nanorods Nano Lett. 15(12) 8282–8288. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b03844 [2] González-Rubio, G.; Díaz-Núñez, P.; Rivera, A.; Prada, A.; Tardajos, G.; González-Izquierdo, J.; Bañares, L.; Llombart, P.; Macdowell, L. G.; Palafox, M. A.; et al. 2017 Femtosecond Laser Reshaping Yields Gold Nanorods with Ultranarrow Surface Plasmon Resonances Science 358(6363) 640–644. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aan8478

Topic: PAT - Plasma Applications and Technologies
ALL-GALSS VACUUM TUBE HEAT TRANSFER SIMPLIFIED MODEL
ARDILA SANCHEZ OMAR ANDRÉS 1, QUIROGA JABID EDUARDO 2, MARTÍNEZ OSCAR 3,
1 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 2 Universidad Industrial de Santander, 3 Universidad Industrial de Santander,
Email: ardila.buc@gmail.com
Abstract: This paper addresses the design of a Heat transfer simplified Model for one all-glass vacuum tube. As the incident solar radiation in an inclined tube is a function of solar angles as well as the declination angle, the hour angle, the solar altitude angle, the solar zenith angle and the solar azimuth angle a Matlab code to calculate these angles, at any time and location, is provided. Because the heat transfer from the hot tube to the surroundings depends on the environmental temperature and other variables a theoretical calculation of the solar radiation flux through twin-glass tube was undertaken to simulate the effect of environmental temperature in transferred energy between the pipe and the surroundings. Likewise, a theoretical study is performed for the heat transfer process in that system for different environment temperature to determine the behavior of the selective layer temperature and glass tube temperature.

Topic: RE - Renewable Energy
BIOMETHANE PRODUCTION POTENTIAL FROM SELECTED AGROINDUSTRIAL WASTE IN COLOMBIA AND PERSPECTIVES OF ITS USE IN VEHICULAR TRANSPORT
POSSO FAUSTO 1, MANTILLA NEILA 2,
1 Universidad de Santander, 2 UNIVERSIDAD DE SANTANDER,
Email: directormgcti@udes.edu.co
Abstract: The resurgence of renewable energies (RE) is evident in its growing participation in the global energy market, also in the energy matrix of a large number of countries and regions. Within the RE, biomass is one of the most attractive as a starting point for the production of energy vectors due to its availability, energy potential, and competitive cost. In Colombia, one of the most sources of biomass are the residues of agriculture activity. Its production is close to 17.1 million tons. A large part can transform into biofuels (liquids, and gases) where its use is mainly thermal and electricity and could supplying needs in different sectors of the economy. In the case of biomethane, one of its routes of production is by anaerobic digestion of the biomass. Where biogas purification derived biomethane, with concentration equal or greater than 94%, which stands out for its energy potential and its contribution to the efficient management of agricultural and urban waste and the mitigation of environmental pollution, in all areas and forms. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the potential of biomethane production in Colombia by anaerobic digestion of three crops selected for their abundance, geographical distribution, and properties. Methodologically, the part point is to find the documentary information and official statistics on crops (production, cultivated area, and yield by departments and main town of harvesting). The selected crops of this study were sugarcane, palm oil, and rice. The waste considered for each of them were sugarcane bagasse (SCB), empty fruit bunches of palm oil (EFBPO) and rice straw (RS). We estimated the amount of biomass, biogas and corresponding biomethane, while the values of the operational parameters used, residue factor, conversion yield and, the percentage of purification, have been derived from previous studies. Finally, the calculation of the useful energy obtainable based on the calorific value of the biomethane. The results indicate that, for the year 2018, sugarcane is the main crop of the country with a production of 25.036.168 tons (67% of total crops), for oil palm, there is a production of 1.629.596 tons and in the case of the rice 2.514.063 tons with a harvested area of 530,000 ha. Having in account these three residues only for biomethane production, the potential volume of biomethane is 1290×106 m3/year; the contribution of sugarcane bagasse is 85%; 10%, for rice straw and 5% for empty fruit bunches of Palm Oil. If the use of biomethane is proposed for vehicular fuel, with 12% of its annual is cover the demand volume of vehicular natural gas for 2018 in Colombia. The remaining volume, 1126×106 m3/year, energetically equals 1258×106 liters of gasoline, which is equivalent to 45 of the country's total annual gasoline consumption (2017), which demonstrates the potential for substitution of fossil fuels for biomethane with its favorable environmental and economic impact. So, biomethane is a potentially attractive develop option in Colombia, especially in those departments constitute niches of opportunity for development by replacing a high quantity of fossil fuels for high supply of biomethane, for example, the Department of Valle of Cauca, which would make it necessary to carry out more specific and detailed studies include economic, environmental and social aspects.

Topic: RE - Renewable Energy
CONSTRUCTION OF BIODIGESTERS FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM URBAN SOLID WASTE
GUIMARÃES CLAUDINEI DE SOUZA 1,
1 Universidade Federal do Río de Janeiro,
Email: claudinei@eq.ufrj.br
Abstract: Nowadays, one of the biggest problems faced by many countries, particularly the developing ones, is the final disposal of Urban Solid Waste (USW), mainly due to environmental, social and economic. Besides the problems associated with USW, pollution of water resources and access to energy sources have historically represented challenges for economic growth, human health and environmental preservation all over the world. Anaerobic digestion is one of the solutions to reduce these problems and also an attempt to reuse USW. It is known that anaerobic digestion is a process through which organic waste is biologically converted using a microbial consortium in the absence of oxygen. Besides the potential for renewable energy generation, anaerobic digestion has become increasingly studied and also more popular due to many factors, such as reduction of waste disposal in sanitary landfills and provision of energy to small communities situated away from urban centers. However, for the viability of power generation, it is necessary the use of anaerobic biodigesters, built at low cost and with high technology, along with control of all parameters for optimization of biogas production. The use of biodigesters for the production of biogas through anaerobic digestion may play an important role in a local economy due to the opportunity to produce renewable fuel from organic waste and also as an alternative to waste treatment.

Topic: RE - Renewable Energy
DESIGN OF AN AUTONOMOUS PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR SYSTEM AS AN ALTERNATIVE OF USING OF ELECTRIC POWER FOR THE SOCIAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE AREA OF SAN AUGUSTIN TORRE CLUB BUILDING, FROM THE CITY OF OCAÑA, NORTE DE SANTANDER COLOMBIA
CABELLOS MARTÍNEZ MALKA IRINA 1, AREVALO TOSCANO JHON 2, MARQUEZ PABA ROCIO TORCOROMA 3,
1 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña, 2 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña, 3 Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña,
Email: micabellosm@ufpso.edu.co
Abstract: The design of an autonomous solar photovoltaic system as an alternative of using of electric power for the social and administrative area of San Augustin Torre Club Building, from the city of Ocaña, Norte de Santander, shows the commitment to promote the use of renewable energy, this due to the great pollution that is being generated to the environment and the deterioration of the ozone layer. The contributions of the present project are framed in establishing the structural and energetic dimensions that comprise the solar system and in validating the implementation of the Photovoltaic solar system, taking into account the costs of electric power. When designing a Photovoltaic solar system, it seeks to encourage the use of renewable energy in the building, contributing to lower energy consumption in billing. The studio building has 8 floors which its commercial and administrative areas consume a power 2447.2 Wh per month, which shows as a result the use of 15 panels of 275 Watt and 7 panels of 325 Watt with an economic saving in the approximate turnover of $1.500.000 cop. The conclusions determine that the use of renewable energies contributes to diminish the degrees of contamination and generate a conscious culture in the people who use this type of technology looking to integrate them into their life and be responsible in the use of it. The important factors to perform the calculations of the elements of the solar Photovoltaic system are determined from where it will be implemented, as are the value of latitude, altitude, irradiance and energy consumption.

Topic: RE - Renewable Energy
ESTIMATION OF POTENTIAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM PALM KERNEL SHELL IN NORTE DE SANTANDER, COLOMBIA
ACEVEDO PÁEZ JUAN CAMILO 1, SOLANO SANDRA 2, POSSO FAUSTO 3, DURÁN JESSICA 4, ARENAS ERIKA 5,
1 Universidad de Santander, 2 Universidad de Santander, 3 Universidad de Santander, 4 Universidad de Santander, 5 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana,
Email: ing.juancamilo07@gmail.com
Abstract: Fossil fuels are currently consolidated as the main secondary source of energy worldwide, which has led to a negative impact on the environment by the generation of greenhouse gases (GHG) as a result of their combustion, contributing to the climate change that brings with it imbalance of ecosystems, air pollution and sea level rise (Yusoff, 2006). Therefore, the gradual substitution of fossil fuels for more environmentally friendly, efficient and sustainable fuels is necessary, within them, hydrogen emerges as the most suitable to motorize human development in this century (Stern, 2018). Of all the renewable primary energies that can be used as a point of origin of hydrogen, biomass constitutes a promising alternative by virtue of its energy potential, availability, naturally distributed and low obtaining cost (García, 2016). In this context, Colombia in 2015 presented an important production of biomass, around 17,1 million tons from the agricultural sector (UPME, 2016). Of this biomass, the palm sector contributed 12,8% consisting of rachis, fiber and palm kernel shell (PKS) (Fedepalma, 2017). In this work, the potential of the PKS for the production of hydrogen as an energy vector in Norte de Santander (Colombia) was estimated from two perspectives: economic and environmental. A field investigation was carried out in palm oil mills, determining that the Department generates 14.082 t of biomass monthly, of which 8.239 t are used as fuel for boilers, in the case of PKS and fiber; and as organic fertilizer directly in the plantations or by composting processes for the rachis, leaving 41,5% of biomass available for other forms of use, this percentage includes 1.250 tons of PKS that can be used to obtain hydrogen by applying thermochemical processes. For this purpose, a physicochemical characterization of the PKS was carried out through proximate and ultimate analysis, obtaining a high calorific value (19,53 MJ/Kg) compared with other agroindustrial biomasses (Marrugo, 2015), thus demonstrating the energy potential of this type of biomass. Subsequently, the percentage content of volatile material (69,82% w/w) and fixed carbon (21,68% w/w) was determined, promoters of chemical reactions in the pyrolysis and gasification processes, respectively. Another characteristic parameter evaluated is the moisture content of PKS (7,43%), whose low value makes the drying process less intense and, therefore, the more efficient gasification. In a previous investigation (Acevedo et al., 2018), the optimum operating conditions of hydrogen production were evaluated by gasification of PKS by a simulated process in Aspen Plus®, such conditions consist of a temperature of 900 °C and a steam/biomass ratio of 1.5, to obtain a yield in hydrogen production of 40,75%, equivalent to a monthly production of 51,56 t from the 1.250 t of PKS available in Norte de Santander. With a view to the final use of the H2 obtained, two scenarios were analyzed: (1) the generation of electrical energy; (2) as fuel in internal combustion engines, replacing a fossil fuel (i.e. diesel and gasoline). In the first scenario, the end-use technology used is polymer membrane fuel cells (PEM), which convert the chemical energy contained in hydrogen into electricity, obtaining as by-products water and heat; in this scenario, a production of 1.254,59 MWh is achieved, which represents US$ 180.188,56/month. In the second scenario, the carbon credits (Certified Emission Reduction – CER´s) that can be perceived by the replacement of fuels such as gasoline and diesel using H2 as an energy source were estimated, due to the reduction in the emission of CO2 into the environment. In the case of gasoline, 55.848,87 gal/month are substituted, equivalent to US$ 11.708,62 for the sale of CER's. Regarding diesel, 45.905,17 gallons are replaced monthly, representing US$ 9.725,43 for the commercial transaction in the carbon credits market. Finally, it is concluded that Norte de Santander is a Department with a significant renewable energy potential, by virtue of the palm biomass available for its use, especially the PKS as feedstock for the production of hydrogen, generating economic and environmental benefits from the use of H2 as an energy vector.

Topic: RE - Renewable Energy
EVALUATION OF A SOLVOTHERMAL METHOD TO OBTAIN CZTIS MATERIALS
PEREZ BUSTOS HELLEM GERALDING 1, GOMEZ CUASPUD JAIRO ALBERTO 2, PINEDA TRIANA YANETH 3, VERA LÓPEZ ENRIQUE 4,
1 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia , 2 universidad pedagógica y tecnológica de Colombia, 3 Instituto para la investigación e innovación en ciencia y tecnología de materiales INCITEMA , 4 Instituto para la investigación e innovación en ciencia y tecnología de materiales INCITEMA ,
Email: hellem.perez@uptc.edu.co
Abstract: Materials with Kesterite structure have shown optimal results in the development of solar devices with efficient values ​​of absorption coefficient and band gap in the semiconductor region, with application as an absorbent layer in thin films. In order to obtain semiconductor materials of this type and respond to the investigative demand that exists, a solvotermal (hydrothermal) methodology was used that mainly seeks to be a synthesis route of low cost and average efficiency. The synthesized kesterite has a structural modification of the conventional Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) with the aim of analyzing a possible improvement in the electrical response of this sulfurous mineral, modifying the tin by titanium. To obtain the Cu2ZnTiS4 (CZTiS) phase, copper, zinc acetate, titanium butoxide and thiourea precursors were placed in an airtight steel reactor where two variables, time (24.48 and 72), are controlled. hours) and temperature (200, 250, 300 ° C), in order to evaluate through different characterizations (DRX, SEM, solid state impedances), the optimum material for photovoltaic application. The main results show that the material with synthesis conditions 48 h-300 ° C (M14) shows the best textural and electrical results for obtaining nanometric particles; Although the material with conditions 72h-300 ° C (M15) presents optimal results, the M14 is chosen because it is a material with lower energy expenditure that will allow a decrease in production costs for a possible application. The X-ray diffraction analysis evidences the need for a thermal treatment additional to the synthesis in order to eliminate secondary phases such as ZnS and Cu2S and improve the electrical results by improving the crystalline structure. The morphology of the materials is improved with increases in the temperatures of synthesis, decreasing the formation of amorphous agglomerates, for this the highest temperature evaluated (300 ° C) presented the best morphological results. The characterizations of the synthesized materials evaluated show that temperature is the variable studied that directly affects the efficiency of the synthesized crystals. The objective sought to reduce the band gap value of the conventional kesterite synthesized by the same method is optimal, although in a very low proportion, much lower than expected when modifying tin by titanium, it is likely that the recommended thermal treatments will improve considerably the electrical response of Cu2ZnTiS4 so that even this material is promising as an absorbent semiconductor with photovoltaic application, possibly using it in thin layer depositions, with techniques such as dip-coating on quartz or glass substrates.

Topic: RE - Renewable Energy
MODEL OF SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT FOR THE BUILDING STAGE OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN BUCARAMANGA
TORRADO VERJEL KAREN ANDREA 1, FORERO PEDROZA KRYSTLE KATHERINNE 2, GÓMEZ CAMARGO FAUSTO RAMÓN 3, ARDILA GÓMEZ DIEGO FERNANDO 4, TIRIA SANDOVAL LUIS CARLOS 5,
1 Universidad de Santander , 2 Universidad de Santander, 3 Universidad de Santander, 4 Universidad de Santander, 5 Universidad de Santander,
Email: ka.torrado@mail.udes.edu.co
Abstract: The sustainable construction in most cases is oriented to the design phase in such a way that projects of zero consumption are planned, however, there is a gap in the construction phase in which considerable consumption of electricity and water resources are consumed. This is why it is necessary to create and implement strategies to carry out constructive processes consistent with global sustainability trends. The actions that are implemented during the construction of a building, can be part of a macro model of sustainable management. This project is committed to the incorporation of renewable energies as a source of energy generation and use of rainwater for own consumption, positively impacting the economic resources of the company, the environment, and the environment. The research is carried out through the quantification of electricity consumption and drinking water per square meter to be built. In addition, it makes use of existing databases in relation to weather conditions such as solar radiation, rainfall, wind speed, and direction, among others. With the data obtained, the sizing of renewable energy systems and the use of rainwater in terms of capacity is carried out. The information collected and calculated will be the input of the technological tool (eg computational application in EXCEL), which can be used by companies as a management model, in which they incorporate specific input data of the project to be executed and as a result will obtain a sustainable proposal for the construction process in relation to the use of rainwater and renewable energies. The product resulting from this work could be implemented in the productive sector, in which case it will, directly and indirectly, benefit the companies, the first of them, through the reduction of electricity and potable water costs. And the second, because of the increase in competitiveness to add value to their processes, being part of the global trend of corporate social responsibility. The construction of multifamily residential buildings incorporates the interaction of various components for the fulfillment of the objectives among which are machinery, equipment, tools, materials, and labor, among others. The synergy between them is achieved through adequate management that allows obtaining a positive perception of the environment. This management must be focused on finding a balance between engineering and the culture of care for the environment and the implementation of practices that tend to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the consumption of resources and the loss of biodiversity (CCCS, s.f.). The existing construction processes have a negative impact on the environment, due to the consumption of resources such as electricity, gas, and water. The first one is estimated at 2944 MJ/m2, especially in the area of ​structures, with a participation of 43.25%, followed by masonry with 23.75% and the remaining 11.1% for the carpentry area. In terms of global water consumption, it is said that the construction sector uses 17% of the total volume of water in the world and in the construction stage approximately 2.5 m3/m2. Lastly, and in smaller quantities, natural gas is consumed for some activities of the construction process. The environmental impacts generated by the construction sector can be identified, controlled and minimized through sustainable management, taking into account that the dynamics of this sector is tending to increase, as evidenced in the third quarter of 2014 where it presented an increase of 14.1%, leading the growth of the country's economy. This positive behavior is projected in the long term, taking into account that 5.5% of Colombian households do not have housing and that 11% have low-quality​ housing.

Topic: RE - Renewable Energy
OBTENTION OF PHOTOANODES BASED ON THE TI1-XNBXO2 SYSTEM BY MEANS SOLID STATE METHOD
ARIZA MONICA 1, GOMEZ CUASPUD JAIRO ALBERTO 2, TORRES BARAHONA EDGAR ABSALON 3, PINEDA TRIANA YANETH 4, VERA LOPEZ ENRIQUE 5,
1 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia , 2 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia , 3 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia , 4 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia , 5 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia ,
Email: dahiana_917@hotmail.com
Abstract: Recent developments in nanotechnology have reported obtaining dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) or also known as Gratzel cells, which represent one of the simplest and most economical ways to obtain electrical energy within the derivations of photovoltaic cells in the news In this sense, the present work is focused on the study of materials based on the Ti1-xNbxO2 system (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3), which have shown optimal structural, morphological and electrical characteristics for possible applications. In this sense using Merck high purity reagents of titanium (Anatase) and niobium oxides as precursors, previously dehydrated at 150 °C in a conventional oven, it was possible to consolidate the different compositions to be worked. The oxides were grounded in agate mortar and sieved to standard US 200 mesh. The resulting solids were calcined in a tubular furnace at 380 °C for 4 hours in an atmosphere of air. The solids obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in a PANalytical X'pert pro-MPD HighScore system between 10-90° using Cu K radiation (1.54Å). The characterization by ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy was performed on a Mapada 1000 equipment between 190 and 1100 nm. Raman microscopy was performed on a SMART RAMAN equipment between 200 and 1800 cm-1 using a 780 nm laser and solid state impedance (IS) spectroscopy on an AUTOLAB galvanostat potentiostat in the range of 1.0-10 MHz. The results confirm that the materials have a crystal structure type Anatase with geometry tetragonal characteristic of these systems with a PDF Card No. 76–1937. The results of UV spectroscopy confirm optical activity values related to a band gap of 1.45 eV in accordance with similar works and values of the TAUC curve. The characterization by Raman microscopy showed vibrational signals associated with these materials between 150 and 700 cm-1. Finally, the results associated with impedance spectroscopy, demonstrated the effectiveness of the synthesis process in obtaining materials with conductivity levels around 0.01-0.1 S cm-1.

Topic: RE - Renewable Energy
SELECTION AND STUDY OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OPERATING AS A TURBINE
HERNANDEZ EMIL 1, CÓRDOBA TUTA EDWIN 2, GARCÍA GABRIEL FERNANDO 3,
1 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 2 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 3 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana,
Email: emil.hernandez@upb.edu.co
Abstract: The use of centrifugal pumps operating as turbines offers a technically and economically viable alternative to traditional turbines, the selection and implementation of a pump that functions as a turbine is a subject that is still under development. In this project the process of selection and implementation of the centrifugal pump is performed so that it works in reverse mode, as a turbine, where mechanical adaptations are made for proper operation. The hydraulic system consists mainly of a forced pipe and a tank at a height of 13.3 m. In the built equipment a maximum efficiency of 58% was obtained at 890 rpm and an electric power of 45 W with a consistent load of a 120 v and 70 W bulb. The results obtained in this case study are comparable with the results of conventional turbines.

Topic: RE - Renewable Energy
SYNTHESIS OF A CHALCOPYRITE TYPE MATERIAL, BASED ON CUIN1-XGAXSE2 (X = 0,3 AND 0,5) FOR APPLICATION AS SEMICONDUCTOR THIN LAYERS, DEPOSITED BY A LOW COST TECHNIQUE
CASTELLANOS BÁEZ YEIMY TATIANA 1, TORRES BARAHONA EDGAR ABSALON 2, GOMEZ CUASPUD JAIRO ALBERTO 3, VERA LOPEZ ENRIQUE 4, PINEDA TRIANA YANETH 5,
1 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 2 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 3 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 4 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 5 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia ,
Email: yeimy.castellanos01@uptc.edu.co
Abstract: The current photovoltaic industry has found in ternary and quaternary materials derived from chalcopyrite compounds, an optimal response to be used as absorbent layers in photovoltaic generation systems. For this reason, this work reports the synthesis and characterization of a photovoltaic material based on the CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (X = 0.3 and 0.5) system (abbreviated CIGS), by means of low-cost deposition methods such as doctor blade. To make this, different dissolutions were made in the form of homogeneous inks, which were worked under the stoichiometry proposed above. The deposition processes of the thin films were carried out in a heating plate on conventional glass substrates, previously washed and treated for this purpose. Once the layers of Cu, In, and Ga were deposited by chemical bath, a thermal treatment was carried out at 550 ° C for 30 min in a conditioned oven to carry out the selenization processes. The obtained materials were characterized by techniques such as: X-ray diffraction using a X'Pert PRO-MPD PANalytical instrument, with pixel detector between 10 and 90 °, confirming the presence of a characteristic phase of CuIn0,7Ga0,3Se2 with system tetragonal crystalline type I-42d (122), preferably oriented along the (1 1 2) facet. Subsequently, the presence of secondary phases was verified by means of Raman spectroscopy using a DXR SMART RAMAN equipment, where was found two characteristic vibrational modes of the material, located at 174 cm-1 and 228 cm-1 respectively. For the evaluation of the electrical behavior of the synthesized solids, the measurement of the conductive capacity was carried out, by means of solid state impedance spectroscopy (IS) in a GAMRY brand potentiostat-galvanostat, determining conductivity values of 1.22x10-4 Siemens. The optical activity values were measured by UV-VIS spectroscopy in a HACH DR6000 UV-VIS spectrophotometer, permit to find characteristic band gap values around 1.4 eV, determined by the respective TAUC relationship. Finally, the morphology of the layers obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in a Carl Zeiss reference EVO-MA10 equipment, confirm layer thicknesses between 1.7 μm and 6 μm. These results are consistent with various investigations, concluding that the synthesized system is suitable for potential applications as an absorbent layer in the design of solar devices.

Topic: RE - Renewable Energy
SYNTHESIS OF CZTSE MATERIAL FROM NITRATE AND SELENITATE INKS, FOR USE AS ABSORBENT LAYER IN THE DESIGN OF SOLAR CELLS.
TORRES BARAHONA EDGAR ABSALON 1, CASTELLANOS BÁEZ YEIMY TATIANA 2, GOMEZ CUASPUD JAIRO ALBERTO 3, VERA LOPEZ ENRIQUE 4, PINEDA TRIANA YANETH 5,
1 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 2 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia , 3 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 4 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 5 Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia,
Email: edga.torres@uptc.edu.co
Abstract: In the current work, was performed the synthesis of Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) material, starting from metallic nitrates of Cu, Zn, Sn and Se, by two means, one by direct dissolution of metallic nitrates, and another one by coprecipitation of selenites and their dissolution to obtain a homogeneous ink. In the first case, a homogeneous and stable aqueous solution ink at room temperature was obtained. Six layers of ink were deposited with drying cycles on a heating plate at 80 °C for 2 minutes. In the coprecipitation method, selenites were obtained from dissolution of nitrates in deionized water and adding NH4OH until pH 6, then they were washed to eliminate impurities. Two layers were made whit drying cycles on a heating plate at 400 °C for 2 minutes. In both cases the layers of ink were deposited by doctor blade process on glass substrates previously washed, and the obtained films were selenized, at 550 °C for 30 minutes, in a vacuum oven conditioned for this purpose. In order to compare the morphological, structural and electrical parameters of each method, the samples were characterized by DRX, SEM, Raman and UV-VIS measurements. The presence of the main phase of CZTS was found by X-ray diffraction, showing a tetragonal crystalline system oriented along the facet (112). These values are consistent with those found in Raman spectroscopy, where its main vibrational modes were identified at 192 cm-1, which are characteristic of this system. Simultaneously, a band gap value of 1.30 eV was identified using the TAUC relationship. Finally, the SEM images permit to corroborate an average layer thickness of 2.35 m in all deposits. With these results it was possible to validate the obtention of CZTS films, with optimum characteristics to be used in the photovoltaic, these results demonstrate the effectiveness of coprecipitation method in relation with low evidence of secondary phases and adequate crystalline structure.